Memorial Day

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Memorial Day
Graves at Arlington on Memorial Day.JPG
The gravestones at Arlington National Cemetery are decorated by U.S. flags on Memorial Day weekend in 2008.
Official nameMemorial Day
Observed byAmericans
TypeNational
ObservancesRemembrance of American service members who have died in armed conflicts or served
DateLast Monday in May
2018 dateMay 28  (2018-05-28)
2019 dateMay 27  (2019-05-27)
2020 dateMay 25  (2020-05-25)
2021 dateMay 31  (2021-05-31)
FrequencyAnnual

Memorial Day (previously but now seldom called Decoration Day) is a federal holiday in the United States for remembering and honoring the military personnel who perished while serving in the United States Armed Forces.[1] The holiday is observed on the last Monday of May. Memorial Day was observed on May 30 from 1868 to 1970.[2]

Many people visit cemeteries and memorials on Memorial Day, particularly to honor those who died in military service. Many volunteers place an American flag on each grave in national cemeteries.

Memorial Day is considered the unofficial start of summer in the United States,[3] while Labor Day marks the unofficial start of Autumn on the first Monday of September.

Two other days celebrate those who serve or have served in the U.S. military: Veterans Day, which celebrates the service of all U.S. military veterans;[4] and Armed Forces Day, a minor U.S. remembrance celebrated earlier in May, specifically honoring those currently serving in the U.S. military.

Claimed origins[edit]

The history of Memorial Day in the United States is complex. At Columbus [Georgia] State University there is a Center for Memorial Day Research, and the University of Mississippi incorporates a Center for Civil War Research that has also led research into Memorial Day's origins[5].

1870 Decoration Day parade in St. Paul, Minnesota

The practice of decorating soldiers' graves with flowers is an ancient custom.[6] Soldiers' graves were decorated in the U.S. before[7] and during the American Civil War.

Precedents in the South[edit]

According to the United States Library of Congress website, "Southern women decorated the graves of soldiers even before the Civil War’s end. Records show that by 1865, Mississippi, Virginia, and South Carolina all had precedents for Memorial Day."[8] The earliest Southern Memorial Day celebrations were simple, somber occasions for veterans and their families to honor the dead and tend to local cemeteries.[9] In following years, the Ladies Memorial Association and other groups increasingly focused rituals on preserving Confederate Culture and the Lost Cause of the Confederacy narrative.[10]

Warrenton, Virginia[edit]

On June 3, 1861, Warrenton, Virginia, was the location of the first Civil War soldier's grave ever to be decorated, according to a Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper article in 1906.[11]

Savannah, Georgia[edit]

In 1862, women in Savannah, Georgia decorated Confederate soldiers' graves according to the Savannah Republican.[12]

Charleston, South Carolina[edit]

On May 1, 1865, in Charleston, South Carolina, recently-freed African-Americans held a parade of 10,000 people to honor 257 dead Union soldiers, whose remains they had reburied from a mass grave in a Confederate prison camp.[13] Historian David W. Blight cites contemporary news reports of this incident in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New-York Tribune. Although Blight claimed that "African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina",[14] in 2012, he stated that he "has no evidence" that the event in Charleston inspired the establishment of Memorial Day across the country.[15] Accordingly, investigators for Time Magazine, LiveScience, RealClearLife and Snopes have called this conclusion into question.[16][17][18][19]

Columbus, Georgia[edit]

The United States National Park Service[20] and numerous scholars attribute the beginning of a Memorial Day practice in the South to a group of women of Columbus, Georgia.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

Precedents in the North[edit]

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania[edit]

The 1863 cemetery dedication at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania included a ceremony of commemoration at the graves of dead soldiers. Some have therefore claimed that President Abraham Lincoln was the founder of Memorial Day.[28]

Boalsburg, Pennslvania[edit]

On July 4, 1864, ladies decorated soldiers' graves according to local historians in Boalsburg, Pennsylvania.[29] Boalsburg promotes itself as the birthplace of Memorial Day.[30]

National Decoration Day[edit]

On May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan issued a proclamation calling for "Decoration Day" to be observed annually and nationwide; he was commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), an organization of and for Union Civil War veterans founded in Decatur, Illinois.[31] With his proclamation, Logan adopted the Memorial Day practice that had begun in the Southern states three years earlier.[32][33][34][35][32][36][37]

