Muhammad and the Bible

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The belief that Muhammad was the "long awaited Prophet" prophesied by other prophets of Islam in the Bible is a fundamental part of Islamic theology that traces its roots to the text of the Quran.[1][2] Quran 3:81, Quran 7:157, and Quran 48:29 are often cited in this context. Quran 61:6 says that Jesus himself brought good news about the close advent of Muhammad. Muslim historians and hagiographers (such as Ibn Ishaq) maintained that the people of Medina accepted Islam because of their awareness of these prophecies, and because they saw Muhammad as fulfilling them.[3] The messianic prophecy in Isaiah 42 about the "Chosen One of God" rising among the children of Qedar in mount Sela was cited by Muhammad's own companion Abd Allah ibn Amr.[4][5]

After the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the 20th century, Muslim scholars became aware that there were two promised messianic figures in the Bible and some of them started to interpret these two figures as referring to both Jesus and Muhammad.[6][7]

Christians like John of Damascus and John Calvin argued that Muhammad was the Antichrist or a false prophet.

Muslim interpretation[edit]


Genesis 21[edit]

Genesis 21:17 says that when God heard the infant Ishmael crying, his angel called Hagar from heaven and said to her,

"What is the matter, Hagar? Do not be afraid; God has heard the boy crying as he lies there. 18 Lift the boy up and take him by the hand, for I will make him into a great nation."

The "great nation" has been described by Muslim scholars as a reference to the Ummah. The well of water mentioned in Genesis 21:19 has been seen by them as a reference to the well of Zamzam in Mecca.[8]

Genesis 49[edit]

In Genesis 49:10, Jacob tells his sons that the scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff (or a lawgiver) from between his feet (or from his descendants), until Shiloh (or he that is to be sent) comes and to him shall be the obedience of the people.

This prophecy is believed by some Muslim scholars to be the one referred to in Qur'an 3:81 and their argument is that the word Shiloh originally meant "he that is to be sent". The Latin Vulgate also translates the word to "He that is to be sent". Muslims believe this prophecy refers to Muhammad.[9]

Deuteronomy 18:18[edit]

15 The Lord thy God shall raise up to thee a prophet of thy brethren, like me; him shall ye hear

— Deuteronomy 18:15 (Brenton Septuagint Translation)

18 I will raise up to them a prophet of their brethren, like thee; and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them as I shall command him. 19 And whatever man shall not hearken to whatsoever words that prophet shall speak in my name, I will take vengeance on him. 20 But the prophet whosoever shall impiously speak in my name a word which I have not commanded him to speak, and whosoever shall speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die. 21 But if thou shalt say in thine heart, "How shall we know the word which the Lord has not spoken?" 22 Whatsoever words that prophet shall speak in the name of the Lord, and they shall not come true, and not come to pass, this is the thing which the Lord has not spoken; that prophet has spoken wickedly: ye shall not spare him.

— Deuteronomy 18:18 (Brenton Septuagint Translation)

Quran 46:10 refers to this prophecy.[10][11] Al-Samawal al-Maghribi, a Jewish mathematician who embraced Islam, pointed to it in his book Confutation of the Jews as a prophecy fulfilled by Muhammad.[12] Samawal argued in his book that since the children of Esau are described in Deuteronomy 2:4-6 and Numbers 20:14 as the brethren of the children of Israel, the children of Ishmael can also be described the same way.[13]

Deuteronomy 33:2[edit]

Mount Sinai depicted on late medieval Georgian manuscript.

He said, "The Lord came from Sinai, And dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, And He came from the midst of ten thousand holy ones; At His right hand there was flashing lightning for them."

— Deuteronomy 33:2

Al-Samawal al-Maghribi referred to this verse also in his book as a prophecy of Muhammad. He said that Mount Sinai refers to Moses, Mount Seir "the Mount of Esau" refers to Jesus, and Mount Paran "the Mount of Ishmael" refers to Muhammad.[14] Since then, many Muslim scholars have looked to Deuteronomy 33 as containing a prophetic prediction of Muhammad.[15]

Deuteronomy 33:2 is part of the poem known as the Blessing of Moses spanning Deuteronomy 33:1-29. Scholars consider that the poem serves as a Yahwistic declaration for the blessing of the future of Israel as a socially unified whole that will benefit and prosper through YHWH's beneficence. The poem relates YHWH's movement from the south from Mount Sinai, the mountain where He resides, to His entrance on the scene as a "formidable invading force."[16]

Psalm 110[edit]

Some Muslim scholars cited this passage as a prophecy of Muhammad and his Ascension.[17][18]

Isaiah 21:7[edit]

7 And I saw two mounted horsemen, and a rider on an ass, and a rider on a camel.

— Isaiah 21:7 (Brenton Septuagint Translation)

This prophecy was cited by Muslims who argued that the rider on the ass is Jesus, and the rider on the camel is Muhammad.[19]

Isaiah 42[edit]

Mount Sela in the middle of Medina, which is also the location of seven mosques.

