The Montreal Canadiens[note 3] (French: Les Canadiens de Montréal) are a professional ice hockey team based in Montreal, Quebec. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL).
The club's official name is le Club de hockey Canadien. The team is frequently referred to in English and French as the Habs. French nicknames for the team include Les Canadiens (or Le Canadien), Le Bleu-Blanc-Rouge, La Sainte-Flanelle, Le Tricolore, Les Glorieux (or Nos Glorieux), Le CH, Le Grand Club and Les Habitants (from which "Habs" is derived).
Founded in 1909, the Canadiens are the longest continuously operating professional ice hockey team worldwide, and the only existing NHL club to predate the founding of the NHL. One of the oldest North American professional sports franchises, the Canadiens' history predates that of every other Canadian franchise outside football as well as every American franchise outside baseball and the National Football League's Arizona Cardinals. The franchise is one of the "Original Six" teams, a description used for the teams that made up the NHL from 1942 until the 1967 expansion. The team's championship season in 1992–93 was the last time a Canadian team won the Stanley Cup.
The Canadiens have won the Stanley Cup more times than any other franchise. They have won 24 Stanley Cup championships, 23 of them since the founding of the NHL and 22 of them since 1927, when NHL teams became the only ones to compete for the Stanley Cup. On a percentage basis, as of 2014[needs update], the franchise has won 25.3% of all Stanley Cup championships contested after the Challenge Cup era, making it the second most successful professional sports team of the traditional four major sports of Canada and the United States, behind only the Boston Celtics.[note 4] The Canadiens also had the most championships by a team of any of the four major North American sports until the New York Yankees won their 25th World Series title in 1999.
Since 1996, the Canadiens have played their home games at Bell Centre, originally known as Molson Centre. The team previously played at the Montreal Forum which housed the team for seven decades and all but their first two Stanley Cup championships.[note 5]
- 1 History
- 2 Team identity
- 3 Broadcasting
- 4 Season-by-season record
- 5 Players and personnel
- 6 Franchise individual records
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Canadiens were founded by J. Ambrose O'Brien on December 4, 1909, as a charter member of the National Hockey Association, the forerunner to the National Hockey League. It was to be the team of the francophone community in Montreal, composed of francophone players, and under francophone ownership as soon as possible. The team's first season was not a success, as they placed last. After the first year, ownership was transferred to George Kennedy of Montreal and the team's fortunes improved over the next seasons. The team won its first Stanley Cup championship in the 1915–16 season. In 1917, with four other NHA teams, the Canadiens formed the NHL, and they won their first NHL Stanley Cup during the 1923–24 season, led by Howie Morenz. The team moved from the Mount Royal Arena to the Montreal Forum for the 1926–27 season.
The club began the 1930s decade successfully, with Stanley Cup wins in 1930 and 1931. The Canadiens and its then-Montreal rival, the Montreal Maroons, declined both on the ice and economically during the Great Depression. Losses grew to the point where the team owners considering selling the team to interests in Cleveland, Ohio, though local investors were ultimately found to finance the Canadiens. The Maroons still suspended operations, and several of their players moved to the Canadiens.
Led by the "Punch Line" of Maurice "Rocket" Richard, Toe Blake and Elmer Lach in the 1940s, the Canadiens enjoyed success again atop the NHL. From 1953 to 1960, the franchise won six Stanley Cups, including a record five straight from 1956 to 1960, with a new set of stars coming to prominence: Jean Beliveau, Dickie Moore, Doug Harvey, Bernie "Boom Boom" Geoffrion, Jacques Plante and Richard's younger brother, Henri.
The Canadiens added ten more championships in 15 seasons from 1965 to 1979, with another dynastic run of four-straight Cups from 1976 to 1979. In the 1976–77 season, the Canadiens set two still-standing team records – for most points, with 132, and fewest losses, by only losing eight games in an 80-game season. The next season, 1977–78, the team had a 28-game unbeaten streak, the second-longest in NHL history. The next generation of stars included Guy Lafleur, Yvan Cournoyer, Ken Dryden, Pete Mahovlich, Jacques Lemaire, Pierre Larouche, Steve Shutt, Bob Gainey, Serge Savard, Guy Lapointe and Larry Robinson. Scotty Bowman, who would later set a record for most NHL victories by a coach, was the team's head coach for its last five Stanley Cup victories in the 1970s.
