Military activity of ISIL
|Military of ISIL|
A fighter carrying the Islamic State's flag on Tall Dabiq, overlooking the town of Dabiq, 2013.
Democratic Republic of Congo
|Size||In Iraq and Syria|
200,000 (claim by Iraqi Kurdistan Chief of Staff)
Outside Iraq and Syria
|Headquarters||Raqqa, Syria (2013–2017)|
|Engagements||Iraq conflict (2003–present)
Syrian Civil War|
Boko Haram insurgency
Second Libyan Civil War
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
War in North-West Pakistan
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
Somali Civil War (2009–present)
For more details, see List of wars and battles involving ISIL
| Abu Suleiman al-Naser † |
(Current Head of Military Council)
|Black Standard (variant)|
The military of ISIL is the fighting force of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The total force size has been estimated from tens of thousands to over two hundred thousand. ISIL's armed forces grew quickly during its territorial expansion in 2014. The ISIL military, including groups incorporated into it in 2014, openly operates and controls territory in multiple cities in Libya and Nigeria. In October 2016, it conquered the city of Qandala in Puntland, Somalia. It conquered much of eastern Syria and western Iraq in 2014, territory it lost finally only in 2019. It also has had border clashes with and made incursions into Lebanon, Iran, and Jordan. ISIL-linked groups operate in Algeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, and in West Africa (Cameroon, Niger, and Chad). In January 2015, ISIL was also confirmed to have a military presence in Afghanistan and in Yemen.
The Islamic State's military is based on light infantry mobile units using vehicles such as gun-equipped pick-up trucks (technicals), motorbikes and buses for fast advances. They have also used artillery, tanks and armored vehicles, much of which they captured from the Iraqi and Syrian Armies.
ISIL has a long history of using truck and car bombs, suicide bombers, and IEDs. They have also deployed chemical weapons in Iraq and Syrian Kurdistan. Other terror tactics include genocide, mass executions (including beheadings), psychological operations through sophisticated propaganda, widespread torture of prisoners, and organized sexual violence and slavery.
According to the Institute for the Study of War, ISIL's 2013 annual report reveals a metrics-driven military command, which is "a strong indication of a unified, coherent leadership structure that commands from the top down". Middle East Forum's Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi said, "They are highly skilled in urban guerrilla warfare while the new Iraqi Army simply lacks tactical competence."
ISIL's Military Council is made up of numerous former military officers from the Saddam Hussein era. Commanders have included Haji Bakr, a colonel; Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi, a captain; and Abu Ayman al-Iraqi, a lieutenant colonel, who all graduated from the same Iraqi military academy. Abu Muslim al-Turkmani, al-Baghdadi's former deputy, was a Directorate of General Military Intelligence lieutenant colonel. All these men spent time detained in Camp Bucca during the American occupation of Iraq Abu Omar al-Shishani, who served in the Georgian Army before leading an ISIL unit in Syria, also became a prominent commander.
ISIL's fighters are reportedly organised into seven branches: infantry, snipers, air defence, special forces, artillery forces, the "army of adversity", and the Caliphate Army. This force structure is largely replicated in each of its designated provinces, with the most skilled fighters and military strategists in each area serving in the special forces unit, which is not allowed to redeploy to other provinces. Parallel to this structure is the Caliphate Army, which is directed by ISIL's central command rather than its provincial leadership. Made up overwhelmingly of foreign fighters, it is deployed to assist in battles across the Islamic State. There is also an all-female Al-Khansaa Brigade tasked with policing religious laws. According to battle reports, ISIL often operates in small mobile fighting units.
The group also operates outside areas it largely controls using a clandestine cell system. An ISIL-linked senior militant commander in Sinai told Reuters; "They [ISIL] teach us how to carry out operations. We communicate through the internet, ... they teach us how to create secret cells, consisting of five people. Only one person has contact with other cells. They are teaching us how to attack security forces, the element of surprise. They told us to plant bombs then wait 12 hours so that the man planting the device has enough time to escape from the town he is in."