"Behold, My Servant, whom I uphold; My chosen one in whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the nations. 2 He will not cry out or raise His voice, Nor make His voice heard in the street. 3 A bruised reed He will not break And a dimly burning wick He will not extinguish; He will faithfully bring forth justice. 4 He will not be disheartened or crushed Until He has established justice in the earth; And the coastlands will wait expectantly for His law."

— Isaiah 42:1-4

Muslim tradition holds that Isaiah 42 predicted the coming of a servant associated with Qedar, the second son of Ishmael, who went on to live his life in Arabia, and so interpret this passage as a prophecy of Muhammad.[20] According to the Hadiths, Muslims like Abd Allah ibn Amr ibn al-As have believed that Muhammad was the servant of Isaiah 42 during his very lifetime.[21]

In 1892, Isaiah 42:1-4 was first identified by Bernhard Duhm as one of the Servant songs in the Book of Isaiah,[22] along with Is. 49:1-6; Is. 50:4-7; and Is. 52:13-53:12. The Old Testament identifies the servant of the Servant songs as the Israelite's in Is. 41:8-9; Is. 44:1; Is. 44:21; Is. 45:4; Is. 48:20 and Is. 49:3.[23][24] John Barton and John Muddiman write that "The idea of a 'servant' played a small part in the earlier chapters, being used as a designation of the unworthy Eliakim in 22:20 and of the figure of David in 37:35, but it now comes to the fore as a description of major significance, the noun being used more than 20 times in chs. 40-55. Its first usage is obviously important in establishing the sense in which we are to understand it, and here it is clear that the community of Israel/Jacob is so described."[23]

Isaiah 54[edit]

Isaiah 54:2-3"Enlarge the place of your tent... For you will spread abroad to the right and to the left"

1"Sing, barren woman, you who never bore a child; burst into song, shout for joy, you who were never in labor; because more are the children of the desolate woman than of her who has a husband," says the LORD. 2 "Enlarge the place of your tent, stretch your tent curtains wide, do not hold back; lengthen your cords, strengthen your stakes."

The barren woman is seen as a reference to Mecca as it, unlike Jerusalem, never received a prophet. The children of the desolate woman are the children of Hagar, while the children of the married woman are the children of Sarah.[25]

Daniel 2[edit]

This vision has been interpreted by Muslims as a messianic prophecy fulfilled by Muhammad. The head of fine gold represents Babylon, the chest and arms of silver represents Media-Persia, the belly and thighs of brass represents Greece, the legs of iron represents Rome, the feet partly of iron & partly of clay represents the division of the Roman Empire into an ironic eastern part and a weakened western part (some interpret this part of the vision in a different way suggesting that the feet of iron & clay refers to the Roman & Sassanid Empires). The stone refers to Muhammad and his advent which marked the beginning of the Muslim conquests that subsequently led to the end of both the Roman & the Sassanid Empires. Since the advent of Muhammad, the Muslim world is steadily expanding in a way similar to the way of the growing stone in the vision.[26][27]

Chapter Analysing the relationship between Daniel 2 and Daniel 7
Four beasts Advent of the Cornerstone Earth inherited by the faithful
Daniel 2 Golden head (Babylon) Chest and arms of silver (Persia-Media) Belly and thighs of brass (Greece) Legs of iron (Rome) Feet partly of clay & partly of iron (Division of the Roman Empire), which gets hit by the Cornerstone Kingdom of God is established
Daniel 7 Winged lion Bear with three ribs in its mouth Leopard with four heads Terrifying beast One like humans comes and ascends to the Throne of God Kingdom of God is established

Daniel 7[edit]

The winged lion represents Babylon.
The four heads of the Leopard: Ptolemaic Kingdom,Seleucid Empire, Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon.

