Munichi language

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Munichi
Muniche
Native toPeru
RegionLoreto
Extinctlate 1990s, with the death of Victoria Huancho Icahuate
Macro-Arawakan ?
Language codes
ISO 639-3myr
Glottologmuni1258[1]
Muniche language.png
Location of Munichi

Munichi is a recently extinct language which was spoken in the village of Munichis, about 10 miles (16 km) west of Yurimaguas, Loreto Region, Peru. In 1988, there were two mother-tongue speakers, but they had not met since the 1970s. The last known fluent speaker, Victoria Huancho Icahuate, died in the late 1990s. As of 2009 there were several semi-speakers who retained significant lexical, and partial grammatical, knowledge of the language (Michael et al. 2013).

Classification[edit]

The language is considered an isolate (Michael et al. 2013), but the pronominal suffixes bear a close resemblance to those reconstructed for proto-Arawakan (Gibson 1996:18-19), and some lexical items are similar to ones in Arawakan languages (Jolkesky 2016:310-317). Although Jolkesky (id.) argues that the language belongs to a putative Macro-Arawakan stock, evidence has yet to be provided for placing it either in a sister branch to the Arawakan language family or in a branch within this language family. There is substantial borrowing from the local variety of Quechua, and to a lesser extent from Spanish and Cahuapanan languages (Michael et al. 2013).

Phonology[edit]

Munichi has six vowels: /a, e, i, ɨ, o, u/.[2]

Consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Palato-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p t c k ʔ
voiced d g
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ ʈʂ
Fricative s ʃ ʂ ç h
Nasal m n ɲ
Approximant l j w
Flap ɾ

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Muniche". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "SAPhon – South American Phonological Inventories". linguistics.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
  • Gibson, Michael L. 1996. El Munichi: Un idioma que se extingue. Serie Lingüística Peruana, 42. Pucallpa: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. Available here.
  • Jolkesky, M. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Brasilia: UnB. PhD Dissertation. Available here.
  • Michael, Lev, Stephanie Farmer, Greg Finley, Christine Beier, and Karina Sullón Acosta. 2013. A sketch of Muniche segmental and prosodic phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics 79(3):307-347.