In sharp contrast to some other jihadist organizations such as the Caucasus Emirate which generally attempted to minimize their own casualties, ISIL is known for its willingness to sacrifice as many of its fighters as necessary to achieve its objectives. This is especially true in regard to ISIL's callous use of new recruits. When the militant organization still held large swaths in Syria and Iraq and had ample access to native as well as foreign volunteers, it usually barely trained new recruits. Instead of focusing on preparing for combat, training camps mostly indoctrinated new fighters into following orders and being willing for sacrifice one's life for ISIL. The organization's high command then used the inexperienced recruits for swarming and human wave tactics, often resulting in extremely high casualties. One high-ranking ISIL commander best known for this approach was Abu Omar al-Shishani who successfully employed swarming tactics during the Siege of Menagh Air Base and Battle of Al-Tabqa airbase. According to his reasoning, the enemy would eventually be overwhelmed or run out of ammunition regardless of the casualties among ISIL fighters. Regional expert Joanna Paraszuk sarcastically remarked that al-Shishani's tactics were based on the belief that "everyone want[s] to be a Shahid" (martyr). Though some ISIL frontline commanders did not espouse this readiness to sacrifice troops, the organization's high-command appears to care little about its common fighters.
Following the Siege of Kobanî which resulted in large losses among its veterans and commanders (including 2,000 militants killed), ISIL was forced to promote several inexperienced commanders and to rely even more than before on new recruits. As result, the tactics of ISIL's armed wing became even more crude and uncaring about its own forces. Paraszuk noted that the jihadists' strategies and tactics sometimes broke down completely due to this. For example, some troops were essentially ordered to "just run towards the [enemy] and fight or whatever" during the 2015 Battle of Hasakah, even though they were targeted by massive aerial bombardments and their attacks had no apparent strategic value.
Technicals play an important role for ISIL in a variety of combat purposes, ranging from quick-reaction forces to tank equivalents to self-defendable car bombs that can attack heavily defended targets.
Troops in Iraq and Syria
In June 2014, ISIL had at least 4,000 fighters in Iraq. The CIA estimated in September 2014 that it had 20,000–31,500 fighters in Iraq and Syria. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights estimates that the force numbers around 80,000–100,000 total (up to 50,000 in Syria and 30,000 in Iraq). Reuters quoted "jihadist ideologues" as claiming that ISIL has 40,000 fighters and 60,000 supporters, while an Iraqi Kurdish leader estimated in November 2014 that ISIL's military had 200,000 fighters. 85–600 Iraqi Kurds may have joined ISIL.
Some Syrian rebel factions have defected to ISIL, including the 1,000-strong Dawud Brigade in July 2014. In addition to jihadists and other volunteers, ISIL is known for forcing other rebel groups to fight for it, as well as conscripting individuals.
Foreign fighters in Iraq and Syria
There are many foreign fighters in ISIL's ranks. In June 2014, The Economist reported that "ISIS may have up to 6,000 fighters in Iraq and 3,000–5,000 in Syria, including perhaps 3,000 foreigners; nearly a thousand are reported to hail from Chechnya and perhaps 500 or so more from France, Britain and elsewhere in Europe." Chechen leader Abu Omar al-Shishani, for example, was made commander of the northern sector of ISIL in Syria in 2013. According to The New York Times, in September 2014 there were more than 2,000 Europeans and 100 Americans among ISIL's foreign fighters. As of mid-September 2014, around 1,000 Turks had joined ISIL, and as of October 2014, 2,400–3,000 Tunisians had joined the group. An ISIL deserter alleged that foreign recruits were treated with less respect than Arabic-speaking Muslims by ISIL commanders and were placed in suicide units if they lacked otherwise useful skills. According to a UN report, an estimated 15,000 fighters from nearly 70 countries have travelled to Iraq and Syria to join militant groups, including ISIL.