Several Muslim scholars interpreted and discussed this messianic prophecy. David Benjamin Keldani described it as one of the most evident prophecies about Muhammad.[28] Nasrullah Abu Talib, an Arab scholar, discussed it in great detail too.[29] In this vision, Daniel saw four beasts emerging from the sea (could be a reference to the Mediterranean), one after the other. The first was like a winged lion. The second was like a bear with three ribs in its mouth. The third was like a leopard with four heads. The fourth beast was dreadful and terrible, and exceedingly strong. It crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot whatever was left. It had ten horns, and while Daniel was looking, another little horn came up among them; and three horns were uprooted before it. This horn was different because it had eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things against God.[29]

This scene was followed by another in which God sat on the Throne for judgement, and a human being "son of man" came with the clouds of heaven. He approached God and was led into his presence. He was given authority, glory and sovereign power. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.[29]

The interpretation is provided in the book of Daniel: that these four beasts are four kingdoms that shall rise up on the earth [note 1], but the saints of God shall inherit the earth in the end. The first beast is identified in the book of Daniel with Babylon. The second beast is identified with Persia-Media. The third is identified with Greece.[note 2]. The fourth formidable beast is identified with Rome which was more brutal than the others, as it destroyed the Second Temple and massacred millions of the Jews and Nazarenes. The book of Daniel itself explains that the ten horns of the fourth beast represent ten kings (emperors):[29]

23 “He gave me this explanation: ‘The fourth beast is a fourth kingdom that will appear on earth. It will be different from all the other kingdoms and will devour the whole earth, trampling it down and crushing it. 24 The ten horns are ten kings who will come from this kingdom. After them another king will arise, different from the earlier ones; he will subdue three kings. 25 He will speak against the Most High and oppress his holy people and try to change the set times and the laws. The holy people will be delivered into his hands for a time, two times and half a time.

— Daniel 7:23-25

D. Keldani and N. Abu Talib believed that the "human being" who went to meet God in this vision was Muhammad who, according to Muslims' beliefs, ascended to meet God during the Night of Ascension. N. Abu Talib argued that no one can deny that the Roman Empire was destroyed at the hands of Muslims and that the promised land was inherited by the faithful since then.[29]

According to N. Abu Talib, the ten horns have been widely interpreted as the ten Roman emperors who ran what is known in history as the ten major persecutions. These persecutions are referred to in Revelation 2:10 as ten days of tribulation.[29] These were followed by the eleventh horn Constantine I who subdued three Roman emperors: Maximian, Maxentius, and Licinius. Abu Talib argued that Constantine I incorporated elements of Roman paganism into what became known as the Nicene Christianity before declaring it as the state religion. He pointed that Constantine I remained pagan throughout almost his entire life and worshiped Sol Invictus. He sought to change the set times by switching the Sabbath to Sunday "the day of Sol Invictus", and adopting a pagan festival as the birth-date of Jesus. While Pauline Christians rejoiced in Constantine I, the monotheists among the Jews and Nazarenes (such as the Arians, Ebionites, and other Jewish Christians) who rejected the Nicene Creed were subjected to oppression, and their Scriptures were confiscated and burned.[29] Keldani wrote that Constantine I violated the first commandment of the Law: "the Lord our God is one lord", and uttered blasphemy against God when he declared that God begat.[30]

Finally, N. Abu Talib estimated that the time from the beginning of Constantine reign in 305 CE till the Muslim capture of Jerusalem and the Promised Land in 638 CE was about 346 lunar years (that is approximately 3 times and half a time). He also estimated that the time during which Constantine reigned was around 34 lunar years.[29] Keldani wrote that the Unitarians and monotheists were subjected to severe suppression for three centuries and a half by the regime that Constantine I founded, until Muslims assumed the power and dominion over the land trodden and devastated by the four beasts.[31]

Habakkuk 3:3[edit]

3 God will come from the south, and the holy one from mount Pharan: His glory covered the heavens, and the earth is full of his praise.

— Habakkuk 3:3 - (Douay-Rheims Bible)

The phrase "from the south" is seen as a reference to the Hejaz region which is located south of Israel. The phrase "from mount Paran" refers to the land of Ishmael according to Genesis 21:19-21. This prophecy corresponds with Deuteronomy 33:2 and Zechariah 9:14. The phrase "full of his praise" corresponds with Muhammad's name.[32]

Haggai 2:7[edit]

6 For thus says the Lord of hosts: "Once more (it is a little while) I will shake heaven and earth, the sea and dry land; 7 and I will shake all nations, and they shall come to the 'Desire' of All Nations, and I will fill this temple with glory," says the Lord of hosts. 8 "The silver is Mine, and the gold is Mine," says the Lord of hosts. 9 "The glory of this latter temple shall be greater than the former," says the Lord of hosts. "And in this place I will give peace," says the Lord of hosts.