The Canadiens won Stanley Cups in 1986, led by rookie star goaltender Patrick Roy, and in 1993, continuing their streak of winning at least one championship in every decade from the 1910s to the 1990s (this streak came to an end in the 2000s). In 1996, the Habs moved from the Montreal Forum, their home during 70 seasons and 22 Stanley Cups, to Molson Centre (now called Bell Centre).
Following Roy's departure in 1995, the Canadiens fell into an extended stretch of mediocrity, missing the playoffs in four of their next ten seasons and failing to advance past the second round of the playoffs until 2010. By the late 1990s, with both an ailing team and monetary losses exacerbated by a record-low value of the Canadian dollar, Montreal fans feared their team would end up relocated to the United States. Team owner Molson Brewery sold control of the franchise and the Molson Centre to American businessman George N. Gillett Jr. in 2001, with the right of first refusal for any future sale by Gillett and a condition that the NHL Board of Governors must unanimously approve any attempt to move to a new city. Led by president Pierre Boivin, the Canadiens returned to being a lucrative enterprise, earning additional revenues from broadcasting and arena events. In 2009, Gillett sold the franchise to a consortium led by the Molson family which included The Woodbridge Company, BCE/Bell, the Fonds de solidarité FTQ, Michael Andlauer, Luc Bertrand and the National Bank Financial Group for $575 million, more than double the $275 million he spent on the purchase eight years prior.
During the 2008–09 season, the Canadiens celebrated their 100th anniversary with various events, including hosting both the 2009 NHL All-Star Game, and the 2009 NHL Entry Draft. The Canadiens became the first team in NHL history to reach 3,000 victories with their 5–2 victory over the Florida Panthers on December 29, 2008.
The Canadiens organization operates in both English and French. For many years, public address announcements and press releases have been given in both languages, and the team website and social media outlets are in both languages as well. At home games, the first stanza of O Canada is sung in French, and the chorus is sung in English.
Crest and sweater design
One of sport's oldest and most recognizable logos, the classic 'C' and 'H' of the Montreal Canadiens was first used together in the 1917–18 season, when the club changed its name to "Club de hockey Canadien" from "Club athlétique Canadien", before evolving to its current form in 1952–53. The "H" stands for "hockey", not "Habitants," a popular misconception. According to NHL.com, the first man to refer to the team as "the Habs" was American Tex Rickard, owner of the Madison Square Garden, in 1924. Rickard apparently told a reporter that the "H" on the Canadiens' sweaters was for "Habitants". In French, the "Habitants" nickname dates back to at least 1914, when it was printed in Le Devoir to report a 9-3 win over Toronto on the 9th of February.
The team's colours since 1911 are blue, red, and white. The home sweater is predominantly red in colour. There are four blue and white stripes, one across each arm, one across the chest and the other across the waistline. The main road sweater is mainly white with a red and blue stripe across the waist, red at the end of both arm sleeves red shoulder yokes. The basic design has been in use since 1914 and took its current form in 1925, generally evolving as materials changed. Because of the team's lengthy history and significance in Quebec, the sweater has been referred to as 'La Sainte-Flanelle' (the holy flannel sweater).
The Canadiens used multiple designs prior to adopting the aforementioned design in 1914. The original shirt of the 1909–10 season was blue with a white C. The second season had a red shirt featuring a green maple leaf with the C logo, and green pants. Lastly, the season before adopting the current look the Canadiens wore a "barber pole" design jersey with red, white and blue stripes, and the logo being a white maple leaf reading "CAC", "Club athlétique Canadien". All three designs were worn during the 2009–10 season as part of the Canadiens centenary.
The Canadiens' colours are a readily identifiable aspect of French Canadian culture. In the short story "The Hockey Sweater", Roch Carrier described the influence of the Canadiens and their jersey within rural Quebec communities during the 1940s. The story was later made into an animated short, The Sweater, narrated by Carrier. A passage from the short story appears on the 2002 issue of the Canadian five-dollar bill.
Nos bras meurtris vous tendent le flambeau, à vous toujours de le porter bien haut.
To you from failing hands we throw the torch. Be yours to hold it high.