The northern states quickly adopted the holiday. In 1868, memorial events were held in 183 cemeteries in 27 states, and 336 in 1869.[38]. One author claims that the date was chosen because it was not the anniversary of any particular battle.[39] According to a White House address in 2010, the date was chosen as the optimal date for flowers to be in bloom in the North.[40]

Michigan state holiday[edit]

Memorial Day, Boston by Henry Sandham

In 1871, Michigan made "Decoration Day" an official state holiday and by 1890, every northern state had followed suit. There was no standard program for the ceremonies, but they were typically sponsored by the Women's Relief Corps, the women's auxiliary of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), which had 100,000 members. By 1870, the remains of nearly 300,000 Union dead had been reinterred in 73 national cemeteries, located near major battlefields and thus mainly in the South. The most famous are Gettysburg National Cemetery in Pennsylvania and Arlington National Cemetery, near Washington, D.C[41]

Waterloo, New York proclamation[edit]

On May 26, 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated an "official" birthplace of the holiday by signing the presidential proclamation naming Waterloo, New York, as the holder of the title. This action followed House Concurrent Resolution 587, in which the 89th Congress had officially recognized that the patriotic tradition of observing Memorial Day had begun one hundred years prior in Waterloo, New York.[42] The village credits druggist Henry C. Welles and county clerk John B. Murray as the founders of the holiday. Scholars have determined that the Waterloo account is a myth.[16] Snopes and Live Science also discredit the Waterloo account.[43][44]

Early National History[edit]

In April 1865, following Lincoln's assassination, commemorations were widespread. The more than 600,000 soldiers of both sides who died in the Civil War meant that burial and memorialization took on new cultural significance. Under the leadership of women during the war, an increasingly formal practice of decorating graves had taken shape. In 1865, the federal government also began creating the United States National Cemetery System for the Union war dead.[45]

By the 1880s, ceremonies were becoming more consistent across geography as the GAR provided handbooks that presented specific procedures, poems, and Bible verses for local post commanders to utilize in planning the local event. Historian Stuart McConnell reports:

on the day itself, the post assembled and marched to the local cemetery to decorate the graves of the fallen, an enterprise meticulously organized months in advance to assure that none were missed. Finally came a simple and subdued graveyard service involving prayers, short patriotic speeches, and music ... and at the end perhaps a rifle salute.[46]

Relationship to Confederate Memorial Day[edit]

Confederate Memorial Monument in Montgomery, Alabama

In 1868, some Southern public figures began adding the label "Confederate" to their commemorations, claiming Northerners had appropriated the holiday.[47][20][48] The first official celebration of Confederate Memorial Day as a public holiday occurred in 1874, following a proclamation by the Georgia legislature.[49] By 1916, ten states celebrated it, on June 3, the birthday of CSA President Jefferson Davis.[49] Other states chose late April dates, or May 10, commemorating Davis' capture.[49]

The Ladies Memorial Association played a key role in using Memorial Day rituals to preserve Confederate culture.[10] Various dates ranging from April 25 to mid-June were adopted in different Southern states. Across the South, associations were founded, many by women, to establish and care for permanent cemeteries for the Confederate dead, organize commemorative ceremonies, and sponsor appropriate monuments as a permanent way of remembering the Confederate dead. The most important of these was the United Daughters of the Confederacy, which grew from 17,000 members in 1900 to nearly 100,000 women by World War I. They were "strikingly successful at raising money to build Confederate monuments, lobbying legislatures and Congress for the reburial of Confederate dead, and working to shape the content of history textbooks."[50]

By 1890, there was a shift from the emphasis on honoring specific soldiers to a public commemoration of the Confederate South.[9] Changes in the ceremony's hymns and speeches reflect an evolution of the ritual into a symbol of cultural renewal and conservatism in the South. By 1913, David Blight argues, the theme of American nationalism shared equal time with the Confederate.[51]

Decoration Day to Memorial Day[edit]

By the 20th century, various Union memorial traditions, celebrated on different days, merged, and Memorial Day eventually extended to honor all Americans who died while in the U.S. military service.[1] Indiana from the 1860s to the 1920s saw numerous debates on how to expand the celebration. It was a favorite lobbying activity of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR). An 1884 GAR handbook explained that Memorial Day was "the day of all days in the G.A.R. Calendar" in terms of mobilizing public support for pensions. It advised family members to "exercise great care" in keeping the veterans sober.[52]

"On Decoration Day" Political cartoon c. 1900 by John T. McCutcheon. Caption: "You bet I'm goin' to be a soldier, too, like my Uncle David, when I grow up."