— Haggai 2:6- (New King James Version)

The word rendered "the Desire" is singular and is pronounced as Hemdāh (from the root HMD). Christians have maintained from their early history that this word was a reference to the Messiah.[33][34] Muslim scholars argue that it actually refers to Muhammad whose name is also from the same root (HMD). Some of them interpret the new temple in the prophecy as a reference to the Great Mosque of Mecca.[35][36]

Zechariah 4[edit]

Some Muslim scholars pointed out that the Two Anointed Ones mentioned in Zechariah 4 could be a reference to Jesus and Muhammad, suggesting that these two are the same two messianic figures mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Ka’b al-Ahbar, a prominent 7th century Rabbi who embraced Islam and accompanied Caliph Umar during the capture of Jerusalem, interpreted the oil of the olive tree mentioned in the Quranic Verse of Light in the light of Zechariah 4 stating that it refers to Muhammad.[citation needed]

Synoptic Gospels[edit]

Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen[edit]

The Black Stone, which Muslims believe was sent from Heaven, symbolizes the statue of Muhammad among the prophets.

Muslim scholars like Rahmatullah Kairanawi have discussed this parable in detail. Rahmatullah Kairanawi interpreted the landowner as a metaphor for God, the vineyard as a metaphor for God's Law, the wall around it refers to that which God prohibited in the Law, the wine-press is a metaphor for the pleasures that are permitted in the Law. The husbandmen who rented the vineyard refers to the Jews. The servants who were sent repeatedly to the tenants to collect the fruits are God's prophets. The son of the landowner is a metaphor for Jesus, who is considered by Muslims to be one of the highly esteemed prophets. The stone the builders rejected is seen as a metaphor for Muhammad. Rahmatullah quoted this phrase from the parable: "Anyone who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; anyone on whom it falls will be crushed" and argued that this description fits Muhammad who triumphed during his life-time over all his enemies and against all odds.[37] Muslims have also quoted the following Hadith of Muhammad in this context:[38][39]

Narrated Abu Huraira:
God's Apostle said, "My similitude in comparison with the other prophets before me, is that of a man who has built a house nicely and beautifully, except for a place of one brick in a corner. The people go about it and wonder at its beauty, but say: 'Would that this brick be put in its place!' So I am that brick, and I am the Seal of the Prophets."[40]

Parable of the Mustard Seed[edit]

Rahmatullah Kairanawi, among other Muslim writers, argued that this parable is referred to in Qur'an 48:29. Rahmatullah argued that the Muslim Ummah resembled the growing mustard seed in that it started from a single person in Mecca, yet it grew up rapidly and became larger than the other kingdoms of earth. It put forth its branches in the East and West and many nations lived within it.[41]

The kingdom of heaven has come near[edit]

Rahmatullah quotes Matthew 3:2 and Matthew 4:17 and says that both John the Baptist and Jesus Christ preached that "the kingdom of heaven has come near". Neither of them preached that the kingdom of heaven has arrived. He also quotes Matthew 6:9-13 which shows that Jesus taught his disciples to pray so that the kingdom of heaven comes. Rahmatullah argues that this shows that the seed of the kingdom of heaven wasn't planted in earth at that time.[42]

John 16[edit]

7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. 8 And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment. ...12 I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. 13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come.

— John 16:7-8,12-13 (King James Version)

Many Muslims believe that the Paraclete in this passage from the Gospel of John is referring to Muhammad.[43] The first recorded attempt to connect the Paraclete in John to Muhammad is recorded in Ibn Ishaq's Kitab al-Maghazi in the second half of the 8th century, and the passage of the Paraclete had a pre-Islamic history of being tied to leaders of heterodox Christian sects, such as the Montanists tying the Paraclete to the founder of the sect Montanus, and the Manichaeans doing so with Mani.[44] Ibn Ishaq modifies the Johannine passage several times when translating it into Arabic in order to make it consistent with Islamic teachings on Muhammad, and so while the passage says that Jesus is responsible for sending the Paraclete, Ibn Ishaq rewrites this to say that God sent the Paraclete, and Ibn Ishaq also replaces all references of "the Father" with the Arabic term for "Lord" in order to accommodate for the Islamic teaching that God is no Father to anyone.[44] A few Muslim commentators, such as David Benjamin Keldani (1928), have argued the theory that the original Greek word used was periklytos, meaning famed, illustrious, or praiseworthy, rendered in Arabic as Ahmad (another name of Muhammad), and that this was substituted by Christians with parakletos.[45][46] However, there is not one Greek manuscript in existence with this reading, all Greek manuscripts read παράκλητος (parakletos).[47]

In contrast to this, Christian scholarship recognizes that the Paraclete, or Advocate, is mentioned five times throughout John's Gospel (John 14:16-17; 14:26; 15:26-27; 16:7-11; 16:13-17). The Advocate, called the "Spirit of Truth", is considered the Holy Spirit – a replacement for Jesus into the world after Jesus leaves, still dependent on Christ (14:6) and sent by the Father at Jesus' demand (14:16, 24). The Spirit is said to permanently remain with the disciples (14:18-21). John's Gospel says that the world cannot receive the Spirit though the Spirit can abide within the disciples (14:17). The Spirit will accuse the world of sin (16:9) and glorify Jesus (16:14), and though it is "the spirit that gives life", the spirit does not add new revelations to those of Jesus.[48] Jesus' promise to send the Advocate in the Gospel of John is later fulfilled in John 20:19-23 as Jesus bestows the Spirit upon his disciples.[49]

