Muslims (ethnic group)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Kosovo||27,553 (2011)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||12,101 (2013)|
|North Macedonia||2,553 (2002)|
|Bosnian and other Serbo-Croatian languages, along with Albanian, Turkish, Bulgarian|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Bosniaks, Gorani, Macedonian Muslims, Pomaks, Torbeš|
Muslims or Muslimans (in all South Slavic languages: Muslimani, Муслимани) as a designation for a particular ethnic group, refers to one of six officially recognized constituent peoples in the former Yugoslavia. The term was adopted in 1971, as an official designation of ethnicity for Yugoslav Slavic Muslims, thus grouping together a number of distinct South Slavic communities of Islamic ethnocultural tradition, among them most numerous being the modern Bosniaks of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with some smaller groups of different ethnicity, such as Gorani and Torbeši. This designation did not include Yugoslav non-Slavic Muslims, such as Albanians, Turks and Romani.
After the breakup of Yugoslavia (1991–1992) majority of Slavic Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted the "Bosniak" ethnic designation in 1993, and they are today constitutionally recognized as one of three constituent peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Approximately 100,000 people across the former Yugoslavia still consider themselves to be Muslims in an ethnic sense. Remaining ethnic Muslims (Muslimans) are most numerous in Serbia and they are constitutionally recognized as a distinctive ethnic minority in Montenegro.
Up until the 19th century, the word Bosniak (Bošnjak) came to refer to all inhabitants of Bosnia regardless of religious affiliation; terms such as "Boşnak milleti", "Boşnak kavmi", and "Boşnak taifesi" (all meaning, roughly, "the Bosnian people"), were used in the Ottoman Empire to describe Bosnians in an ethnic or "tribal" sense. After the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, the Austrian administration officially endorsed Bošnjaštvo ('Bosniakhood') as the basis of a multi-confessional Bosnian nation. The policy aspired to isolate Bosnia and Herzegovina from its irredentist neighbors (Orthodox Serbia, Catholic Croatia, and the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire) and to negate the concept of Croatian and Serbian nationhood which had already begun to take ground among Bosnia and Herzegovina's Catholic and Orthodox communities, respectively. Nevertheless, in part due to the dominant standing held in the previous centuries by the native Muslim population in Ottoman Bosnia, a sense of Bosnian nationhood was cherished mainly by Muslim Bosnians, while fiercely opposed by nationalists from Serbia and Croatia who were instead opting to claim the Bosnian Muslim population as their own, a move that was rejected by most of them. After World War I, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later "Kingdom of Yugoslavia") was formed and it recognized only those three nationalities in its constitution.
After World War II, in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Bosnian Muslims continued to be treated as a religious group instead of an ethnic one. Nevertheless, in a debate that went on during the 1960s, many Bosniak communist intellectuals argued that the Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina are in fact a distinct native Slavic people that should be recognized as a nation. In 1964, the Fourth Congress of the Bosnian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia assured their Bosniaks membership the Bosniaks' right to self-determination will be fulfilled, thus prompting the recognition of Bosnian Muslims as a distinct nation at a meeting of the Bosnian Central Committee in 1968, however not under the Bosniak or Bosnian name, as opted by the Bosnian Muslim communist leadership. As a compromise, the Constitution of Yugoslavia was amended to list "Muslims" in a national sense; recognizing a constitutive nation, but not the Bosniak name. The use of Muslim as an ethnic denomination was criticized early on, especially on account of motives and reasoning, as well as disregard of this aspect of Bosnian nationhood.
Sometimes other terms, such as Muslim with capital M were used, that is, "musliman" was a practicing Muslim while "Musliman" was a member of this nation (Serbo-Croatian uses capital letters for names of peoples but small for names of adherents).
After the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, the majority of these people, around two million, mostly located in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the region of Sandžak, declare as ethnic Bosniaks (Bošnjaci, sing. Bošnjak). On the other hand, some still use the old name Muslimani (Muslims), mostly outside Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- In Serbia, according to the 2011 census there were 22,301 Muslims by nationality, 145,278 Bosniaks as well as few Serb Muslims (ethnic Serbs who are Muslims (adherents of Islam) by their religious affiliation).
