Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg

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Maximilian de Beauharnais
Maximilian Leuchtenberg.jpg
Portrait by Karl Briullov, 1849
Duke of Leuchtenberg
Reign28 March 1835 – 1 November 1852
PredecessorAuguste de Beauharnais
SuccessorNicholas Maximilianovich
Born1 November 1817
Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria
Died1 November 1852(1852-11-01) (aged 35)
St.Petersburg, Russian Empire
IssuePrincess Alexandra
Maria, Princess Louis William of Baden
Nicholas, Duke of Leuchtenberg
Eugenia, Duchess Alexander of Oldenburg
Eugen, Duke of Leuchtenberg
Prince Sergei
Georgi, Duke of Leuchtenberg
Full name
Maximilian Joseph Eugene Auguste Napoleon
FatherEugène de Beauharnais
MotherPrincess Augusta of Bavaria
Coat of arms upon marriage

Maximilian Joseph Eugene Auguste Napoleon de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg, Prince Romanowsky (2 October 1817 – 1 November 1852) was the husband of Grand Duchess Maria Nikolayevna of Russia and first cousin of Emperors Napoleon III of the French and Francis Joseph I of Austria. He was a grandson of Napoleon I's first wife, the Empress Josephine, by her prior marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais.


He was born as the second son of Eugène de Beauharnais and Princess Augusta Amalia Ludovika Georgia of Bavaria. His maternal grandparents were Maximilian I, King of Bavaria and his first wife Marie Wilhelmine Auguste, Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt.

His maternal grandmother Marie Wilhelmine Auguste was a daughter of Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt, younger son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.

He was a brother of:

Duke of Leuchtenberg[edit]

His maternal grandfather Maximilian of Bavaria appointed his father, Eugène de Beauharnais, 1st Duke of Leuchtenberg on 14 November 1817. The title came with the effective administration of the Principality of Eichstätt. Maximilian was named "Prince of Leuchtenberg" and became the second-in-line heir to the Duchy.

On 21 February 1824, his father died and his older brother became Auguste de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg. His brother was yet childless and Maximilian became his Heir Presumptive.

Auguste eventually married Queen Maria II of Portugal but died childless on 28 March 1835. Maximilian became the 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg at this point.


Maria Nikolaievna by Anton Hahnisch after C.Robertson (1853, Royal Coll.).jpg

He married Grand Duchess Maria Nikolayevna of Russia on 2 July 1839 in the chapel of the Winter Palace. She was the eldest daughter of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia.

His father-in-law Nicholas I granted to him on 14 July 1839 the Russian and Finnish style Imperial Highness, a rank he was entitled to as a descendant of the extended dynasty of Napoleon I of France. His father was an adoptive son of Napoleon.


  1. Princess Alexandra Maximilianovna (1840–1843), died in childhood
  2. Princess Maria Maximilianovna (1841–1914) m. Prince Wilhelm of Baden (1829–1897), younger son of Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden
  3. Nicholas Maximilianovich, 4th Duke of Leuchtenberg (1843–1891) m. Nadezhda Annenkova (1840-1891)
  4. Princess Eugenia Maximilianovna (1845–1925) m. Duke Alexander Petrovich of Oldenburg (1844–1932)
  5. Eugen Maximilianovich, Duke of Leuchtenberg (1847–1901) m. Daria Opotchinina (1845–1870) m. Zinaida Skobeleva (1856–1899)
  6. Prince Sergei Maximilianovich of Leuchtenberg [ru] (1849–1877). Killed in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878.
  7. Georgi Maximilianovich, Duke of Leuchtenberg (1852–1912) m.(1) Duchess Therese Petrovna of Oldenburg (1852–1883) m.(2) Princess Anastasia of Montenegro (1868–1935)

Further descendants[edit]

Through his oldest surviving daughter Princess Maria Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg (1841–1914), he is the grandfather of Prince Maximilian of Baden (1867–1929), Chancellor of Germany during World War I, and Princess Marie of Baden, the last Duchess consort of Anhalt.

His youngest daughter Princess Eugenia Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg (1845–1925) married Duke Alexander Petrovich of Oldenburg (1844–1932), the grandson of Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, and became the mother of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg (1868–1924), the divorced husband of Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (1882–1960), the youngest sister of Nicholas II of Russia.



External links[edit]

  • Marek, Miroslav. "A Beauharnais genealogy". Genealogy.EU.
  • A listing of the Ducal family of Leuchtenberg at the Wayback Machine (archived October 28, 2009)
  • "Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg" (in German). Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte.
Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg
Born: 2 October 1817 Died: 1 November 1852
German nobility
Preceded by
Auguste de Beauharnais
Duke of Leuchtenberg
28 March 1835 – 1 November 1852
Succeeded by
Nicholas Maximilianovich