8th century Christian commentary[edit]

In Łewond's version of the correspondence between the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian and the Umayyad caliph Umar II,[50] the following is attributed to Leo:

We recognize Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John as the authors of the Gospel, and yet I know that this truth, recognized by us Christians wounds you, so that you seek to find accomplices for your lie. In brief, you admit that we say that it was written by God, and brought down from the heavens, as you pretend for your Furqan, although we know that it was `Umar, Abu Turab and Salman the Persian, who composed that, even though the rumor has got round among you that God sent it down from heavens. …[God] has chosen the way of sending [the human race] Prophets, and it is for this reason that the Lord, having finished all those things that He had decided on beforehand, and having fore-announced His incarnation by way of His prophets, yet knowing that men still had need of assistance from God, promised to send the Holy Spirit, under the name of Paraclete or "Consoler", to console them in the distress and sorrow they felt at the departure of their Lord and Master. I reiterate, that it was for this cause alone that Jesus called the Holy Spirit the Paraclete, since He sought to console His disciples for His departure, and recall to them all that he had said, all that He had done before their eyes, all that they were called to propagate throughout the world by their witness. Paraclete thus signifies "consoler", while Muhammad says it means "to give thanks", or "to give grace", a meaning which has no connection whatever with the word Paraclete.” [51]

Gospel of Barnabas[edit]

The Gospel of Barnabas (as distinguished from the Epistle of Barnabas and the surviving Acts of Barnabas) is not a part of the Bible, and is generally seen as a fabrication made during the Renaissance.[52][53][54] It has at times been claimed to be at least partly apocryphal or part of an "original" Bible.[citation needed]

The name of "Muhammad" is frequently mentioned verbatim in the Gospel of Barnabas, as in the following quote:

Jesus answered: "The name of the Messiah is admirable, for God himself gave him the name when he had created his soul, and placed it in a celestial splendour. God said: 'Wait Mohammed; for thy sake I will to create paradise, the world, and a great multitude of creatures, whereof I make thee a present, insomuch that whoso bless thee shall be blessed, and whoso shall curse thee shall be accursed. When I shall send thee into the world I shall send thee as my messenger of salvation, and thy word shall be true, insomuch that heaven and earth shall fail, but thy faith shall never fail.' Mohammed is his blessed name." Then the crowd lifted up their voices, saying: "O God, send us thy messenger: O Admirable One, come quickly for the salvation of the world!"

Christian interpretation[edit]

Daniel 7[edit]

The prophecy of the "Four kingdoms of Daniel" in Chapter 7 of the Book of Daniel has been interpreted by Christians as a prediction of Muhammad. The monk Eulogius of Córdoba (9th century) argued that Muhammad was the Fourth Beast in the prophesy.[55] Another medieval monk, Alvarus, argued that Muhammad was the "eleventh king" that emerged from the Fourth Beast. According to historian John Tolan,

In Daniel's description of this beast, Alvarus sees the career of the Antichrist Muhammad and his disciples. This eleventh king who arises after the others, "diverse from the first," who subdues three kings, is it not Muhammad, who vanquished the Greeks, the Romans, and the Goths? "And he shall speak great words against the most High": did he not deny the divinity of Christ, thus, according to Saint John, showing himself to be an Antichrist? He "shall wear out the saints of the most High": is this not a prediction of the persecutions inflicted by the Muslims, in particular of the martyrdoms of Córdoba? He will "think to change times and laws": did he not introduce the Muslim calendar and the Koran? "[56]

New Testament[edit]