- In Montenegro census of 2011, 20,537 (3.3%) of the population declared as Muslims by nationality; while 53,605 (8.6%) declared as Bosniaks; while 175 (0.03%) Muslims by confession declared as Montenegrin Muslims. Muslims and Bosniaks are considered as a two separate ethnic groups, and both of them have their own separate National Councils. Also to mention, many Muslims consider themselves as Montenegrins of Islamic faith. National Council of Muslims of Montenegro insists their mother tongue is Montenegrin.
- In 2002 Slovenia census, 21,542 persons identified as Bosniaks (thereof 19,923 Bosniak Muslims); 8,062 as Bosnians (thereof 5,724 Bosnian Muslims), 2,804 were Slovenian Muslims. while 9,328 chose Muslims by nationality.
- In North Macedonia, the census of 2002 registered 17,018 (1,15%) Bosniaks and 2,553 (0.13%) Muslims by nationality. There is also a few number of Macedonian Muslims a minority religious group within the community of ethnic Macedonians who are Muslims by their religious affiliation. It is also important to note that most members of Pomaks and Torbeš ethnicities also declared as Muslims by nationality prior to 1990.
- In Croatia, according to the census of 2011 there were 6,704 Muslims by nationality, 27,959 Bosniak Muslims, 9,594 Albanian Muslims, 9,647 Croat Muslims and 5,039 Muslim Roma. The Bosniaks of Croatia are the largest minority practicing Islam in Croatia.
- "Popis 2013 BiH". www.popis.gov.ba. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Dimitrova 2001, p. 94-108.
- Đečević, Vuković-Ćalasan & Knežević 2017, p. 137-157.
- Donia & Fine 1994.
- Velikonja 2003, p. 130-135.
- Central and South-Eastern Europe 2004, Volume 4, Routledge, p 110.
- Banac 1988, p. 287–288.
- Kostic, Roland 2007. Ambivalent Peace: External Peacebuilding, Threatened Identity and Reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Report No. 78, Department of Peace and Conflict Research and the Programme for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden, p.65.
- Imamović, Mustafa (1996). Historija Bošnjaka. Sarajevo: BZK Preporod. ISBN 9958-815-00-1
- "Election law of Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF).
- "CONSTITUTION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA" (PDF). The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- 2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia
- "MONTENEGRO STATISTICAL OFFICE, RELEASE, No: 83, 12 July 2011, Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011, p. 6" (PDF). Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- MATICA MUSLIMANSKA OF MONTENEGRO. "MUSLIMANI CRNE GORE". Matica Muslimanska Crne Gore (in Serbo-Croatian). Archived from the original on 2 November 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
Let's stay what we have been for centuries: Ethnicity – Muslim, Religion – Islam, Mother tongue – Montenegrin, Nationality – Montenegrin
- "Population by religion and ethnic affiliation, Slovenia, 2002 Census". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- Statistics Office of Republic of Macedonia - Државен завод за статистика:Попис на населението, домаќинствата и становите во Република Македонија, 2002: Дефинитивни податоци (PDF) (in Macedonian)
- Population by ethnicity - 2001 Croatian Census (in Croatian)
- "SAS Output". www.dzs.hr. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "Central Bureau of Statistics". www.dzs.hr. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "4. Population by ethnicity and religion". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- Banac, Ivo (1988) . The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics (2. ed.). Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
- Ćerić, Salim (1968). Muslimani srpskohrvatskog jezika. Sarajevo: Svjetlost.
- Donia, Robert J.; Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1994). Bosnia and Hercegovina: A Tradition Betrayed. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Dimitrova, Bohdana (2001). "Bosniak or Muslim? Dilemma of one Nation with two Names" (PDF). Southeast European Politics. 2 (2): 94–108.
- Đečević, Mehmed; Vuković-Ćalasan, Danijela; Knežević, Saša (2017). "Re-designation of Ethnic Muslims as Bosniaks in Montenegro: Local Specificities and Dynamics of This Process". East European Politics and Societies and Cultures. 31 (1): 137–157.
- Jović, Dejan (2013). "Identitet Bošnjaka/Muslimana". Politička misao: Časopis za politologiju. 50 (4): 132–159.
- Kurpejović, Avdul (2006). Slovenski muslimani zapadnog Balkana. Podgorica: Matica muslimanska Crne Gore.
- Kurpejović, Avdul (2018). Ko smo mi Muslimani Crne Gore (PDF). Podgorica: Matica muslimanska Crne Gore.
- Velikonja, Mitja (2003). Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
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