Memorial Day speeches became an occasion for veterans, politicians, and ministers to commemorate the Civil War and, at first, to rehash the "atrocities" of the enemy. They mixed religion and celebratory nationalism for the people to make sense of their history in terms of sacrifice for a better nation. People of all religious beliefs joined together and the point was often made that German and Irish soldiers -- ethnic minorities which faced discrimination in the United States -- had become true Americans in the "baptism of blood" on the battlefield.[53]

In the national capital in 1913 the four-day "Blue-Gray Reunion" featured parades, re-enactments, and speeches from a host of dignitaries, including President Woodrow Wilson, the first Southerner elected to the White House since the War. James Heflin of Alabama gave the main address. Heflin was a noted orator; his choice as Memorial Day speaker was criticized, as he was opposed for his support of segregation; however, his speech was moderate in tone and stressed national unity and goodwill, gaining him praise from newspapers.[54]

The name "Memorial Day", which was first attested in 1882, gradually became more common than "Decoration Day" after World War II[55] but was not declared the official name by federal law until 1967.[56] On June 28, 1968, Congress passed the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, which moved four holidays, including Memorial Day, from their traditional dates to a specified Monday in order to create a convenient three-day weekend.[57] The change moved Memorial Day from its traditional May 30 date to the last Monday in May. The law took effect at the federal level in 1971.[57] After some initial confusion and unwillingness to comply, all 50 states adopted Congress's change of date within a few years.

By the early 20th century, the GAR complained more and more about the younger generation.[citation needed] In 1913, one Indiana veteran complained that younger people born since the war had a "tendency ... to forget the purpose of Memorial Day and make it a day for games, races and revelry, instead of a day of memory and tears".[58] Indeed, in 1911 the scheduling of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway car race (later named the Indianapolis 500) was vehemently opposed by the increasingly elderly GAR. The state legislature in 1923 rejected holding the race on the holiday. But the new American Legion and local officials wanted the big race to continue, so Governor Warren McCray vetoed the bill and the race went on.[59]

Civil religious holiday[edit]

The United States Marine Band on Memorial Day

Memorial Day endures as a holiday which most businesses observe because it marks the unofficial beginning of summer. The Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) and Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (SUVCW) advocated returning to the original date. The VFW stated in 2002:

Changing the date merely to create three-day weekends has undermined the very meaning of the day. No doubt, this has contributed a lot to the general public's nonchalant observance of Memorial Day.[60]

In 2000, Congress passed the National Moment of Remembrance Act, asking people to stop and remember at 3:00 pm.[61]

On Memorial Day, the flag of the United States is raised briskly to the top of the staff and then solemnly lowered to the half-staff position, where it remains only until noon.[62] It is then raised to full-staff for the remainder of the day.[63]

Memorial Day observances in small New England towns are often marked by dedications and remarks by veterans and politicians.

The National Memorial Day Concert takes place on the west lawn of the United States Capitol.[64] The concert is broadcast on PBS and NPR. Music is performed, and respect is paid to the people who gave their lives for their country.

Across the United States, the central event is attending one of the thousands of parades held on Memorial Day in large and small cities. Most of these feature marching bands and an overall military theme with the Active Duty, Reserve, National Guard and Veteran service members participating along with military vehicles from various wars.[citation needed]

Scholars,[65][66][67][68] following the lead of sociologist Robert Bellah, often make the argument that the United States has a secular "civil religion" – one with no association with any religious denomination or viewpoint – that has incorporated Memorial Day as a sacred event. With the Civil War, a new theme of death, sacrifice and rebirth enters the civil religion. Memorial Day gave ritual expression to these themes, integrating the local community into a sense of nationalism. The American civil religion, in contrast to that of France, was never anticlerical or militantly secular; in contrast to Britain, it was not tied to a specific denomination, such as the Church of England. The Americans borrowed from different religious traditions so that the average American saw no conflict between the two, and deep levels of personal motivation were aligned with attaining national goals.[69]

Longest observance[edit]

Since 1868 Doylestown, Pennsylvania, has held annual Memorial Day parades which it claims to be the nation's oldest continuously running. Grafton, WV has also had an ongoing parade since 1868. However, the Memorial Day parade in Rochester, Wisconsin, predates Doylestown's by one year.[70][71]