Martyrdom of Eulogius of Cordova, 17th century

Early Christian writers claimed that Muhammad was predicted in the Bible, as a forthcoming Antichrist, false prophet, or false Messiah. According to historian Albert Hourani, initial interactions between Christian and Muslim peoples were characterized by hostility on the part of the Europeans because they interpreted Muhammad in a biblical context as being the Antichrist.[57] The earliest known exponent of this view was John of Damascus in the 7th century.[58] In c. 850 CE about 50 Christians were killed in Muslim-ruled Córdoba, Andalusia, after a Christian priest named Perfectus said that Muhammad was one of the "false Christs" prophesied in Matthew 24:16.42. Eulogius of Córdoba justified the views of Perfectus and the other Martyrs of Córdoba, saying that they witnessed "against the angel of Satan and forerunner of Antichrist, ... Muhammad, the heresiarch."[59] John Calvin argued that "The name Antichrist does not designate a single individual, but a single kingdom which extends throughout many generations", saying that both Muhammad and the Catholic popes were "antichrists".[59] According to Martin Luther, Muhammad was "The Second Woe" in the Book of Revelation 9:13–21.[60][61]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ عبد الهادي سمارة, إحسان عبد المنعم (Iḥsān ʻAbd al-Munʻim Samārah). مفاهيم أساسية في العقيدة الإسلامية (Essential concepts in Islamic theology) (in in Arabic). دار الكتاب الثقافي. pp. 203–204. المبحث الثالث: محمد خاتم النبيين، وعلاقة نبوته بالنبوات السابقة عليه (Chapter 3: Muhammad the Seal of prophets and the relationship between his prophethood and the prophecies before him). In page 203, the author says: ،ويتأيد ذلك بأن الله تعالى أخذ الميثاق على الأنبياء جميعهم أن يكفلوا أقوامهم باتباع محمد (صلى الله عليه وسلم) وطاعته واتباع شريعته، قال الله تعالى: "وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ النَّبِيِّينَ لَمَا آتَيْتُكُمْ مِنْ كِتَابٍ وَحِكْمَةٍ ثُمَّ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَكُمْ لَتُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهِ وَلَتَنْصُرُنَّهُ ۚ قَالَ أَأَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَخَذْتُمْ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكُمْ إِصْرِي ۖ قَالُوا أَقْرَرْنَا ۚ قَالَ فَاشْهَدُوا وَأَنَا مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ" ... And this has been confirmed when God made a covenant with all the prophets that they should tell their peoples to follow Muhammad and follow his Law. The author cites [Quran 3:81] here. Then in the next pages, the author cites Quran 7:157 and Quran 61:6. Then he concludes with the Hadith about Muhammad being the Cornerstone in comparison with the prophets before him.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  2. ^ Zaqzūq, Maḥmūd Ḥamdī (2010). موسوعة العقيدة الإسلامية (Encyclopedia of Islamic theology) (in Arabic). وزارة الأوقاف، المجلس الأعلي للشئون الإسلامية. p. 1076.
  3. ^ Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah - The Life of Muhammad Translated by A. Guillaume. October 2002. pp. 197–198. Now God had prepared the way for Islam in that they (the Arabs of Medina) lived side by side with the Jews who were people of the Scripture and Knowledge, while they themselves were polytheists and idolaters... the Jews used to say to them: 'A prophet will be sent soon, his day is at hand.' ... so when they (the Arabs of Medina) heard the Apostle's message they said one to another: 'this is the very Prophet of the Jews'. Thereupon, they accepted his teachings and became Muslims.
  4. ^ Ali Unal; Harun Gultekin (2013). The Prophet Promised in World Scriptures. USA: Tughra Books. ISBN 978-1-59784-271-6.
  5. ^ Ünal, Ali (2006). The Qurʼan with Annotated Interpretation in Modern English. New Jersey: The Light, Inc. p. 1263. ISBN 978-1-59784-000-2. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  6. ^ ibn Abdullah, Misha'al (2001). What did Jesus really say? (2nd ed.). Islamic Assembly of North America. p. 279. ISBN 978-1888782097. Retrieved 7 June 2020. An English translation of the book can be found here
  7. ^ King, Margaret (2012). Unveiling the Messiah in the Dead Sea Scrolls. USA: Author Solutions. ISBN 9781465392183.
  8. ^ أبو طالب, نصر الله عبد الرحمن (2002). تباشير الإنجيل والتوراة بالإسلام ورسوله محمد (4th ed.). دار الوفاء للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع. ISBN 9789771503880.
  9. ^ Muhammad in World Scriptures (Volume II): The Bible, David Benjamin Keldani, ISBN 9789839154658, Islamic Book Trust, 2006, p 42-45
