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National Diet

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National Diet
国会
Kokkai
The 193rd Ordinary Session
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Houses
Leadership
Tadamori Oshima, LDP
Since April 21, 2015
Masaaki Yamazaki, LDP
Since August 2, 2013
Structure
Seats 717
第24回参議院議員通常選挙.svg
House of Councillors political groups

Government (150)

  LDP (124)
  Kōmeitō (25)
  PJK (1)

Opposition (92)

  DP (47)
  JCP (14)
  Initiatives (11)
  Kibo (3)
  SDP (2)
  PLP (2)
  Energize (2)
  Independents (5)
House of Representatives Japan Since 2017.svg
House of Representatives political groups

Government (312)

  LDP (283)
  Kōmeitō (29)

Opposition (152)

  CDP (54)
  Kibo (51)
  JCP (12)
  Nippon Ishin (11)
  SDP (2)
  Liberal (2)
  Independents (21)
Elections
House of Councillors last election
10 July 2016 (24th)
22 October 2017 (48th)
Meeting place
Diet of Japan Kokkai 2009.jpg
National Diet Building, Nagatachō, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
Website
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Japan
Flag of Japan.svg Japan portal

The National Diet (国会, Kokkai)[1][2] is Japan's bicameral legislature. It is composed of a lower house called the House of Representatives, and an upper house, called the House of Councillors. Both houses of the Diet are directly elected under parallel voting systems. In addition to passing laws, the Diet is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister. The Diet was first convened as the Imperial Diet in 1889 as a result of adopting the Meiji Constitution. The Diet took its current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the post-war constitution and is considered by the Constitution to be the highest organ of state power. The National Diet Building is located in Nagatachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Composition[edit]

The houses of the Diet are both elected under parallel voting systems. This means that the seats to be filled in any given election are divided into two groups, each elected by a different method; the main difference between the houses is in the sizes of the two groups and how they are elected. Voters are also asked to cast two votes: one for an individual candidate in a constituency, and one for a party list. Any national of Japan at least 18 years of age may vote in these elections.[3] The age of 18 replaced 20 in 2016.[4] Japan's parallel voting system is not to be confused with the Additional Member System used in many other nations. The Constitution of Japan does not specify the number of members of each house of the Diet, the voting system, or the necessary qualifications of those who may vote or be returned in parliamentary elections, thus allowing all of these things to be determined by law. However it does guarantee universal adult suffrage and a secret ballot. It also insists that the electoral law must not discriminate in terms of "race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income".[5]

Generally, the election of Diet members is controlled by statutes passed by the Diet. This is a source of contention concerning re-apportionment of prefectures' seats in response to changes of population distribution. For example, the Liberal Democratic Party had controlled Japan for most of its post-war history, and it gained much of its support from rural areas. During the post-war era, large numbers of people were relocating to the urban centers in the seeking of wealth; though some re-apportionments have been made to the number of each prefecture's assigned seats in the Diet, rural areas generally have more representation than do urban areas.[6] The Supreme Court of Japan began exercising judicial review of apportionment laws following the Kurokawa decision of 1976, invalidating an election in which one district in Hyōgo Prefecture received five times the representation of another district in Osaka Prefecture. The Supreme Court has since indicated that the highest electoral imbalance permissible under Japanese law is 3:1, and that any greater imbalance between any two districts is a violation of Article 14 of the Constitution.[7] In recent elections the malapportionment ratio amounted to 4.8 in the House of Councillors (census 2005: Ōsaka/Tottori;[8] election 2007: Kanagawa/Tottori[9]) and 2.3 in the House of Representatives (election 2009: Chiba 4/Kōchi 3).[10]

Candidates for the lower house must be 25 years old or older and 30 years or older for the upper house. All candidates must be Japanese nationals. Under Article 49 of Japan's Constitution, Diet members are paid about ¥1.3 million a month in salary. Each lawmaker is entitled to employ three secretaries with taxpayer funds, free Shinkansen tickets, and four round-trip airplane tickets a month to enable them to travel back and forth to their home districts.[11]

Powers[edit]