The motto is from the poem "In Flanders Fields" by John McCrae, which was written in 1915, the year before the Canadiens won their first Stanley Cup championship. The motto appears on the wall of the Canadiens' dressing room as well as on the inside collar of the new Adidas 2017–18 jerseys.
Beginning in the 2004–05 NHL season, the Canadiens adopted Youppi! as their official mascot, the first costumed mascot in their long history. Youppi was the longtime mascot for the Montreal Expos baseball team, but was dropped from the franchise when they moved to Washington, D.C. in 2004 and became the Washington Nationals. With the switch, Youppi became the first mascot in professional sports to switch leagues.
The Canadiens have developed strong rivalries with two fellow Original Six franchises, with whom they frequently shared divisions and competed in post-season play. The oldest is with the Toronto Maple Leafs, who first faced the Canadiens as the Toronto Arenas in 1917. The teams met 15 times in the playoffs, including five Stanley Cup finals. Featuring the two largest cities in Canada and two of the largest fanbases in the league, the rivalry is sometimes dramatized as being emblematic of Canada's English and French linguistic divide. From 1938 to 1970, they were the only two Canadian teams in the league.
The team's other Original Six rival are the Boston Bruins, who since their NHL debut in 1924 have played the Canadiens more than any other team in both regular season play and the playoffs combined. The teams have played 34 playoff series, seven of which were in the finals.
Montreal Canadiens games are broadcast locally in both the French and English languages. CHMP 98.5 is the Canadiens' French-language radio flagship. As of the 2017–18 season, the team's regional television in both languages, and its English-language radio rights, are held by Bell Media. CKGM, TSN Radio 690, is the English-language radio flagship; it acquired the rights under a seven-year deal which began in the 2011–12 season. In June 2017, Bell Media reached a five-year extension.
Regional television rights in French are held by Réseau des sports (RDS) under a 12-year deal that began in the 2014–15 NHL season. A sister to the English-language network TSN, RDS was the only French-language sports channel in Canada until the 2011 launch of TVA Sports, and was also the previous national French rightsholder of the NHL; as a result, the Canadiens forewent a separate regional contract, and allowed all of its games to be televised nationally in French as part of RDS's overall NHL rights.
With TVA Sports becoming the national French rightsholder in the 2014–15 season through a sub-licensing agreement with Sportsnet, RDS subsequently announced a 12-year deal to maintain regional rights to Canadiens games not shown on TVA Sports. As a result, games on RDS are blacked out outside the Canadiens' home market of Quebec, Atlantic Canada and parts of Eastern Ontario shared with the Ottawa Senators. At least 22 Canadiens games per season (primarily through its Saturday night La super soirée LNH), including all playoff games, are televised nationally by TVA Sports.
TSN2 assumed the English-language regional television rights in the 2017–18 season, with John Bartlett on play-by-play, and Dave Poulin, Mike Johnson and Craig Button on colour commentary. All other games, including all playoff games, are televised nationally by Sportsnet or CBC. Bartlett returned to Sportsnet over the 2018 off-season, and was succeeded by Bryan Mudryk.
English-language regional rights were previously held by Sportsnet East (with CJNT City Montreal as an overflow channel), under a 3-year deal that expired after the 2016–17 season; the games were called by Bartlett and Jason York. Prior to this deal, TSN held the rights from 2010 through 2014; the games were broadcast on a part-time channel with Dave Randorf on play-by-play.
This is a list of the last five seasons completed by the Canadiens. For the full season-by-season history, see List of Montreal Canadiens seasons.
Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, OTL = Overtime Losses, Pts = Points, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against
|2014–15||82||50||22||10||110||221||189||1st, Atlantic||Lost in Second Round, 2–4 (Lightning)|
|2015–16||82||38||38||6||82||221||236||6th, Atlantic||Did not qualify|
|2016–17||82||47||26||9||103||226||199||1st, Atlantic||Lost in First Round, 2–4 (Rangers)|
|2017–18||82||29||40||13||71||209||264||6th, Atlantic||Did not qualify|
|2018–19||82||44||30||8||96||249||236||4th, Atlantic||Did not qualify|
Players and personnel
The Canadiens have retired 15 numbers in honour of 18 players, the most of any team in the NHL. All of the honourees were born in Canada. Howie Morenz was the first honouree, on November 2, 1937. The NHL retired Wayne Gretzky's No. 99 for all its member teams at the 2000 NHL All-Star Game.
