Mustafa II

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Mustafa II
مصطفى ثانى
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kayser-i Rûm
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Ottoman Caliph
II. Mustafa.jpg
22nd Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign6 February 1695 – 22 August 1703
PredecessorAhmed II
SuccessorAhmed III
Born6 February 1664
Edirne Palace, Edirne, Ottoman Empire
Died29 December 1703(1703-12-29) (aged 39)
Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Burial
New Mosque, Istanbul
ConsortsSaliha Sultan
Şehsuvar Sultan
Alicenab Kadın
Afife Kadın
Ivaz Kadın
Bahtiyar Kadın
One another wife
Issuesee below
Full name
Mustafa bin Mehmed
DynastyOttoman
FatherMehmed IV
MotherGülnuş Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraMustafa II مصطفى ثانى's signature

Mustafa II (/ˈmʊstəfə/; Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثانىMuṣṭafā-yi sānī; 6 February 1664 – 29 December 1703) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703.

Biography[edit]

He was born at Edirne Palace a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87) and Gülnuş Sultan, originally named Evmenia,[1] who was of Greek Cretan descent.[2][3][4] Mustafa II abdicated in favor of his brother Ahmed III (1703–30) in 1703.

Military campaigns[edit]

During his reign the Great Turkish War, which had started in 1683, was still going on. After the failure of the second Siege of Vienna (1683) the Holy League had captured large parts of the Empire's territory in Europe. The Habsburg armies came as far as Nis, modern-day Serbia, before being pushed back across the Danube by 1690. Sultan Mustafa II was determined to recapture the lost territories in Hungary and therefore he personally commanded his armies.

First, the Ottoman navy recaptured the island of Chios after defeating the Venetian Fleet twice, in the Battle of the Oinousses Islands (1695) and in the Battle of Chios (1695), in February 1695.[5][6] In June 1695, Mustafa II left Edirne for his first military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. By September 1695 the town of Lipova was captured. On 18 September 1695 the Venetian Navy was again defeated in the naval victory of Zeytinburnu. A few days later the Habsburg army was defeated in the Battle of Lugos. Afterwards the Ottoman Army returned to the capital. Meanwhile, the Ottoman fortress in Azov was successfully defended against the besieging Russian forces.[5]

In April 1696 Mustafa II left Edirne for his second military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. In August 1696 the Russians besieged Azov for the second time and captured the fortress. In August 1696 the Ottoman troops defeated the Habsburg army in the Battle of Ulaş and in the Battle of Cenei. After these victories the Ottoman troops captured Timişoara and Koca Cafer Pasha was appointed as the protector of Belgrade. Afterwards the army returned to the Ottoman capital.[5]

In June 1697 Mustafa II left the capital on his third military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. However, the Ottoman Army suffered a defeat in the Battle of Zenta and Grand Vizier Elmas Mehmed Pasha died in the battle. Afterwards the Ottomans signed a treaty with the Holy League.[5]

The most traumatic event of his reign was the loss of Hungary by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699.

Yet even if Ottoman power seemed to wane on one side of the empire, this did not mean that Ottoman efforts at expansion ceased. In 1700, for example, the Grand Vizier Amcazade Hüseyin boasted to a recalcitrant tribe residing in swamps near Baghdad that they ought to abide by the sultan's rule, since his grasp extended even to their marshy redoubts. The Grand Vizier added that, after all, Mustafa II was "the Lord of Water and Mud."[7]

At the end of his reign, Mustafa II sought to restore power to the Sultanate, which had been an increasingly symbolic position since the middle of the 17th century, when Mehmed IV had signed over his executive powers to the Grand Vizier. Mustafa II's strategy was to create an alternative base of power for himself by making the position of timars, the Ottoman cavalrymen, hereditary and thus loyal to him. The timars, however, were at this point increasingly an obsolete part of the Ottoman military machine.