Article 41 of the Constitution describes the National Diet as "the highest organ of State power" and "the sole law-making organ of the State". This statement is in forceful contrast to the Meiji Constitution, which described the Emperor as the one who exercised legislative power with the consent of the Diet. The Diet's responsibilities include not only the making of laws but also the approval of the annual national budget that the government submits and the ratification of treaties. It can also initiate draft constitutional amendments, which, if approved, must be presented to the people in a referendum. The Diet may conduct "investigations in relation to government" (Article 62). The Prime Minister must be designated by Diet resolution, establishing the principle of legislative supremacy over executive government agencies (Article 67). The government can also be dissolved by the Diet if it passes a motion of no confidence introduced by fifty members of the House of Representatives. Government officials, including the Prime Minister and Cabinet members, are required to appear before Diet investigative committees and answer inquiries. The Diet also has the power to impeach judges convicted of criminal or irregular conduct.[5]

In most circumstances, in order to become law a bill must be first passed by both houses of the Diet and then promulgated by the Emperor. This role of the Emperor is similar to the Royal Assent in some other nations; however, the Emperor cannot refuse to promulgate a law and therefore his legislative role is merely a formality.[12]

The House of Representatives is the more powerful chamber of the Diet.[13] While the House of Representatives cannot usually overrule the House of Councillors on a bill, the House of Councillors can only delay the adoption of a budget or a treaty that has been approved by the House of Representatives, and the House of Councillors has almost no power at all to prevent the lower house from selecting any Prime Minister it wishes. Furthermore, once appointed it is the confidence of the House of Representatives alone that the Prime Minister must enjoy in order to continue in office. The House of Representatives can overrule the upper house in the following circumstances:[14]

  • If a bill is adopted by the House of Representatives and then either rejected, amended or not approved within 60 days by the House of Councillors, then the bill will become law if again adopted by the House of Representatives by a majority of at least two-thirds of members present.[15]
  • If both houses cannot agree on a budget or a treaty, even through the appointment of a joint committee of the Diet, or if the House of Councillors fails to take final action on a proposed budget or treaty within 30 days of its approval by the House of Representatives, then the decision of the lower house is deemed to be that of the Diet.[15]
  • If both houses cannot agree on a candidate for Prime Minister, even through a joint committee, or if the House of Councillors fails to designate a candidate within 10 days of House of Representatives' decision, then the nominee of the lower house is deemed to be that of the Diet.

Activities[edit]

Under the Constitution, at least one session of the Diet must be convened each year. Technically, only the House of Representatives is dissolved before an election but while the lower house is in dissolution the House of Councillors is usually "closed". The Emperor both convokes the Diet and dissolves the House of Representatives but in doing so must act on the advice of the Cabinet. In an emergency the Cabinet can convoke the Diet for an extraordinary session, and an extraordinary session may be requested by one-quarter of the members of either house.[16] At the beginning of each parliamentary session the Emperor reads a special speech from his throne in the chamber of the House of Councillors.[17]

The presence of one-third of the membership of either house constitutes a quorum[16] and deliberations are in public unless at least two-thirds of those present agree otherwise. Each house elects its own presiding officer who casts the deciding vote in the event of a tie. Members of each house have certain protections against arrest while the Diet is in session and words spoken and votes cast in the Diet enjoy parliamentary privilege. Each house of the Diet determines its own standing orders and has responsibility for disciplining its own members. A member may be expelled, but only by a two-thirds majority vote. Every member of the Cabinet has the right to appear in either house of the Diet for the purpose of speaking on bills, and each house has the right to compel the appearance of Cabinet members.

History[edit]

Japan's first modern legislature was the Imperial Diet (帝国議会, Teikoku-gikai) established by the Meiji Constitution in force from 1889 to 1947. The Meiji Constitution was adopted on February 11, 1889 and the Imperial Diet first met on November 29, 1890 when the document entered into operation. The Diet consisted of a House of Representatives and a House of Peers (貴族院, Kizoku-in). The House of Representatives was directly elected, if on a limited franchise; universal adult male suffrage was introduced in 1925. The House of Peers, much like the British House of Lords, consisted of high-ranking nobles.[18]

The word diet derives from Latin and was a common name for an assembly in medieval Germany. The Meiji constitution was largely based on the form of constitutional monarchy found in nineteenth century Prussia and the new Diet was modeled partly on the German Reichstag and partly on the British Westminster system. Unlike the post-war constitution, the Meiji constitution granted a real political role to the Emperor, although in practice the Emperor's powers were largely directed by a group of oligarchs called the genrō or elder statesmen.[19]