|No.||Player||Position||Tenure||Date of honour|
|1||Jacques Plante||G||1952–1963||October 7, 1995|
|2||Doug Harvey||D||1947–1961||October 26, 1985|
|3||Emile Bouchard||D||1941–1956||December 4, 2009|
|4||Jean Beliveau||C||1950–1971||October 9, 1971|
|5||Bernie Geoffrion||RW||1950–1964||March 11, 2006|
|Guy Lapointe||D||1968–1982||November 8, 2014|
|7||Howie Morenz||C||1923–1937||November 2, 1937|
|9||Maurice Richard||RW||1942–1960||October 6, 1960|
|10||Guy Lafleur||RW||1971–1985||February 16, 1985|
|12||Dickie Moore||LW||1951–1963||November 12, 2005|
|Yvan Cournoyer||RW||1963–1979||November 12, 2005|
|16||Henri Richard||C||1955–1975||December 10, 1975|
|Elmer Lach||C||1940–1954||December 4, 2009|
|18||Serge Savard||D||1966–1981||November 18, 2006|
|19||Larry Robinson||D||1972–1989||November 19, 2007|
|23||Bob Gainey||LW||1973–1989||February 23, 2008|
|29||Ken Dryden||G||1970–1979||January 29, 2007|
|33||Patrick Roy||G||1984–1995||November 22, 2008|
Hockey Hall of Fame
The Montreal Canadiens have an affiliation with a number of inductees to the Hockey Hall of Fame. Sixty-five inductees from the players category are affiliated with the Canadiens. Thirty-seven of these players are from three separate notable dynasties: 12 from 1955 to 1960, 11 from 1964 to 1969, and 13 from 1975 to 1979. Howie Morenz and Georges Vezina were the first Canadiens given the honour in 1945, while Mark Recchi was the most recently inducted, in 2017. Along with players, a number of inductees from the builders category are affiliated with the club. The first inductee was Vice-President William Northey in 1945. The most recent inductee was Guy Carbonneau in 2019.
In addition to players and builders, five broadcasters for the Montreal Canadiens were also awarded the Foster Hewitt Memorial Award from the Hockey Hall of Fame. The first two recipients of the award were Danny Gallivan and Rene Lecavalier in 1984. The other three award recipients include Doug Smith (1985), Dick Irvin Jr. (1988), and Gilles Tremblay (2002).
- Jack Laviolette, 1909–1910
- Newsy Lalonde, 1910–1911
- Jack Laviolette, 1911–1912
- Newsy Lalonde, 1912–1913
- Jimmy Gardner, 1913–1915
- Howard McNamara, 1915–1916
- Newsy Lalonde, 1916–1922
- Sprague Cleghorn, 1922–1925
- Billy Coutu, 1925–1926
- Sylvio Mantha, 1926–1932
- George Hainsworth, 1932–1933
- Sylvio Mantha, 1933–1936
- Albert "Babe" Siebert, 1936–1939
- Walter Buswell, 1939–1940
- Toe Blake, 1940–1948
- Bill Durnan, 1948 (January–April)
- Emile Bouchard, 1948–1956
- Maurice Richard, 1956–1960
- Doug Harvey, 1960–1961
- Jean Beliveau, 1961–1971
- Henri Richard, 1971–1975
- Yvan Cournoyer, 1975–1979
- Serge Savard, 1979–1981
- Bob Gainey, 1981–1989
- Guy Carbonneau and Chris Chelios, 1989–1990 (co-captains)
- Guy Carbonneau, 1990–1994
- Kirk Muller, 1994–1995
- Mike Keane, 1995 (April–December)
- Pierre Turgeon, 1995–1996
- Vincent Damphousse, 1996–1999
- Saku Koivu, 1999–2009
- Brian Gionta, 2010–2014
- Max Pacioretty, 2015–2018
- Shea Weber, 2018–present
- Joe Cattarinich and Jack Laviolette, 1909–1910
- Adolphe Lecours, 1911
- Napoleon Dorval, 1911–1913
- Jimmy Gardner, 1913–1915
- Newsy Lalonde, 1915–1921
- Leo Dandurand, 1921–1926
- Cecil Hart, 1926–1932
- Newsy Lalonde, 1932–1934
- Newsy Lalonde and Leo Dandurand, 1934–1935
- Sylvio Mantha, 1935–1936
- Cecil Hart, 1936–1938
- Cecil Hart and Jules Dugal, 1938–1939
- Albert "Babe" Siebert, 1939
- Alfred "Pit" Lepine, 1939–1940
- Dick Irvin, 1940–55
- Hector "Toe" Blake, 1955–1968
- Claude Ruel, 1968–1970
- Al MacNeil, 1970–1971