  10. ^ Muhammad Ali and Zahid Aziz, English Translation of the Holy Quran: With Explanatory Notes, Revised 2010 edition, 627, 732
  11. ^ Gülen, Fethullah. The messenger of God Muhammad: An analysis of the Prophet's life. Tughra Books, 2000, 11. Link
  12. ^ al-Maghribi, Al-Samawal; Confutation of the Jews (in Arabic). Syria: Dar Al Qalam, 1989, 75
  13. ^ al-Maghribi, Al-Samawal; Confutation of the Jews (in Arabic). Syria: Dar Al Qalam, 1989, 77
  14. ^ al-Maghribi, Al-Samawal; Confutation of the Jews (in Arabic). Syria: Dar Al Qalam, 1989, 67
  15. ^ Muhammad Ali and Zahid Aziz, English Translation of the Holy Quran: With Explanatory Notes, Revised 2010 edition, 211
  16. ^ Brueggemann, Walter. Deuteronomy. Abingdon Press, 2001, 284-286.
  17. ^ Keldani, David Benjamin (2006). Muhammad in World Scriptures (Volume II): The Bible. Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust. pp. 80–85. ISBN 983-9154-65-6.
  18. ^ Muhammad, encyclopaedia of seerah, 1st volume, Afzal-ur-Rahman, 1985, p 143
  19. ^ Ten Great Religions--: An essay in comparative theology, 33d ed.-(pt. II) A comparison of all religions, 16th ed, By James Freeman Clarke · 1894. Houghton, MiIfflin and Company. page 451
  20. ^ Zepp, Ira G. A Muslim Primer: Beginner's Guide to Islam. Vol. 1. University of Arkansas Press, 2000, 50-51
  21. ^ "Hadith - Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 246".
  22. ^ Bernhard Duhm, Das Buch Jesaia (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1892),
  23. ^ a b Barton, John, and John Muddiman, eds. The Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press, 2007, 467-477
  24. ^ Goldingay, John. The theology of the Book of Isaiah. InterVarsity Press, 2014, 61-74.
  25. ^ Rahmatullah Kairanawi, Izhar ul-Haq (Truth Revealed), Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia) 1989, p 1160-1161
  26. ^ Nasrullah Abu Talib. تباشير الإنجيل والتوراة بالإسلام ورسوله محمد (in Arabic). Egypt 2009. p 71-73
  27. ^ As-Saqqar, Munqidh. هل بشر الكتاب المقدس بمحمد؟ (in Arabic). 2007 ed. Page 108 (an English translation of his book can be found here)
  28. ^ David Benjamin Keldani (2006). Muhammad in World Scriptures (Volume II): The Bible. Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust. p. 52. ISBN 9789839154658.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i أبوطالب (ِAbu Talib), نصر الله (Nasrullah) (2009). تباشير الإنجيل والتوراة بالإسلام ورسوله محمد (The Good News in the Torah & the Gospel about Muhammad) (in Arabic) (fourth ed.). pp. 81–99.
  30. ^ David Benjamin Keldani (2006). Muhammad in World Scriptures (Volume II): The Bible. Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust. p. 61. ISBN 9789839154658.
  31. ^ David Benjamin Keldani (2006). Muhammad in World Scriptures (Volume II): The Bible. Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust. p. 60. ISBN 9789839154658.
  32. ^ Munqidh As-Saqqar, 1st 2007 ed, p 87
  33. ^ Haggai, Zechariah & Malachi, Irving L. Jensen, 1976, Moody Puplishers, USA, ISBN 978-0-8024-4487-5
  34. ^ The Wiersbe Bible Commentary: Old Testament, By Warren W. Wiersbe, ISBN 9781434765871, David C Cook, page 1496, Quote: "in both Jewish and Christian tradition, the phrase "the desire of all nations" has been generally interpreted as a messianic title of Christ... Charles Wesley followed this interpretation when he wrote in his Christmas hymn "Hark! the Herald Angels Sing": Come, Desire of nations, come!"
  35. ^ Prophet Muhammad The last Messenger in the Bible, al-Kalby, Kais, ISBN 0-9638520-2-7, 8th edition, 2005, page 306
  36. ^ Nasrullah, Abu Talib (2009). تباشير الإنجيل والتوراة بالإسلام ورسوله محمد [The Good News of the Coming of Muhammad in the Gospel and the Torah] (PDF) (4th ed.). Egypt: Dar Al-Wafaa. pp. 419–420.
  37. ^ Rahmatullah Kairanawi (1989). ملكاوي Malkawi, محمد أحمد (Mohammad Ahmed) (ed.). إظهار الحق (Izhar ul-Haqq "The Demonstration of the Truth") (PDF). Saudi Arabia: Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia). pp. 1178–1180.
  38. ^ Rahmatullah Kairanawi (1989). ملكاوي Malkawi, محمد أحمد (Mohammad Ahmed) (ed.). إظهار الحق (Izhar ul-Haqq "The Demonstration of the Truth") (PDF). Saudi Arabia: Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia). pp. 1178–1180.
  39. ^ Ameri, Sami (2006). محمد رسول الله في الكتب المقدسة (Muhammad, the Apostle of God, in the Holy Scriptures) (1st ed.). Cairo: Tanweer Publishing center. p. 235.