To become law or bill, a constitutional amendment had to have the assent of both the Diet and the Emperor. This meant that while the Emperor could no longer legislate by decree he still had a veto over the Diet. The Emperor also had complete freedom in choosing the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, and so, under the Meiji constitution, Prime Ministers often were not chosen from and did not enjoy the confidence of the Diet.[18] The Imperial Diet was also limited in its control over the budget. While the Diet could veto the annual budget, if no budget was approved the budget of the previous year continued in force. This all changed with the new constitution after World War II.

The proportional representation system for the House of Councillors, introduced in 1982, was the first major electoral reform under the post-war constitution. Instead of choosing national constituency candidates as individuals, as had previously been the case, voters cast ballots for parties. Individual councillors, listed officially by the parties before the election, are selected on the basis of the parties' proportions of the total national constituency vote.[20] The system was introduced to reduce the excessive money spent by candidates for the national constituencies. Critics charged, however, that this new system benefited the two largest parties, the LDP and the Japan Socialist Party (now Social Democratic Party), which in fact had sponsored the reform.[21]

List of sessions[edit]

There are three types of sessions of the National Diet:[22]

  • R – jōkai (常会), regular sessions of the National Diet, often shortened to "regular National Diet" (tsūjō Kokkai). These are nowadays usually called in January, they last for 150 days and can be extended once.
  • E – rinjikai (臨時会), extraordinary sessions of the National Diet, often shortened to "extraordinary National Diet" (rinji Kokkai). These are often called in autumn, or in Summer after a regular election of the House of Councillors or after a full-term general election of the House of Representatives. Its length is negotiated between the two houses, it can be extended twice.
  • S – tokubetsukai (特別会), special sessions of the National Diet, often shortened to "special National Diet" (tokubetsu Kokkai). They are called only after a dissolution and early general election of the House of Representatives. Because the cabinet must resign after a House of Representatives election, the Diet always chooses a prime minister-designate in a special session (but inversely, not all PM elections take place in a special Diet). A special session can be extended twice.

HCES – There is a fourth type of legislative session: If the House of Representatives is dissolved, a National Diet cannot be convened. In urgent cases, the cabinet may invoke an emergency session (緊急集会, kinkyū shūkai) of the House of Councillors to take provisional decisions for the whole Diet. As soon as the whole National Diet convenes again, these decisions must be confirmed by the House of Representatives or become ineffective. Such emergency sessions have been called twice in history, in 1952 and 1953.[23]

Any session of the Diet may be cut short by a dissolution of the House of Representatives. In the table, this is listed simply as "(dissolution)"; the House of Councillors or the National Diet as such cannot be dissolved.