- Scotty Bowman, 1971–1979
- Bernie Geoffrion, 1979
- Claude Ruel, 1979–1981
- Bob Berry, 1981–1984
- Jacques Lemaire, 1984–1985
- Jean Perron, 1985–1988
- Pat Burns, 1988–1992
- Jacques Demers, 1992–1995
- Mario Tremblay, 1995–1997
- Alain Vigneault, 1997–2000
- Michel Therrien, 2000–2003
- Claude Julien, 2003–2006
- Bob Gainey, 2006 (January–May) (interim)
- Guy Carbonneau, 2006–2009
- Bob Gainey, 2009 (March–June) (interim)
- Jacques Martin, 2009–2011
- Randy Cunneyworth, 2011–2012 (interim)
- Michel Therrien, 2012–2017
- Claude Julien, 2017–present
First-round draft picks
- 1963: Garry Monahan (1st overall)
- 1964: Claude Chagnon (6th overall)
- 1965: Pierre Bouchard (5th overall)
- 1966: Phil Myre (5th overall)
- 1967: Elgin McCann (8th overall)
- 1968: Michel Plasse (1st overall), Roger Belisle (2nd overall), and Jim Pritchard (3rd overall)
- 1969: Rejean Houle (1st overall), and Marc Tardif (2nd overall)
- 1970: Ray Martynuik (5th overall), and Chuck Lefley (6th overall)
- 1971: Guy Lafleur (1st overall), Chuck Arnason (7th overall), and Murray Wilson (11th overall)
- 1972: Steve Shutt (4th overall), Michel Larocque (6th overall), Dave Gardner (8th overall), and John Van Boxmeer (14th overall)
- 1973: Bob Gainey (8th overall)
- 1974: Cam Connor (5th overall), Doug Risebrough (7th overall), Rick Chartraw (10th overall), Mario Tremblay (12th overall), and Gord McTavish (15th overall)
- 1975: Robin Sadler (9th overall), and Pierre Mondou (15th overall)
- 1976: Peter Lee (12th overall), Rod Schutt (13th overall), and Bruce Baker (18th overall)
- 1977: Mark Napier (10th overall), and Norm Dupont (18th overall)
- 1978: Danny Geoffrion (8th overall), and Dave Hunter (17th overall)
- 1979: None
- 1980: Doug Wickenheiser (1st overall)
- 1981: Mark Hunter (7th overall), Gilbert Delorme (18th overall), and Jan Ingman (19th overall)
- 1982: Alain Heroux (19th overall)
- 1983: Alfie Turcotte (17th overall)
- 1984: Petr Svoboda (5th overall), and Shayne Corson (8th overall)
- 1985: Jose Charbonneau (12th overall), and Tom Chorske (16th overall)
- 1986: Mark Pederson (15th overall)
- 1987: Andrew Cassels (17th overall)
- 1988: Eric Charron (20th overall)
- 1989: Lindsay Vallis (13th overall)
- 1990: Turner Stevenson (12th overall)
- 1991: Brent Bilodeau (17th overall)
- 1992: David Wilkie (20th overall)
- 1993: Saku Koivu (21st overall)
- 1994: Brad Brown (18th overall)
- 1995: Terry Ryan (8th overall)
- 1996: Matt Higgins (18th overall)
- 1997: Jason Ward (11th overall)
- 1998: Eric Chouinard (16th overall)
- 1999: None
- 2000: Ron Hainsey (13th overall) and Marcel Hossa (16th overall)
- 2001: Mike Komisarek (7th overall), and Alexander Perezhogin (25th overall)
- 2002: Chris Higgins (14th overall)
- 2003: Andrei Kostitsyn (10th overall)
- 2004: Kyle Chipchura (18th overall)
- 2005: Carey Price (5th overall)
- 2006: David Fischer (20th overall)
- 2007: Ryan McDonagh (12th overall), and Max Pacioretty (22nd overall)
- 2008: None
- 2009: Louis Leblanc (18th overall)
- 2010: Jarred Tinordi (22nd overall)
- 2011: Nathan Beaulieu (17th overall)
- 2012: Alex Galchenyuk (3rd overall)
- 2013: Michael McCarron (25th overall)
- 2014: Nikita Scherbak (26th overall)
- 2015: Noah Juulsen (26th overall)
- 2016: Mikhail Sergachev (9th overall)
- 2017: Ryan Poehling (25th overall)
- 2018: Jesperi Kotkaniemi (3rd overall)
- 2019: Cole Caufield (15th overall)
Franchise individual records
Franchise scoring leaders
These are the top-ten-point-scorers in franchise history. Figures are updated after each completed NHL regular season.
