Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship

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Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship
Government of Canada signature.svg
Incumbent
Marco Mendicino

since 20 November 2019
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
StyleThe Honourable
Member of
Reports to
AppointerMonarch (represented by the governor general);[3]
on the advice of the prime minister[4]
Term lengthAt Her Majesty's pleasure
Constituting instrumentStatute 42-43 Elizabeth II, c. 31
Precursor
Inaugural holderSergio Marchi
Formation30 June 1994
DeputyDeputy Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
SalaryCA$269,800 (2019)[5]
Websitewww.cic.gc.ca
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The Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship (French: Ministre de l'Immigration, des Réfugiés et de la Citoyenneté), previously known as the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (French: Ministre de la Citoyenneté et de l'Immigration), is the minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, which is the department responsible for immigration, refugee and citizenship issues in Canada. The minister is also responsible for the Immigration and Refugee Board.[6]

The current minister is Marco Mendicino.

History[edit]

Prior to 1950, the responsibilities of the original citizenship and immigration portfolio were largely within the post of Minister of Reconstruction and Supply, with the Indian Affairs branch the responsibility of the Minister of Mines and Resources. In 1966, the portfolio was largely replaced by that of the Minister of Manpower and Immigration, while Indian Affairs was relocated to the new portfolio of Minister of Indian affairs and Northern Development.

Prior to 1994, the responsibilities of the current citizenship and immigration portfolio were divided between the posts of Minister of Multiculturalism and Citizenship and Minister of Employment and Immigration. When the post of Minister of Citizenship and Immigration was resuscitated in 1994, those two portfolios were substantially revamped.

From 1966 to 1977 the immigration portfolio was under the Minister of Manpower and Immigration and from 1977 to 1996 under the Minister of Employment and Immigration.

Ministers[edit]

There have been several offices throughout history responsible for immigration in Canada. In 1950, the office that first had the title of "Minister of Citizenship and Immigration" was created by "Statute 13 George VI, c. 16". That office would be abolished in 1966, and replaced by the Minister of Manpower and Immigration.[7]

The office responsible for immigration in Canada would again be titled "Minister of Citizenship and Immigration," with its creation in 1994 by "Statute 42-43 Elizabeth II, c. 31", succeeding the Minister of Employment and Immigration.[6] Though having its name changed in 2015 to "Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada", the office created in 1994 as the "Minister of Citizenship and Immigration" is the still the one that is currently in effect and is responsible for Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada.[6]

Prior to the current position, the offices responsible for immigration in Canada throughout history include the Minister of Immigration and Colonization (1917–1936), Minister of Mines and Resources (1936–1950), Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (1950–1966), Minister of Manpower and Immigration (1966–1977), Minister of Employment and Immigration (1977–1996). Those ministers are listed under the corresponding sections below.

The following immigration ministers are those who assumed the position under the office that was created in 1994.[6]

No. Portrait Name Term of office Political party Ministry
Ministers of Citizenship and Immigration (1994–2015)
9 Sergio Marchi June 30, 1994 January 24, 1996 Liberal 26 (Chrétien)
10 Lucienne Robillard January 25, 1996 August 2, 1999
11 Elinor Caplan August 3, 1999 January 14, 2002
12 Denis Coderre 2011.jpg Denis Coderre January 15, 2002 December 11, 2003
13 Judy Sgro.jpg Judy Sgro December 12, 2003 January 13, 2005 27 (Martin)
14 Volpe.jpg Joe Volpe January 14, 2005 February 5, 2006
15 Manning Centre party 2014 1079.jpg Monte Solberg February 6, 2006 January 3, 2007 Conservative 28 (Harper)
16 MPDianeFinley.jpg Diane Finley January 4, 2007 October 29, 2008
17 Jason Kenney in 2019 - cropped.jpg Jason Kenney October 30, 2008 July 15, 2013
18 Chris Alexander 2015.jpg Chris Alexander July 15, 2013 November 3, 2015
Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship
19 John McCallum.jpg John McCallum November 4, 2015 January 10, 2017 Liberal 29 (J. Trudeau)
20 Ahmed Hussen.jpg Ahmed Hussen January 10, 2017 November 20, 2019
21 Marco Mendicino November 20, 2019 Incumbent
Key:

Preceding offices responsible for immigration[edit]

There have been several offices throughout history responsible for immigration in Canada.