List of Diet sessions[24]
Diet Type Opened Closed Length in days
(originally scheduled+extension[s])
1st S May 20, 1947 December 9, 1947 204 (50+154)
2nd R December 10, 1947 July 5, 1948 209 (150+59)
3rd E October 11, 1948 November 30, 1948 51 (30+21)
4th R December 1, 1948 December 23, 1948
(dissolution)
23 (150)
5th S February 11, 1949 May 31, 1949 110 (70+40)
6th E October 25, 1949 December 3, 1949 40 (30+10)
7th R December 4, 1949 May 2, 1950 150
8th E July 21, 1950 July 31, 1950 20
9th E November 21, 1950 December 9, 1950 19 (18+1)
10th R December 10, 1950 June 5, 1951 178 (150+28)
11th E August 16, 1951 August 18, 1951 3
12th E October 10, 1951 November 30, 1951 52 (40+12)
13th R December 10, 1951 July 31, 1952 225 (150+85)
14th (ja) R August 26, 1952 August 28, 1952
(dissolution)
3 (150)
[HCES] August 31, 1952 August 31, 1952 [1]
15th (ja) S October 24, 1952 March 14, 1953
(dissolution)
142 (60+99)
[HCES] March 18, 1953 March 20, 1953 [3]
16th S May 18, 1953 August 10, 1953 85 (75+10)
17th E October 29, 1953 November 7, 1953 10 (7+3)
18th E November 30, 1953 December 8, 1953 9
19th R December 10, 1953 June 15, 1957 188 (150+38)
20th E November 30, 1954 December 9, 1954 10 (9+1)
21st R December 10, 1954 January 24, 1955
(dissolution)
46 (150)
22nd S March 18, 1955 July 30, 1955 135 (105+30)
23rd E November 22, 1955 December 16, 1955 25
24th R December 20, 1955 June 3, 1956 167 (150+17)
25th E November 12, 1956 December 13, 1956 32 (25+7)
26th R December 20, 1956 May 19, 1957 151 (150+1)
27th E November 1, 1957 November 14, 1957 14 (12+2)
28th R December 20, 1957 April 25, 1958
(dissolution)
127 (150)
29th S June 10, 1958 July 8, 1958 29 (25+4)
30th E September 29, 1958 December 7, 1958 70 (40+30)
31st R December 10, 1958 May 2, 1959 144
32nd E June 22, 1959 July 3, 1959 12
33rd E October 26, 1959 December 27, 1959 63 (60+13)
34th R December 29, 1959 July 15, 1960 200 (150+50)
35th E July 18, 1960 July 22, 1960 5
36th E October 17, 1960 October 24, 1960
(dissolution)
8 (10)
37th S December 5, 1960 December 22, 1960 18
38th R December 26, 1960 June 8, 1961 165 (150+15)
39th E September 25, 1961 October 31, 1961 37
40th R December 9, 1961 May 7, 1962 150
41st E August 4, 1962 September 2, 1962 30
42nd E December 8, 1962 December 23, 1962 16 (12+4)
43rd R December 24, 1962 July 6, 1963 195 (150+45)
44th E October 15, 1963 October 23, 1963
(dissolution)
9 (30)
45th S December 4, 1963 December 18, 1963 15
46th R December 20, 1963 June 26, 1964 190 (150+40)
47th E November 9, 1964 December 18, 1964 40
48th R December 21, 1964 June 1, 1965 163 (150+13)
49th E July 22, 1965 August 11, 1965 21
50th E October 5, 1965 December 13, 1965 70
51st R December 20, 1965 June 27, 1966 190 (150+40)
52nd E July 11, 1966 July 30, 1966 20
53rd E November 30, 1966 December 20, 1966 21
54th (ja) R December 27, 1966 December 27, 1966
(dissolution)
1 (150)
55th S February 15, 1967 July 21, 1967 157 (136+21)
56th E July 27, 1967 August 18, 1967 23 (15+8)
57th E December 4, 1967 December 23, 1967 20
58th R December 27, 1967 June 3, 1968 160 (150+10)
59th E August 1, 1968 August 10, 1968 10
60th E December 10, 1968 December 21, 1968 12
61st R December 27, 1968 August 5, 1969 222 (150+72)
62nd E November 29, 1969 December 2, 1969
(dissolution)
4 (14)
63rd S January 14, 1970 May 13, 1970 120
64th (ja) E November 24, 1970 December 18, 1970 25
65th R December 26, 1970 May 24, 1971 150
66th E July 14, 1971 July 24, 1971 11
67th E October 16, 1971 December 27, 1971 73 (70+3)
68th R December 29, 1971 June 16, 1972 171 (150+21)
69th E July 6, 1972 July 12, 1972 7
70th E October 27, 1972 November 13, 1972
(dissolution)
18 (21)
71st (ja) S December 22, 1972 September 27, 1973 280 (150+130)
72nd R December 1, 1973 June 3, 1974 185 (150+35)
