Nasal palatal approximant
|Nasal palatal approximant|
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨j̃⟩, that is, a j with a tilde. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
j~, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨ỹ⟩.
The nasal palatal approximant is sometimes called a nasal yod; [j̃] and [w̃] may be called nasal glides.
Features of the nasal palatal approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, in this case in addition to through the mouth.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
[j̃], written ny, is a common realization of /j/ before nasal vowels in many languages of West Africa that do not have a phonemic distinction between voiced nasal and oral stops, such as Ewe and Bini.
|Hindustani||संयम / sanyama||[səj̃jəm]||'patience'|
|Kaingang||[j̃ũ]||'brave'||Possible word-initial realization of /j/ before a nasal vowel.|
|Lombard||bisògn de||[biˈzɔj̃ d̪e]||'need for (sth)'|
|Portuguese||Brazilian||sonho||[ˈsõj̃ʊ]||'dream'||Allophone of /ɲ/ between vowels, nasalizes the preceding vowel. Language's original /ɲ/ sound. See Portuguese phonology|
|Most dialects||cães||[kɐ̃j̃s]||'dogs'||Allophone of /j/ after nasal vowels.|
|Some dialects||me ame!||[ˈmj̃ɐ̃mi]||'love me!'||Non-syllabic allophone of /i/ between nasal sounds.|
|Shipibo||[example needed]||Allophone of /j/ after nasal vowels.|
- Palatal nasal
- Nasal labio-velar approximant
- Labiodental nasal, which may be an approximant in the one language in which it is phonemic
- Voiceless nasal glottal approximant
- Index of phonetics articles
- Canepari, Luciano (2005), "Hindi", A Handbook of Pronunciation, Lincom Europa, p. 335
- Gussman, Edmund (2007), The Phonology of Polish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-926747-7
- Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685
- Mattos e Silva, Rosa (1991), O Português arcaico – fonologia, Contexto
- Perini, Mário Alberto (2002), Modern Portuguese (A Reference Grammar), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-09155-7
- Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109
- Vigário, Marina (2003), The Prosodic Word in European Portuguese, De Gruyter Mouton, ISBN 978-3-11-017713-8
- List of languages with [j̃] on PHOIBLE