Prior to the current position, the offices responsible for immigration in Canada throughout history include the Minister of Immigration and Colonization (1917–1936), Minister of Mines and Resources (1936–1950), Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (1950–1966), Minister of Manpower and Immigration (1966–1977), Minister of Employment and Immigration (1977–1996).

Minister of Immigration and Colonization[edit]

Minister of Immigration and Colonization
Member ofCabinet of Canada
Formation1917
First holderJames Alexander Calder
Final holderThomas Alexander Crerar
Abolished1936

The Minister of Immigration and Colonization was an office in the Cabinet of Canada from 1917 to 1936, superseded by the Minister of Mines and Resources.[8]

After 1950, the position has been succeeded by Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (1950–1966), Minister of Manpower and Immigration (1966–1977), and Minister of Employment and Immigration (1977–1996).

Ministers of Immigration and Colonization
No. Name Term of office Ministry
1. James Alexander Calder October 12, 1917 July 10, 1920 under Borden
James Alexander Calder (cont’d) July 10, 1920 September 20, 1921 under Meighen
3. John Wesley Edwards September 21, 1921 December 29, 1921
* Hewitt Bostock (acting) January 3, 1922 February 2, 1922 under King
* Charles Stewart (acting) February 20, 1922 August 16, 1923
4. James Alexander Robb August 17, 1923 September 4, 1925
5. George Newcombe Gordon September 7, 1925 November 12, 1925
* Charles Stewart (acting) November 13, 1925 June 28, 1926
* Robert James Manion (acting) June 29, 1926 July 12, 1926 under Meighen
* Henry Lumley Drayton (acting) July 13, 1926 September 25, 1926
6. Robert Forke September 26, 1926 December 29, 1929 under King
* Charles Stewart (acting) December 30, 1929 June 26, 1930
7. Ian Alistair Mackenzie June 27, 1930 August 7, 1930
8. Wesley Ashton Gordon August 7, 1930 October 23, 1935 under Bennett
9. Thomas Alexander Crerar October 23, 1935 November 30, 1936 under King

Minister of Mines and Resources[edit]

The Minister of Mines and Resources was a cabinet portfolio from 1936 to 1950 that had absorbed the responsibilities belonging to the offices of Minister of Immigration and Colonization, as well as of the Minister of the Interior, Minister of Mines, and Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs. The last Minister of Immigration and Colonization, Thomas Alexander Crerar, remained in office under the new title of Minister of Mines and Resources.

Citizenship and Immigration (1950–1966)[edit]

Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (1950–1966)
Member ofCabinet of Canada
Constituting instrumentStatute 13 George VI, c. 16
Formation18 January 1950
First holderWalter Edward Harris
Final holderJean Marchand
Abolished1 October 1966

The office of Minister of Citizenship and Immigration came in force on 18 January 1950, and would be abolished and replaced by the Minister of Manpower and Immigration as of 1 October 1966.[7]

Following the Minister of Manpower and Immigration (1966–1977) and the Minister of Employment and Immigration (1977–1996), the office responsible for immigration in Canada would again be titled Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, which was created in 1994 and is currently in effect (though changing its name to the Minister Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada as of 2015).

Ministers of Citizenship and Immigration (1950–1966)
No. Portrait Name Term of office Political party Ministry
1 Walter Edward Harris.jpg Walter Harris January 18, 1950 June 30, 1954 Liberal 17 (St. Laurent)
2 Jack Pickersgill July 1, 1954 June 21, 1957
EdmundDavieFulton-1916.jpg Davie Fulton (Acting) June 21, 1957 May 11, 1958 Progressive Conservative 18 (Diefenbaker)
3 Ellen Fairclough 1940s.jpg Ellen Fairclough May 12, 1958 August 8, 1962
4 Dick Bell August 9, 1962 April 22, 1963
5 Guy Favreau April 22, 1963 February 2, 1964 Liberal 19 (Pearson)
6 René Tremblay February 3, 1964 February 14, 1965
7 John Robert Nicholson February 15, 1965 December 17, 1965
8 Jean Marchand1.jpg Jean Marchand December 18, 1965 September 30, 1966