73rd E July 24, 1974 July 31, 1974 8
74th E December 9, 1974 December 25, 1974 17
75th R December 27, 1974 July 4, 1975 190 (150+40)
76th E September 11, 1975 December 25, 1975 106 (75+31)
77th R December 27, 1975 May 24, 1976 150
78th E September 16, 1976 November 4, 1976 50
79th E December 24, 1976 December 28, 1976 5
80th R December 30, 1976 June 9, 1977 162 (150+12)
81st E July 27, 1977 August 3, 1977 8
82nd E September 29, 1977 November 25, 1977 58 (40+18)
83rd E December 7, 1977 December 10, 1977 4
84th R December 19, 1977 June 16, 1978 180 (150+30)
85th E September 18, 1978 October 21, 1978 34
86th E December 6, 1978 December 12, 1978 7
87th R December 22, 1978 June 14, 1979 175 (150+25)
88th E August 30, 1979 September 7, 1979
(dissolution)
9 (30)
89th S October 30, 1979 November 16, 1979 18
90th E November 26, 1979 December 11, 1979 16
91st R December 21, 1979 May 19, 1980
(dissolution)
151 (150+9)
92nd S July 17, 1980 July 26, 1980 10
93rd E September 29, 1980 November 29, 1980 62 (50+12)
94th R December 22, 1980 June 6, 1981 167 (150+17)
95th E September 27, 1981 November 28, 1981 66 (55+11)
96th (ja) R December 21, 1981 August 21, 1982 244 (150+94)
97th E November 26, 1982 December 25, 1982 30 (25+5)
98th R December 28, 1982 May 26, 1983 150
99th E July 18, 1983 July 23, 1983 6
100th E September 8, 1983 November 28, 1983
(dissolution)
82 (70+12)
101st S December 26, 1983 August 8, 1984 227 (150+77)
102nd R December 1, 1984 June 25, 1985 207 (150+57)
103rd E October 14, 1985 December 21, 1985 69 (62+7)
104th R December 24, 1985 May 22, 1986 150
105th (ja) E June 2, 1986 June 2, 1986
(dissolution)
1
106th S July 22, 1986 July 25, 1986 4
107th E September 11, 1986 July 25, 1986 4
108th R December 29, 1986 May 27, 1987 150
109th E July 6, 1987 September 19, 1987 76 (65+11)
110th E November 6, 1987 November 11, 1987 6
111th E November 27, 1987 December 12, 1987 16
112th R December 28, 1987 May 25, 1988 150
113th E July 19, 1988 December 28, 1988 163 (70+93)
114th R December 30, 1988 June 22, 1989 175 (150+25)
115th E August 7, 1989 August 12, 1989 6
116th E September 28, 1989 December 16, 1989 80
117th R December 25, 1989 January 24, 1990
(dissolution)
31 (150)
118th S February 27, 1990 June 26, 1990 120
119th E October 12, 1990 November 10, 1990 30
120th R December 10, 1990 May 8, 1991 150
121st E August 5, 1991 October 4, 1991 61
122nd E November 5, 1991 December 21, 1991 47 (36+11)
123rd R January 24, 1992 June 21, 1992 150
124th E August 7, 1992 August 11, 1992 5
125th E October 30, 1992 December 10, 1992 42 (40+2)
126th R January 22, 1993 June 18, 1993
(dissolution)
148 (150)
127th S August 5, 1993 August 28, 1993 24 (10+14)
128th E September 17, 1993 January 29, 1994 135 (90+45)
129th R January 31, 1994 June 29, 1994 150
130th E July 18, 1994 July 22, 1994 5
131st E September 30, 1994 December 9, 1994 71 (65+6)
132nd R January 20, 1995 June 18, 1995 150
133rd E August 4, 1995 August 8, 1995 5
134th E September 29, 1995 December 15, 1995 78 (46+32)
135th E January 11, 1996 January 13, 1996 3
136th (ja) R January 22, 1996 June 19, 1996 150
137th E September 27, 1996 September 27, 1996
(dissolution)
1
138th S November 7, 1996 November 12, 1996 6
139th E November 29, 1996 December 18, 1996 20
140th R January 20, 1997 June 18, 1997 150
141st E September 29, 1997 December 12, 1997 75
142nd R January 12, 1998 June 18, 1998 158 (150+8)
143rd (ja) E July 30, 1998 October 16, 1998 79 (70+9)
144th E November 27, 1998 December 14, 1998 18
145th R January 19, 1999 August 13, 1999 207 (150+57)
146th E October 29, 1999 December 15, 1999 48
147th R January 20, 2000 June 2, 2000
(dissolution)
135 (150)
148th (ja) S July 4, 2000 July 6, 2000 3
149th E July 28, 2000 August 9, 2000 13
150th E September 21, 2000 December 1, 2000 72