Memorial Day poppies[edit]

In 1915, following the Second Battle of Ypres, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae, a physician with the Canadian Expeditionary Force, wrote the poem, "In Flanders Fields". Its opening lines refer to the fields of poppies that grew among the soldiers' graves in Flanders.[72]

In 1918, inspired by the poem, YWCA worker Moina Michael attended a YWCA Overseas War Secretaries' conference wearing a silk poppy pinned to her coat and distributed over two dozen more to others present. In 1920, the National American Legion adopted it as their official symbol of remembrance.[73]

Observance dates (1971–present)[edit]

Year Memorial Day
1972 2000 2028 2056 2084 May 29
1973 2001 2029 2057 2085 May 28
1974 2002 2030 2058 2086 May 27
1975 2003 2031 2059 2087 May 26
1976 2004 2032 2060 2088 2100 May 31
1977 2005 2033 2061 2089 2101 May 30
1978 2006 2034 2062 2090 2102 May 29
1979 2007 2035 2063 2091 2103 May 28
1980 2008 2036 2064 2092 2104 May 26
1981 2009 2037 2065 2093 2105 May 25
1982 2010 2038 2066 2094 2106 May 31
1983 2011 2039 2067 2095 2107 May 30
1984 2012 2040 2068 2096 2108 May 28
1985 2013 2041 2069 2097 2109 May 27
1986 2014 2042 2070 2098 2110 May 26
1987 2015 2043 2071 2099 2111 May 25
1988 2016 2044 2072 2112 May 30
1989 2017 2045 2073 2113 May 29
1990 2018 2046 2074 2114 May 28
1991 2019 2047 2075 2115 May 27
1992 2020 2048 2076 2116 May 25
1993 2021 2049 2077 2117 May 31
1994 2022 2050 2078 2118 May 30
1995 2023 2051 2079 2119 May 29
1996 2024 2052 2080 2120 May 27
1997 2025 2053 2081 2121 May 26
1998 2026 2054 2082 2122 May 25
1971 1999 2027 2055 2083 2123 May 31

Related traditions[edit]

Appalachian Decoration Day[edit]

According to the Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English, a Decoration or Decoration Day in Appalachia is "an occasion on which a family or church congregation gathers on a Sunday to place flowers on the graves of loved ones and to hold a memorial service for them. Traditionally this involved singing and dinner on the ground as well as a religious service."[74] Decoration Days for particular cemeteries are held on Sundays in late spring or early summer.[31] Decoration Day in Appalachia has the character of an extended family reunion to which people travel hundreds of miles to clean and decorate graves as well as renew contacts with relatives and others. There often is a religious service and a picnic-like "dinner on the grounds", the traditional term for a potluck meal at a church.[31]

Decoration Day practices are often specific to individual families and can incorporate ritualistic elements.[75].

The cemetery, seen as an integrated whole on or after Decoration Day in the Appalachians, is a compelling panoramic canvas – a strikingly beautiful folk art created by communities together over time. We hope that the words and photographs of our book will convey to others what we experienced attending decorations and visiting Appalachian cemeteries – a sense of the decorated cemetery as a folk art capable of breathtaking beauty and expressing powerfully the deepest values of Appalachian culture. [76]

— Alan Jabbour, What is Decoration Day?, University of North Carolina Blog

Appalachian Decoration Day customs spread and became localized along the routes of nineteenth-century migration pattern westward from the Appalachians. While these customs may have inspired in part rituals to honor military dead like Memorial Day, numerous differences exist between Decoration Day customs and Memorial Day, including that the date is set differently by each family or church for each cemetery to coordinate the maintenance, social, and spiritual aspects of decoration.[77][78][79] Unlike Decoration Days in Appalachia, other suggested origins of Memorial Day all include a focus on honoring military dead.

Liberian Decoration Day[edit]

Decoration Day is a national holiday in Liberia, a nation which was settled starting in 1822 by free and formerly enslaved African Americans. Decoration Day was designated a national holiday and set as the second Wednesday in March by an Act approved on October 24, 1916. According to Decoration Day scholar Alan Jabbour, Liberian Decoration Day is the survival of pre-Civil War Decoration Day traditions from the American South and possibly from Southern Appalachia.[80]

It has no trace of the northern Memorial Day’s focus on wartime deaths or the freeing of the slaves. It is about cleaning the graves and honoring one’s ancestors, like the southern Decoration Day that seems to be its source.

