Municipalities of Kerala
Municipalities are the urban local governments that deal with civic functions and local development functions in the municipal area. The 74th Constitutional amendment provided for a national framework for municipal governance in the country, and Kerala has been following that pattern since 1994. Consequent to this amendment, several changes have occurred in the functions, powers, and responsibilities of the municipalities, and the states had to make necessary amendments to the legislation on the local governments in the respective states. The Kerala Municipalities Act of 1994, enacted as per the constitutional amendment, governs the pattern, functions and services of the municipalities in Kerala. The act, which was integrated for the municipalities and corporations in the state, laid out the constitution of the town panchayats, municipalities and municipal corporations. The state of Kerala has 87 municipalities and six municipal corporations. With 13 municipalities, the district of Ernakulam has the most number of municipalities in the state.
Since then, the structure of municipal bodies has essentially remained the same, even though the urban areas have multiplied. The 74th amendment to the Constitution of India resulted in increased roles for the municipalities in every state in India, where they have been perceived to be great contributors to the social and economic development of the country, as they are the level of government that is closest to the citizens.
The Kerala Municipality Act 1994 envisage creation of three kinds of urban local governments
- Town panchayats for transitional areas.
- Municipalities for less urbanised areas and
- Municipal corporations for more urbanised areas.
Kerala has not created any town panchayats so far.
The functions of the Municipalities are enlisted as schedule appended to Kerala Municipality Act. The functions can be divided into civic functions and development functions in areas of agriculture, industry, health, education etc.
Chairperson is the executive authority of the municipalities. Elected councillors and officers are the other functionaries. Two types of officers now exist - officers belonging to the municipality as full-time officers and officers transferred to the municipality from the state government.
Municipalities in Kerala
- North Paravoor