As of September 29, 2015, the CIA estimated that 30,000 foreign fighters had come to join ISIL. As of October 2015, 21% came from Europe, 50% from Western Asia or North Africa, and 29% from elsewhere; according to the Global Terrorism Index and other sources, they were of the following nationalities:
List of nationalities of foreign fighters in ISIL
This is a list of nationalities of foreign fighters who joined ISIL from June 2014 to June 2018. This list does not include citizens of Syria, or Iraq. This list includes women and children who joined ISIL, some of whom may have been noncombatants. In total, 41,490 non-Iraqis and non-Syrians joined ISIL's main branch in these countries (32,089 were adult men), of whom 7,366 (5,930 were adult men) returned to their countries of departure, sometimes to face charges; most of the rest are presumed dead.
- Russia: 5,000 (380 returnees)
- Tunisia: 4,000 (900 returnees)
- Jordan: 3,950 (250 returnees)
- Saudi Arabia: 3,244 (760 returnees)
- Turkey: 3,000 (900 returnees)
- Uzbekistan: 2,500
- France: 1,910 (398 returnees)
- Morocco: 1,699 (236 returnees)
- Tajikistan: 1,502 (147 returnees)
- China: 1,000
- Germany: 960 (303 returnees)
- Lebanon: 900
- Azerbaijan: 900 (49 returnees)
- United Kingdom: 850 (425 returnees)
- Indonesia: 800 (183 returnees)
- Kyrgyzstan: 863 (63 returnees)
- Kazakhstan: 600 (113-128 returnees)
- Libya: 600
- Egypt: 600
- Turkmenistan: 500
- Belgium: 498 (123 returnees)
- Kosovo: 359 (133 returnees)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 323 (56 returnees)
- Sweden: 311 (150 returnees)
- Netherlands: 300 (60 returnees)
- Algeria: 278 (87)
- United States: 272 (40 returnees)
- Austria: 254 (94 returnees)
- Australia: 214 (40 returnees)
- Spain: 208 (30 returnees)
- Maldives: 200
- Georgia: 200 (17 returnees)
- North Macedonia: 155 (72 returnees)
- Malaysia: 154 (8 returnees)
- Kuwait: 150 (6 returnees)
- Albania: 144 (44 returnees)
- Denmark: 145 (72 returnees)
- South Africa: 140 (11 returnees)
- Sudan: 140 (2 returnees)
- Trinidad and Tobago: 130
- Italy: 129 (11 returnees)
- Finland: 122 (43 returnees)
- Afghanistan: 120
- Yemen: 110
- Philippines: 100
- Norway: 100 (40 returnees)
- Canada: 100 (17 returnees)
- Pakistan: 100
- Kenya: 100
- India: 75 (11 returnees)
- Somalia: 70
- Switzerland: 70 (14 returnees)
- Israel: 60 (10 returnees)
- Serbia: 59 (7 returnees)
- Iran: 50
- Bangladesh: 40 (25 returnees)
- Sri Lanka: 32
- Ireland: 30
- New Zealand: 11
- Montenegro: 27 (10 returnees)
- Argentina: 23
- Qatar: 15
- United Arab Emirates: 15
- Bahrain: 100
- Portugal: 15 (2 returnees)
- Ghana: 10
- Slovenia: 10 (2 returnees)
- Slovakia: 6
- Japan: 9
- Taiwan: 8
- Poland: 40
- Brazil: 3
- Croatia: 10
- Brunei: 1–3
- Croatia: 7
- Singapore: 8
- South Korea: 1
- Chile: 1
- Latvia: 2
- Ukraine: 2
- Estonia: 1
- Romania: 1
- Moldova: 1
Allegiance to ISIL from groups outside Iraq and Syria
- Wilayat Algeria formed from the Algerian Jund al-Khilafah after it pledged allegiance to ISIL.
- Wilayat Barqa and others formed from the allegiance of Libyan militants like the Shura Council of Islamic Youth, and defectors formerly associated with Ansar al-Sharia in Libya.