So important are Decoration Day traditions that during the Ebola virus epidemic in Liberia it became essential for the Liberian government, the World Health Organization and other medical aid agencies to adapt Ebola protocols to fit within this cultural context: "The prospect of not having a location to visit or a grave to 'clean' by cutting the grass and laying wreaths on the national holiday of 'Decoration Day' was deeply disturbing, as was the idea that unfulfilled obligations to the dead could result in a lifetime of misfortune for the living."[81] In addition to revising protocols for treatment of the bodies of the dead, authorities also created emergency policies affecting the "homecoming" and "false burial" aspects of the Decoration tradition due to large groups people assembling who were at risk of contracting the disease.

Remembrance Day in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania[edit]

Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery

Starting in 1868, the ceremonies and Memorial Day address at Gettysburg National Park became nationally known. In July 1913, veterans of the United States and Confederate armies gathered in Gettysburg to commemorate the fifty-year anniversary of the Civil War's bloodiest and most famous battle.[82]

Since the cemetery dedication at Gettysburg occurred on November 19, that day (or the closest weekend) has been designated as a local memorial day referred to as Remembrance Day.[83]

In film, literature, and music[edit]

Films[edit]

Music[edit]

  • Charles Ives's symphonic poem Decoration Day depicted the holiday as he experienced it in his childhood, with his father's band leading the way to the town cemetery, the playing of "Taps" on a trumpet, and a livelier march tune on the way back to the town. It is frequently played with three other Ives works based on holidays, as the second movement of A Symphony: New England Holidays.

Poetry[edit]

Poems commemorating Memorial Day include:

See also[edit]

United States[edit]