Minister of Manpower and Immigration[edit]

Minister of Manpower and Immigration
Member ofCabinet of Canada
Constituting instrumentStatute 14-15 Elizabeth II, c. 25
Formation1 October 1966
First holderJean Marchand
Final holderBud Cullen
Abolished14 August 1977

Minister of Manpower and Immigration was a former position in the Cabinet of Canada from 1966 to 1977. The position was created after the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration was dissolved in 1966. It was abolished and replaced with the Minister of Employment and Immigration in 1977.[9]

Ministers of Manpower and Immigration
No. Name Term of office Ministry
1. Jean Marchand October 1, 1966 April 20, 1968 under Lester Pearson
April 20, 1968 July 5, 1968 under Pierre Trudeau
2. Allan MacEachen July 5, 1968 September 23, 1970
3. Otto Lang September 24, 1970 January 27, 1972
4. Bryce Mackasey January 28, 1972 November 26, 1972
5. Bob Andras November 27, 1972 September 13, 1976
6. Bud Cullen September 14, 1976 August 14, 1977

Minister of Employment and Immigration[edit]

The Minister of Employment and Immigration was an office in the Cabinet of Canada, in operation from 1977 to 1996, and was first held by Bud Cullen, who continued from his preceding role as the Minister of Manpower and Immigration.

On 12 July 1996, the office of the Minister of Employment and Immigration was abolished and replaced with the office of Minister of Human Resources Development. The portfolio for immigration was transferred to the office of Minister of Citizenship and Immigration following the reorganization of the government and formation of the department for Citizenship and Immigration Canada.[10][11][12]

Ministers of Employment and Immigration
No. Name Term of office Political party Ministry
1 Bud Cullen August 15, 1977 June 3, 1979 Liberal 20 (P. E. Trudeau)
2 Ron Atkey June 4, 1979 March 2, 1980 Progressive Conservative 21 (Clark)
3 Lloyd Axworthy March 3, 1980 August 11, 1983 Liberal 22 (P. E. Trudeau)
4 John Roberts August 12, 1983 June 29, 1984
June 30, 1984 September 16, 1984 23 (Turner)
5 Flora MacDonald September 17, 1984 June 29, 1986 Progressive Conservative 24 (Mulroney)
6 Benoît Bouchard June 30, 1986 March 30, 1988
7 Barbara McDougall March 31, 1988 April 20, 1991
8 Bernard Valcourt April 21, 1991 June 24, 1993
June 25, 1993 November 3, 1993 25 (Campbell)
Lloyd Axworthy (second time) November 4, 1993 January 24, 1996 Liberal 26 (Chrétien)
9 Douglas Young January 25, 1996 July 11, 1996
Key:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Canadian Parliamentary system - Our Procedure - House of Commons". www.ourcommons.ca. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  2. ^ "Review of the Responsibilities and Accountabilities of Ministers and Senior Officials" (PDF).
  3. ^ "Constitutional Duties". The Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  4. ^ "House of Commons Procedure and Practice - 1. Parliamentary Institutions - Canadian Parliamentary Institutions". www.ourcommons.ca. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  5. ^ "Indemnities, Salaries and Allowances". Library of Parliament. April 11, 2018. Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d "Citizenship and Immigration (1994-06-23 -  )." ParlInfo. Ottawa: Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2020 October 30.
  7. ^ a b "Citizenship and Immigration (1950-01-18 - 1966-09-30)." ParlInfo. Ottawa: Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2020 October 30.
  8. ^ "Order Transferring to the Department of Employment and Immigration...and Transferring to the Minister of Employment and Immigration...and Combining the Department of Employment and Immigration and the Department of Labour Under the Minister of Employment and Immigration."
  9. ^ "Manpower and Immigration (1966-10-01 - 1977-08-14)." ParlInfo. Ottawa: Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2020 October 30.
  10. ^ "Employment and Immigration (1977-08-15 - 1996-07-11)." ParlInfo. Ottawa: Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2020 October 30.
  11. ^ "Order Transferring to the Department of Employment and Immigration...and Transferring to the Minister of Employment and Immigration...and Combining the Department of Employment and Immigration and the Department of Labour Under the Minister of Employment and Immigration."
  12. ^ "Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada (Department)." Library of Congress.