- Wilayat Sinai formed from the majority of the membership of Egypt's Ansar Bait al-Maqdis
- Wilayat Yemen formed from militants in Yemen, including defectors from Ansar al-Sharia and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.
- Wilayat Najd and others formed from unidentified militants in Saudi Arabia.
- Wilayat Khorasan formed from the allegiance of militants from groups based in Pakistan and Afghanistan, including Jundallah, Tehreek-e-Khilafat, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and dissident commanders formerly associated with Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.
- Wilayat Gharb Afriqiya formed from Boko Haram pledging allegiance to ISIL.
- Wilayat al-Qawqaz formed from dissident militants of the Caucasus Emirate in Chechnya and Dagestan who switched their allegiance to ISIL.
- Militants of the group Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade (Palestinian Territories) pledged allegiance to ISIL.
- Militants of the group Abu Sayyaf under Isnilon Totoni Hapilon and Radullan Sahiron (Philippines, Malaysia). pledged allegiance to ISIL.
- Militants of the group Sons of the Call for Tawhid and Jihad (Jordan) pledged allegiance to ISIL.
- Militants of the group Free Sunnis of Baalbek Brigade (Lebanon) pledged allegiance to ISIL.
- The group Islamic State of the Maldives pledged allegiance to ISIL in July 2014.
- Members of Ansar Khalifah Philippines pledged allegiance to ISIL. And they start using ISIL props in their training.
- Some Bangladeshi terrorist cells pledged allegiance to ISIL and starts attacking civilians and bloggers.
- Some members of Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid, including leader Abu Bakar Ba'asyir and Mujahidin Indonesia Timur pledged allegiance.
- Abnaa ul-Calipha was formed by some Al-Shabaab dissidents in Puntland, led by Abdul Qadir Mumin, who pledged allegiance to ISIL in 2015. Since then, Al-Shabaab has unsuccessfully attempted to kill these defectors.
- Jabha East Africa, an Islamist group operating in Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia and Uganda, defected from Al-Qaeda and pledged allegiance to ISIL.
- In 2016, Abu-Walid al-Sahraoui and dissidents from Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb pledged allegiance to ISIL creating the group known as the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara. The group operates in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso
- Katibat Salman Al-Farisi (Salman the Persian Battalion) was formed by a group of Iranian ISIL fighters in Iran to fight the Iranian government.
- The City of Monotheism and Monotheists group, operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, has pledged allegiance to ISIL.
- ISIL claimed their first ever attack in Kashmir Valley that left one police officer dead. Afterwards, a video surfaced of an ISIL soldier named Abu al-Baraa al-Kashmiri pledging allegiance to ISIL and forming the group Wilayat Kashmir. Abu al-Baraa is probably the leader of the group. In the video Abu al-Baraa called on Muslims in the Kashmir Valley to fight the Pakistani and the Indian governments and criticized the Islamic movement of Hizb-Lashkar-Jaish-Tehreek, declaring takfir and jihad on it. He called on members of other insurgent groups operating in Kashmir (such as Ansar Ghazwat-ul-Hind and its leader Zakir Musa) to pledge allegiance to ISIL, accusing the leaders of other insurgent groups of working for Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence.
The most common weapons used against US and other Coalition forces during the Iraq insurgency were those taken from Saddam Hussein's weapon stockpiles around the country. These included AKM variant assault rifles, PK machine guns and RPG-7s. ISIL has been able to strengthen its military capability by capturing large quantities and varieties of weaponry during the Syrian Civil War and the post-withdrawal Iraqi insurgency. These weapons seizures have improved the group's capacity to carry out successful subsequent operations and obtain more equipment. Weaponry that ISIL has reportedly captured and employed include SA-7 and Stinger surface-to-air missiles, M79 Osa, HJ-8 and AT-4 Spigot anti-tank weapons, Type 59 field guns and M198 howitzers, Humvees, T-54/55, T-72, and M1 Abrams main battle tanks, M1117 armoured cars, truck-mounted DShK guns, ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft guns, BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launchers, and at least one Scud missile.