Other countries[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Memorial Day". United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  2. ^ 36 U.S.C. § 116
  3. ^ Yan, Holly. "Memorial Day 2016: What you need to know". CNN. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  4. ^ Kickler, Sarah (May 28, 2012). "Memorial Day vs. Veterans Day". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  5. ^ "The Center for Civil War Research". www.civilwarcenter.olemiss.edu.
  6. ^ Mary L'Hommedieu Gardiner (1842). "The Ladies Garland". J. Libby. p. 296. Retrieved May 31, 2014 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ In 1817, for example, a writer in the Analectic Magazine of Philadelphia urged the decoration of patriot's graves. E.J., "The Soldier's Grave," in The Analectic Magazine (1817), Vol. 10, 264.
  8. ^ "Today in History – May 30 – Memorial Day". United States Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 25, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  9. ^ a b University of Michigan; EBSCO Publishing (Firm) (2000). America, history and life. Clio Press. p. 190.
  10. ^ a b Karen L. Cox (2003). Dixie's Daughters: The United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Preservation of Confederate Culture. Universbuttse Memorial Day. ISBN 978-0813031330.
  11. ^ "Times-Dispatch". Perseus.tufts.edu. July 15, 1906. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  12. ^ "A Beautiful Tribute". .uttyler.edu. July 21, 1862. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  13. ^ "The Origins of Memorial Day" Snopes.com, May 25, 2018
  14. ^ Blight, David W. "Lecture: To Appomattox and Beyond: The End of the War and a Search for Meanings, Overview". Oyc.yale.edu. Retrieved May 31, 2014. Professor Blight closes his lecture with a description of the first Memorial Day, celebrated by African Americans in Charleston, SC 1865.
  15. ^ David Blight, cited by Campbell Robertson, "Birthplace of Memorial Day? That Depends Where You're From," New York Times, May 28, 2012 – Blight quote from 2nd web page: "He has called that the first Memorial Day, as it predated most of the other contenders, though he said he has no evidence that it led to General Logan's call for a national holiday."
  16. ^ a b "Lots of Places Claim to Be the Birthplace of Memorial Day. Here's the Truth, According to an Expert". Time.
  17. ^ "The True Story Behind the 1st Memorial Day". livescience.com.
  18. ^ "Who Was the Original Inspiration Behind Memorial Day?". realclearlife.com. May 28, 2018.
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  22. ^ Gary Gallagher, The Myth of the Lost Cause and Civil War History, p. 190
  23. ^ Kristina Dunn Johnson, No Holier Spot of Ground, p. 33
  24. ^ Michael Kammen (Pulitzer Prize Winner), Mystic Chords of Memory, New York, Knopf 1991, 103.
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  28. ^ Trenton Evening Times, May 30, 1915.
  29. ^ "Sophie Keller Hall, in The Story of Our Regiment: A History of the 148th Pennsylvania Vols., ed. J.W. Muffly (Des Moines: The Kenyon Printing & Mfg. Co., 1904), quoted in editor's note, p. 45". Civilwarcenter.olemiss.edu. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  30. ^ "Boalsburg, PA, birthplace of Memorial Day". Boalsburg.com. March 26, 1997.
  31. ^ a b c Alan Jabbour; Karen Singer Jabbour (2010). Decoration Day in the Mountains: Traditions of Cemetery Decoration in the Southern Appalachians. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-8078-3397-1. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  32. ^ a b P. Michael Jones, Daniel Bellware, and Richard Gardiner, Ph.D., "The Emergence and Evolution of Memorial Day," Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. 43, no. 2 (Spring/Summer 2018), No. 137, pp. 19–37
  33. ^ General John Logan, quoted by his wife. 1913. Retrieved April 7, 2014 – via Books.google.com.
  34. ^ "A Complicated Journey: The Story of Logan and Memorial Day" Tom English, The Southern Illinoisian, May 22, 2015
  35. ^ "Memorial Day's Roots Traced To Georgia" Michael Jones, Northwest Herald, May 23, 2015.
  36. ^ Halstead, Marilyn. "Did Logan start Memorial Day? Logan museum director invites visitors to decide". thesouthern.com.
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  41. ^ "Interments in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) National Cemeteries" (PDF). Washington, DC: National Cemetery Administration – Department of Veterans Affairs VA-NCA-IS-1. January 2011. After the Civil War, search and recovery teams visited hundreds of battlefields, churchyards, plantations and other locations seeking wartime interments that were made in haste. By 1870, the remains of nearly 300,000 Civil War dead were reinterred in 73 national cemeteries.
  42. ^ Johnson, Lyndon. "Presidential Proclamation 3727". Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  43. ^ Snopes: Memorial Day Origins Snopes.com, not dated
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  46. ^ Stuart McConnell (1997). Glorious Contentment: The Grand Army of the Republic, 1865–1900 p. 184.[ISBN missing]
  47. ^ Gardiner and Bellware, p. 87
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  57. ^ a b "Public Law 90-363". Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  58. ^ Sacco, p. 362
  59. ^ Sacco, p. 376
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  70. ^ Knapp, Aaron. "Rochester commemorates fallen soldiers in 150th Memorial Day parade". Journal Times. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
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  73. ^ "Where did the idea to sell poppies come from?". BBC News. November 10, 2006. Retrieved February 18, 2009.
  74. ^ Montgomery, Michael B.; Hall, Joseph S. (2004). Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English. University of Tennessee Press. p. 138.
  75. ^ Howard, Jennifer. "Grave Concerns". The Bitter Southerner. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Albanese, Catherine. "Requiem for Memorial Day: Dissent in the Redeemer Nation", American Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Oct. 1974), pp. 386–98 in JSTOR
  • Bellah, Robert N. "Civil Religion in America". Daedalus 1967 96(1): 1–21. online edition
  • Bellware, Daniel, and Richard Gardiner, The Genesis of the Memorial Day Holiday in America (Columbus State University, 2014).
  • Blight, David W. "Decoration Day: The Origins of Memorial Day in North and South" in Alice Fahs and Joan Waugh, eds. The Memory of the Civil War in American Culture (2004), online edition pp. 94–129; the standard scholarly history
  • Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (2000) ch. 3, "Decorations" excerpt and text search
  • Buck, Paul H. The Road to Reunion, 1865–1900 (1937)
  • Cherry, Conrad. "Two American Sacred Ceremonies: Their Implications for the Study of Religion in America", American Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 4 (Winter, 1969), pp. 739–54 in JSTOR
  • Dennis, Matthew. Red, White, and Blue Letter Days: An American Calendar (2002)
  • Jabbour, Alan, and Karen Singer Jabbour. Decoration Day in the Mountains: Traditions of Cemetery Decoration in the Southern Appalachians (University of North Carolina Press; 2010)
  • Myers, Robert J. "Memorial Day". Chapter 24 in Celebrations: The Complete Book of American Holidays. (1972)
  • Robert Haven Schauffler (1911). Memorial Day: Its Celebration, Spirit, and Significance as Related in Prose and Verse, with a Non-sectional Anthology of the Civil W. BiblioBazaar reprint 2010.

External links[edit]