Municipal divisions of Russia
The municipal divisions in Russia, called the municipal formations (Russian: муниципальные образования, Munitsipalnye Obrazoniya), are territorial divisions of the Russian Federation within which the state governance is augmented with local self-government independent of the state organs of governance within the law, to manage local affairs.
In the course of the Russian municipal reform of 2004–2005, all federal subjects of Russia were to streamline the structures of the local self-government, which is guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia. The reform mandated that each federal subject was to have a unified structure of the municipal government bodies by January 1, 2005, and a law enforcing the reform provisions went into effect on January 1, 2006. According to the law, the units of the municipal division (called municipal formations) are as follows:
- Municipal district (or municipal raion), a group of urban and rural settlements, often along with the inter-settlement territories. In practice, municipal districts are usually formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts.
- Urban okrug, an urban settlement not incorporated into a municipal district. In practice, urban okrugs are usually formed within the boundaries of existing cities of federal subject significance.
- Intra-city territory of a federal city, a part of a federal city's territory. Since 2006 this kind of municipal units exists only in 3 cities:
Territories not included as a part of municipal formations are known as inter-settlement territories.
Since 2005, for statistical and tax purposes, all municipal formations are assigned codes according to the All-Russian Classifier of Territories of Municipal Formations, abbreviated in Russian as ОКТМО.
- Кутафин О. Е., Фадеев В. И. Муниципальное право Российской Федерации. — М.: Велби, 2006. — 672 c. — ISBN 5-482-00718-9. — С. 301—302.
- Государственная Дума Российской Федерации. Федеральный Закон №131-ФЗ от 6 октября 2003 г. «Об общих принципах организации местного самоуправления в Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального Закона №243-ФЗ от 28 сентября 2010 г. (State Duma of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #131-FZ of October 6, 2003 On General Principles of the Organization of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Law #243-FZ of September 28, 2010. ).