ISIL shot down an Iraqi helicopter in October 2014, and claims to have shot down "several other" helicopters in 2014. Observers fear that they have "advanced surface-to-air missile systems" such as the Chinese-made FN-6, which are thought to have been provided to Syrian rebels by Qatar and/or Saudi Arabia, and purchased or captured by ISIL.
ISIL also captured many inoperable fighter aircraft after capturing the Syrian airbase of Al-Tabqa. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported in October 2014 that former Iraqi pilots were training ISIL militants to fly captured Syrian jets. Witnesses reported that MiG-21 and MiG-23 jets were flying over al-Jarrah military airport, but the US Central Command said it was not aware of flights by ISIL-operated aircraft in Syria or elsewhere. On 21 October, the Syrian Air Force claimed that it had shot down two of these aircraft over al-Jarrah air base while they were landing.
ISIL has a long history of using truck and car bombs (SVBIEDs), suicide bombers, and IEDs. It has become especially adept at the construction and use of SVBIEDs, most notably quite sophisticated models which were fitted with armour, machine guns, and/or firing ports. These are mixtures of car bombs and technicals ("suicide bomber technical") that can approach heavily defended targets, suppressing the enemy while being protected from small-arms fire. Sometimes, ISIL even used armoured personnel carriers as chassis for car bombs, or fitted SVBIEDs with unguided rockets to clear the path to the intended target.
ISIL captured nuclear materials from Mosul University in July 2014. In a letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Iraq's UN Ambassador Mohamed Ali Alhakim said that the materials had been kept at the university and "can be used in manufacturing weapons of mass destruction". Nuclear experts regarded the threat as insignificant. The International Atomic Energy Agency said that the seized materials were "low grade and would not present a significant safety, security or nuclear proliferation risk".
Reports suggested that ISIL captured Saddam-era chemical weapons from an Iraqi military base, and the group also forcibly enlisted the aid of scientists living in its territories to produce their own chemical weapons. ISIL managed to produce its own mustard gas, and employed it on battlefields in Iraq and Syria. According to one scientist involved in the project, the main value of the mustard gas to ISIL was not its impact on actual combat, but its effect in psychological warfare. The production of chemical weapons slowed greatly from early 2016, however, as the United States and the Iraqi government targeted production facilities and killed or captured the leaders of the programme. Regardless, it is generally believed that ISIL remains in possession of hidden data and equipment to restart the production of chemical weapons in the future.
ISIL deployed mustard gas and chlorine gas against forces of the Iraqi government, the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition, as well as unidentified chemical weapons against the Syrian Democratic Forces. According to the US military, ISIL used the chemical weapons effectively on a tactical level, but never managed to employ them in a way that impacted the larger strategic situation. The group produced not enough chemical weapons, being hampered not just by airstrikes and raids, but also lack of skilled personnel and equipment.
- Military equipment of ISIL
- List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War
- List of armed groups in the Iraqi Civil War
- Human rights violations during the Syrian Civil War
- "ISIS Proclaims 'Caliphate of Sinai'; Calls for Attacking Israel's Eilat". Algemeiner.com. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "Iran Says It's Under Attack by ISIS". The Daily Beast. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "ISIS gaining ground in Yemen, competing with al Qaeda". CNN. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- "Officials confirm ISIL present in Afghanistan". Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- "Boko Haram swears formal allegiance to ISIS". Fox News. Associated Press. March 8, 2015. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- "IS welcomes Boko Haram allegiance: tape". Yahoo! News. Agency French-Presse. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Tin, Alex. "ISIS faction raises black flag over Somali port town". CBS News. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- "Senior Abu Sayyaf leader swears oath to ISIS". Rappler. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- "ISIS Now Has Military Allies in 11 Countries – NYMag". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Peter Bergen, CNN National Security Analyst (8 March 2015). "ISIS goes global". CNN. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Cockburn, Patrick (16 November 2014). "Islamic State has 200,000 fighters claims Kurdistan leader". The Independent. London.