- – current Canadiens player
Note: Pos = Position; GP = Games Played; G = Goals; A = Assists; Pts = Points; P/G = Points per game
Sources: "Statistics | Historical Website of the Montreal Canadiens". Montreal Canadiens. Retrieved June 27, 2009., "Hockey-Reference.com". June 17, 2010.
Records – skaters
- Most goals in a season: 60, Steve Shutt (1976–77); Guy Lafleur (1977–78)
- Most powerplay goals in a season: 20, Yvan Cournoyer (1966–67)
- Most powerplay goals in a season, defenceman: 19, Sheldon Souray (2006–07)*
- Most assists in a season: 82, Pete Mahovlich (1974–75)
- Most points in a season: 136, Guy Lafleur (1976–77)
- Most penalty minutes in a season: 358, Chris Nilan (1984–85)
- Most points in a season, defenceman: 85, Larry Robinson (1976–77)
- Most points in a season, rookie: 71, Mats Naslund (1982–83); Kjell Dahlin (1985–86)
- Most goals in a season, defenceman: 28, Guy Lapointe (1974–75)
* Indicates a league record.
Source: "Season records – Individual records – Skaters | Historical Website of the Montreal Canadiens". Montreal Canadiens. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
Records – goaltenders
* Indicates a league record.
Source: "Season records – Individual records – goaltenders | Historical Website of the Montreal Canadiens". Montreal Canadiens. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
- List of Montreal Canadiens award winners
- Montreal Junior Canadiens
- List of Montreal Canadiens presidents
- List of Montreal Canadiens general managers
- List of Montreal Canadiens goaltenders
- Bell Sports Complex
- While the Montreal Canadiens have won 24 Stanley Cups, they have actually won 27 league championships, as the Stanley Cup predates the NHA/NHL and was an inter-league championship prior to 1926. The Canadiens won two titles with the National Hockey Association, winning a Stanley Cup in 1916 and losing in 1917. The Canadiens have won 25 league titles in the National Hockey League, winning 23 Stanley Cups. As NHL champion, Montreal failed to win the Stanley Cup in 1919, when the Spanish flu cancelled the Stanley Cup finals against the Seattle Metropolitans of Pacific Coast Hockey Association, and in 1925, when they lost in the Stanley Cup to the Western Canada Hockey League's Victoria Cougars.
- The Presidents' Trophy was not introduced until 1985. Had the trophy existed since league inception, the Canadiens franchise would have won 21 Presidents' Trophies.
- Even in English, the French spelling Canadiens is always used instead of Canadians. The French spelling of Montréal is also sometimes used in the English media.
- As of May 2014, the Boston Celtics have the highest percentage of National Basketball Association championships with 25.4%, and in Major League Baseball, the New York Yankees have the highest percentage with 24.8%.
- Earlier venues for the Canadiens include Jubilee Rink, Montreal Westmount Arena, and Mount Royal Arena
- "Jerseys & logos – 1909–1946". OurHistory.Canadiens.com. NHL Enterprises, L.P. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
It has been worn over the years by over 800 players and still remains one of the most prestigious uniforms in all of professional sports. Throughout its history, the Canadiens jersey has undergone many transformations. This section explores the great tradition and metamorphosis behind the bleu-blanc-rouge.
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