The strategem failed, the disaffected troops bound to a Georgian campaign mutinied in the capital (called the "Edirne event" by historians), and Mustafa II was deposed on 22 August 1703. He died at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.

Family[edit]

Consorts
Sons
  • Mahmud I (2 August 1696 – 13 December 1754), son with Saliha Sultan;[8]
  • Şehzade Suleiman (25 December 1697 – 25 December 1697, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in New Mosque), son with Afife Kadın;[8]
  • Şehzade Mehmed (22 November 1698 – 5 June 1703, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in New Mosque), son with Afife Kadın;[8]
  • Osman III (2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757), son with Şehsuvar Sultan;[8]
  • Şehzade Hasan (27 March 1699 – May 1733), became heir apparent from 1730.
  • Şehzade Hüseyn (7 May 1699 – 24 August 1700, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in New Mosque);
  • Şehzade Selim (16 May 1700 – 8 June 1701, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in New Mosque), son with Afife Kadın;[8]
  • Şehzade Ahmed (3 March 1703 – 7 September 1703, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque), son with Afife Kadın;[8]
Daughters
  • Ayşe Sultan (30 March 1696 – 26 September 1752, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Emine Sultan (1 September 1696 – 1739, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Safiye Sultan (13 December 1696 – 15 May 1778, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Ismihan Sultan (5 April 1697 – 19 July 1747, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque);
  • Rukiye Sultan (13 November 1697 – 28 March 1698, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque);
  • Hatice Sultan (14 February 1698 – died young, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque);
  • Fatma Sultan (8 October 1699 – 20 May 1700, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Ismihan Sultan (23 April 1700 – 1 June 1700);
  • Ümmügülsüm Sultan (10 June 1700 – 1 May 1701, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque);
  • Zeyneb Sultan (10 June 1700 – 18 December 1705, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Emetullah Sultan (22 June 1701 – 12 April 1727, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baker, Anthony E (1993). The Bosphorus. Redhouse Press. p. 146. ISBN 975-413-062-0. The Valide Sultan was born Evmania Voria, daughter of a Greek priest in a village near Rethymnon on Crete. She was captured by the Turks when they took Rethymnon in 1645.
  2. ^ Bromley, J. S. (1957). The New Cambridge Modern History. University of California: University Press. p. 554. ISBN 0-521-22128-5. the mother of Mustafa II and Ahmed III was a Cretan
  3. ^ Sardo, Eugenio Lo (1999). Tra greci e turchi: fonti diplomatiche italiane sul Settecento ottomano. Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche. p. 82. ISBN 88-8080-014-0. Their mother, a Cretan, lady named Rabia Gulnus, continued to wield influence as the Walide Sultan - mother of the reigning sultan
  4. ^ Library Information and Research Service (2005). The Middle East. Library Information and Research Service. p. 91. She was the daughter of a Cretan (Greek) family and she was the mother of Mustafa II (1664–1703), and Ahmed III (1673–1736).
  5. ^ a b c d Bilgi
  6. ^ Somel, Selcuk Aksin. Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. Scarecrow Press, 2003. p. XIIV chronology. ISBN 0810866064.
  7. ^ Husain, Faisal (October 2014). "In the Bellies of the Marshes: Water and Power in the Countryside of Ottoman Baghdad". Environmental History.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Majer, Hans Georg (1992). Osmanlı Araştırmaları XII (The Journal of Ottoman Studies XII): The harem of Mustafa II (1695–1703). pp. 435–7, 438.

Sources[edit]

  • Abou-El-Haj, R. A. (1974). "The Narcissism of Mustafa II (1695–1703): A Psychohistorical Study". Studia Islamica (40): pp.&nbsp, 115–131.

External links[edit]

Mustafa II
Born: February 6, 1664 Died: December 28, 1703[aged 39]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ahmed II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Feb 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703
Succeeded by
Ahmed III
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Ahmed II
Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
Feb 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703
Succeeded by
Ahmed III