- "Islamic State formations comprise up to 70,000 gunmen — Chief of Russia's General Staff". Russian News Agency "TASS". 10 December 2014.
- "Saddam's former army is secret of Baghdadi's success". Reuters. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- "Operation Inherent Resolve and other overseas contigency operations" (PDF). media.defense.gov. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- "Briefing With Special Representative for Syria Engagement and Special Envoy for the Global Coalition To Defeat ISIS Ambassador James Jeffrey". state.gov. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Peter Dörrie, How Big Is Boko Haram?, Medium (February 2, 2015).
- "Obama Is Pressed to Open Military Front Against ISIS in Libya". The New York Times. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- "ISIL's presence in Libya grows to 5,000 fighters". Al Jazeera.
- Jim Sciutto; Barbara Starr; Kevin Liptak (4 February 2016). "More ISIS fighters in Libya; fewer in Syria and Iraq". CNN.
- Jordan Times. July 23, 2014 https://web.archive.org/web/20140726195309/http://jordantimes.com/local-jihadist-group-pledges-allegiance-to-islamic-state. Archived from the original on July 26, 2014. Missing or empty
- Murad Batal al-Shishani, Jordan's jihadists drawn to Syria conflict, BBC Arabic (October 30, 2012).
- Taylor Luck, ISIL militants have launched a losing war on Jordan, The National '(April 2, 2016).
- Daniella Peled, ISIS in Jordan: King Abdullah's Battle for the Soul of Islam, Ha'aretz (November 25, 2015).
- Benjamin T. Decker, The Islamic State's Biggest Threat to Jordan Isn't Violence — It's Economics, VICE News (May 13, 2015).
- Burak Ege Bekdil, Turkey Caught Nearly 1,000 ISIS fighters in 2015, Defense News (January 19, 2016).
- Sinai Province: Egypt's ISIS Affiliate, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (May 19, 2016).
- Sami Aboudi, In Yemen chaos, Islamic State grows to rival al Qaeda, Reuters (June 30, 2015).
- Asa Fitch & Saleh Al Batati, ISIS Fails to Gain Much Traction in Yemen, Wall Street Journal (March 28, 2016).
- Taimoor Shah & Joseph Goldstein, Taliban Fissures in Afghanistan Are Seen as an Opening for ISIS, New York Times (January 21, 2015).
- Lynne O'Donnell, Islamic State group loyalists eye a presence in Afghanistan, Associated Press (September 8, 2015).
- Maruf, Haran. "IS Militants Seize Town in Somalia's Puntland". voanews.com. Voice of America. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- "Algerian Army Kills Militant Leader Linked to Beheading of French Hostage". The New York Times. 24 December 2014.
- "Algeria's al-Qaeda defectors join IS group". Reuters. September 14, 2014.
- ISIS's Growing Caliphate: Profiles of Affiliates, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (February 19, 2016).
- ISIS flag in Kashmir valley worries Army, Times News Network (Oct. 2014)
- Nick Paton Walsh, ISIS on Europe's doorstep: How terror is infiltrating the migrant route, CNN (May 26, 2016).
- Alison Smale, Terrorism Suspects Are Posing as Refugees, Germany Says, New York Times (February 5, 2016).
- Alessandria Masi (11 November 2014). "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph Of The Islamic State Group?". International Business Times. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "Officials: Top Islamic State leader killed in Afghanistan strike". The Washington Post. 11 July 2015.