  40. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of Virtues and Merits of the Prophet and his Companions, Chapter: The Seal of all the Prophets, Hadith number: 44
  41. ^ Rahmatullah Kairanawi (1989). ملكاوي Malkawi, محمد أحمد (Mohammad Ahmed) (ed.). إظهار الحق (Izhar ul-Haqq "The Demonstration of the Truth") (PDF). Saudi Arabia: Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia). p. 1176.
  42. ^ Rahmatullah Kairanawi (1989). ملكاوي Malkawi, محمد أحمد (Mohammad Ahmed) (ed.). إظهار الحق (Izhar ul-Haqq "The Demonstration of the Truth") (PDF). Saudi Arabia: Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia). pp. 1173–1175.
  43. ^ Reynolds, Gabriel Said. The Emergence of Islam: Classical traditions in contemporary perspective. Fortress Press, 2012, 126
  44. ^ a b Anthony, Sean W. "Muḥammad, Menaḥem, and the Paraclete: new light on Ibn Isḥāq's (d. 150/767) Arabic version of John 15: 23–16: 1 1." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 79.2 (2016): 255-257.
  45. ^ Donzel, E. Van and B. Lewis, Ch. Pellat. "Isa" in Encyclopedia of Islam Volume 4, 1997, 83.
  46. ^ Watt (1991) pp. 33–34
  47. ^ Reuben J. Swanson, ed., New Testament Greek Manuscripts: John. William Carey International University Press, 1998. Variant Readings Arranged in Horizontal Lines Against Codex Vaticanus – see John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7. Also see Nestle-Aland, eds., Novum Testamentum Graece, 28th ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Biblegesellschaft, 2012.
  48. ^ Barton, John, and John Muddiman, eds. The Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press, 2007, 987-990
  49. ^ Hurtado, Larry. Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Eerdmans, 2003, 397.
  50. ^ Hoyland, Robert G. Seeing Islam as others saw it: a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian writings on early Islam. Darwins Press, 1999, 499.
  51. ^ Arthur Jeffery, Ghevond's Text of the Correspondence Between `Umar II and Leo III. Harvard Theological Review. XXXVII, 1944, 269–332.
  52. ^ Cirillo, Luigi; Fremaux, Michel (1977). Évangile de Barnabé. Beauchesne. p. 88.
  53. ^ Ragg, L & L (1907). The Gospel of Barnabas. Oxford. pp. xi. ISBN 1-881316-15-7.
  54. ^ Joosten, Jan (April 2010). "The date and provenance of the Gospel of Barnabas". Journal of Theological Studies. 61 (1): 200–215. doi:10.1093/jts/flq010.
  55. ^ Quinn, Frederick, The Sum of All Heresies: The Image of Islam in Western Thought, Oxford University Press, 2008, p.30
  56. ^ John Tolan, Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination, Columbia University Press. New York: 2002, p.81.
  57. ^ Hourani, Albert (1967). "Islam and the philosophers of history". Middle Eastern Studies. 3 (3): 206. doi:10.1080/00263206708700074.
  58. ^ Esposito, John L., The Oxford History of Islam: Oxford University Press, 1999, p.322.
  59. ^ a b McGinn, Bernard, Antichrist: Two Thousand Years of the Human Fascination with Evil, Columbia University Press. 2000, p.86; 212.
  60. ^ Melloni, Alberto (2017). Martin Luther: A Christian between Reforms and Modernity (1517-2017). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 659. ISBN 9783110499025. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  61. ^ Luther, Martin; Wengert, Timothy J. (2007). Luther's Spirituality. Paulist Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780809139491. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  1. ^ Abu Talib believed that the earth here refers to the land promised by God to Abraham.[29]
  2. ^ The name of the third beast is also given in Daniel 8:

    21 The shaggy goat is the king of Greece, and the large horn between its eyes is the first king. 22 The four horns that replaced the one that was broken off represent four kings that will emerge from his nation but will not have the same power.


  • al-Maghribi, Al-Samawal; Taweile, Abdulwahab. بذل المجهود في إفحام اليهود [Confuting the Jews] (in Arabic) (1st 1989 ed.). Syria: Dar Al-Qalam.
  • Brueggemann, Walter (2001). Deuteronomy. Abingdon Press.
  • Goldingay, John (2014). The theology of the Book of Isaiah. Tughra Books.
  • Gülen, Fethullah. The Messenger of God Muhammad (1st 1989 ed.). Tughra Books.
  • Muddiman, John; Barton, John (2007). The Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press.
  • Rubin, Uri (1995). The eye of the beholder: the life of Muḥammad as viewed by the early Muslims: a textual analysis. Darwin Press.
  • Zepp, Ira (2000). A Muslim Primer: Beginner's Guide to Islam. Vol. 1. University of Arkansas Press.