- "Pakistan Taliban splinter group vows allegiance to Islamic State". Reuters. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Bilger, Alex (22 May 2014). "ISIS Annual Reports Reveal a Metrics-Driven Military Command" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Vick, Karl; Baker, Aryn (11 June 2014). "Extremists in Iraq Continue March Toward Baghdad". Time. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". New York Times. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Most of Islamic State's leaders were officers in Saddam Hussein's Iraq". Washington Post. 4 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- McClam, Erin (2 July 2014). "Rising Star of ISIS Has Chechen Background and Fierce Reputation". NBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Masi, Alessandria (3 July 2015). "Inside 'The Caliphate Army': ISIS's Special Forces Military Unit Of Foreign Fighters". International Business Times. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "ISIS Al-Khansa brigade: Meet the women the Islamic State use to dish out brutal punishment". NewsComAu. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- staff. "Islamic State said to be coaching Sinai militants". www.timesofisrael.com. Times of Israel. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- Joanna Paraszuk (7 May 2019). "How to kill 60% of your newly-trained militants: A look at IS's "strategy" in Hasaka, July 2015". From Chechnya to Syria. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
- Joanna Paraszuk (2 October 2018). "Chataev's First Big Battle: Tabqa Airbase, 22-24 August 2014". From Chechnya to Syria. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
- Neville (2018), pp. 7, 32.
- Lewis, Jessica (12 June 2014). "The Terrorist Army Marching on Baghdad". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 June 2014.(subscription required) Accessible via Google.
- "IS has 20,000–31,500 fighters in Iraq and Syria: CIA". Yahoo! News. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Islamic State 'has 50,000 fighters in Syria'". Al Jazeera. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "ISIS has 100,000 fighters, growing fast – Iraqi govt adviser". RT. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Kurdish Officials Worry About Kurds Joining The Islamic State". NPR.org. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "1,000-strong Syrian rebel brigade defects to Islamic State – report". Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "Two Arab countries fall apart". The Economist. 14 June 2014. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "The Syrian rebel groups pulling in foreign fighters". BBC News. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- "Chechen fighter emerges as face of Iraq militant group". Fox News. Associated Press. 2 July 2014.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (15 September 2014). "U.S. Pushes Back Against Warnings That ISIS Plans to Enter From Mexico". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Yeginsu, Ceylan (15 September 2014). "ISIS Draws a Steady Stream of Recruits From Turkey". The New York Times.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (21 October 2014). "New Freedoms in Tunisia Drive Support for ISIS". New York Times.
- "Det jag har bevittnat i al-Raqqa kommer alltid förfölja mig". Nyheter Världen (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Revathi Siva Kumar. "UN Report On 15,000 Foreigners Joining ISIS Fighters In Syria And Iraq Will Shock You". International Business Times AU. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Sarhan, Arme. "CIA: 30,000 foreign fighters have traveled to Syria and Iraq to join ISIS". Iraq News. Sep 29 2016.
- Global Terrorism Index 2015. Institute For Economics and Peace. October 2015. Pages 46-47.
- Cook and Vale. "From Daesh to ‘Diaspora." International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation. King's College London. Pages 14-19.
- "ISIS boasts rising number of recruits among Iranian Kurds". Rudaw. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Ghanaians joining Islamic State highlight potential for religiously motivated gun attacks against busy outdoor entertainment spots in capital". Janes. 15 October 2015. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "8 people in Taiwan have shown interest in joining ISIS: NSB". FocusTaiwan.tw. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
- "New English ISIS Video Stars Chilean Jihadist; Mocks Obama, US Soldiers with Diaper Jokes". International Business Times, India Edition. July 1, 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- "Estonians fighting in Syria forcing local Islamic community to become more strict". ERR. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "With Cash And Cachet, The Islamic State Expands Its Empire". NPR.org. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany (18 November 2014). "Islamic State Expanding into North Africa". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 23 December 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "ISIS comes to Libya". CNN. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Ansar al Sharia Libya relaunches social media sites". Long War Journal. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "Egyptian militant group pledges loyalty to Islamic State in audio clip". Reuters. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- David Von Drehle (26 February 2015). "What Comes After the War on ISIS". TIME.com. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Taliban splinter group in Pakistan vows allegiance to ISIS". al-akhbar. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "IMU Declares It Is Now Part Of The Islamic State". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- "Mapping the emergence of the Islamic State in Afghanistan". Long War Journal. Foundation for Defense of Democracies. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Withnall, Adam (26 April 2015). "Boko Haram renames itself Islamic State's West Africa Province (Iswap) as militants launch new offensive against government forces". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- "ISIS Declares Governorate in Russia's North Caucasus Region". Institute for the Study of War. 23 June 2015.
- "ISIS: We Are Operating in Gaza".
- "Islamic State Attacks Israel: ISIS Supporters Threaten Hamas, Take Credit For Launching Rocket From Gaza".
- Paterno Emasquel II (17 September 2014). "Philippines condemns, vows to 'thwart' ISIS". Rappler. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "The Maldives-Syria Connection: Jihad in Paradise?". Jamestown. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- Caleb Weiss (15 October 2017). "Islamic State-loyal group calls for people to join the jihad in the Congo". Long War Journal. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- "Centre Has Taken Note Of ISIS Claiming First Attack In Kashmir: Minister". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2018-01-15.
- Zavadski, Katie (August 23, 2017). "ISIS Uses American Boy to Threaten Trump in New Video". The Daily Beast.
Bloom's research shows that children are used not just as propagandists but also as soldiers in the terrorist group's operations. ISIS uses nearly two dozen children a month in operations, Bloom said.
- McLaughlin, Erin (February 22, 2016). "How ISIS recruits children, then kills them". CNN. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
- Bloom, Mia; Horgan, John; Winter, Charlie (February 18, 2016). "Depictions of Children and Youth in the Islamic State's Martyrdom Propaganda, 2015-2016". CTC Sentinel.
- Ismay, John (17 October 2013). "Insight Into How Insurgents Fought in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Not Just Iraq: The Islamic State Is Also on the March in Syria". The Huffington Post. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- Gibbons-Neff, Thomas (18 June 2014). "ISIS propaganda videos show their weapons, skills in Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "US-made Stinger missiles have likely fallen into ISIS hands, officials say". Fox News Channel. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Jeremy Bender (9 July 2014). "As ISIS Routs The Iraqi Army, Here's A Look At What The Jihadists Have In Their Arsenal". Business Insider. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- Prothero, Mitchell (14 July 2014). "Iraqi army remains on defensive as extent of June debacle becomes clearer". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- Chelsea J. Carter; Tom Cohen; Barbara Starr (9 August 2014). "U.S. jet fighters, drones strike ISIS fighters, convoys in Iraq". CNN. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- "ISIS Holds Military Parade in Mosul". Long War Journal. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
- Tilghman, Andrew; Schogol, Jeff (12 June 2014). "How did 800 ISIS fighters rout 2 Iraqi divisions?". Military Times. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- "State of emergency: ISIS militants overrun Iraq city of 1.8mn, free 2,500 prisoners". RT News. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- "Isis leader calls on Muslims to 'build Islamic state'". BBC News. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Semple, Kirk; Schmitt, Eric (26 October 2014). "Missiles of ISIS May Pose Peril for Aircrews". The New York Times.
- "Islamic State training pilots to fly in three jets: Syria monitor". Reuters. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Holmes, Oliver (22 October 2014). "Syria says shoots down two of three Islamic State jets". Reuters. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Death of Abu Jandal al-Kuwaiti". CJTF–OIR. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Neville (2018), p. 40.
- Neville (2018), p. 32.
- Neville (2018), p. 7.
- Cowell, Alan (10 July 2014). "Low-Grade Nuclear Material Is Seized by Rebels in Iraq, U.N. Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- Sherlock, Ruth (10 July 2014). "Iraq jihadists seize 'nuclear material', says ambassador to UN". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- "Does ISIL/ISIS Pose Chemical Threat? – Green Cross". Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Joby Warrick (21 January 2019). "Exclusive: Iraqi scientist says he helped ISIS make chemical weapons". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Al Jazeera and agencies. "Iraqis say ISIL used chlorine gas in attacks". Retrieved 6 November 2014.