151st R January 31, 2001 June 29, 2001 150
152nd E August 7, 2001 August 10, 2001 4
153rd E September 27, 2001 December 7, 2001 72
154th R January 21, 2002 July 31, 2002 192 (150+42)
155th E October 18, 2002 December 13, 2002 57
156th R January 20, 2003 July 28, 2003 190 (150+40)
157th E September 29, 2003 October 10, 2003
(dissolution)
15 (36)
158th S November 19, 2003 November 27, 2003 9
159th R January 19, 2004 June 16, 2004 150
160th E July 30, 2004 August 6, 2004 8
161st E October 12, 2004 December 3, 2004 53
162nd R January 21, 2005 August 8, 2005
(dissolution)
200 (150+55)
163rd (ja) S September 21, 2005 November 1, 2005 42
164th (ja) R January 20, 2006 June 18, 2006 150
165th (ja) S September 26, 2006 December 19, 2006 85 (81+4)
166th (ja) R January 25, 2007 July 5, 2007 162 (150+12)
167th (ja) E August 7, 2007 August 10, 2007 4
168th (ja) E September 10, 2007 January 15, 2008 128 (62+66)
169th (ja) R January 18, 2008 June 21, 2008 156 (150+6)
170th (ja) E September 24, 2008 December 25, 2008 93 (68+25)
171st (ja) R January 5, 2009 July 21, 2009
(dissolution)
198 (150+55)
172nd (ja) S September 16, 2009 September 19, 2009 4
173rd (ja) E October 26, 2009 December 4, 2009 40 (36+4)
174th (ja) R January 18, 2010 June 16, 2010 150
175th (ja) E July 30, 2010 August 6, 2010 8
176th (ja) E October 1, 2010 December 3, 2010 64
177th (ja) R January 24, 2011 August 31, 2011 220 (150+70)
178th (ja) E September 13, 2011 September 30, 2011 18 (4+14)
179th (ja) E October 20, 2011 December 9, 2011 51
180th (ja) R January 24, 2012 September 8, 2012 229 (150+79)
181st (ja) E October 29, 2012 November 16, 2012
(dissolution)
19 (33)
182nd (ja) S December 26, 2012 December 28, 2012 3
183rd (ja) R January 28, 2013 June 26, 2013 150
184th (ja) E August 2, 2013 August 7, 2013 6
185th (ja) E October 15, 2013 December 8, 2013 55 (53+2)
186th (ja) R January 24, 2014 June 22, 2014 150
187th (ja) E September 29, 2014 November 21, 2014
(dissolution)
54 (63)
188th (ja) S December 24, 2014 December 26, 2014 3
189th (ja) R January 26, 2015 September 27, 2015 245 (150+95)
190th (ja) R January 4, 2016 June 1, 2016 150
191st (ja) E August 1, 2016 August 3, 2016 3
192nd (ja) E September 26, 2016 December 17, 2016 83 (66+17)
193rd (ja) R January 20, 2017 June 18, 2017 150
194th (ja) E September 28, 2017 September 28, 2017
(dissolution)
1
195th (ja) S November 1, 2017 [December 9, 2017] running (39)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "House of Councillors The National Diet of Japan". www.sangiin.go.jp. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  2. ^ "Diet functions". www.shugiin.go.jp. Retrieved 2017-09-09. 
  3. ^ Japan Guide Coming of Age (seijin no hi) Retrieved June 8, 2007.
  4. ^ "Diet enacts law lowering voting age to 18 from 20". The Japan Times. 
  5. ^ a b National Diet Library. Constitution of Japan. Published 1947. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  6. ^ U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies Japan – Electoral System. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
  7. ^ Goodman, Carl. Japan's changing view toward civil litigation[dead link]. Published Summer of 2001. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
  8. ^ National Diet Library Issue Brief, March 11, 2008: 参議院の一票の格差・定数是正問題 Retrieved December 17, 2009.
  9. ^ nikkei.net, September 29, 2009: 1票の格差、大法廷30日判決 07年参院選4.86倍 Retrieved December 17, 2009.
  10. ^ Asahi Shimbun, August 18, 2009: 有権者98万人増 「一票の格差」2.3倍に拡大 Retrieved December 17, 2002.
  11. ^ Fukue, Natsuko, "The basics of being a lawmaker at the Diet", The Japan Times, January 4, 2011, p. 3.
  12. ^ House of Councillors. Legislative Procedure. Published 2001. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  13. ^ Asia Times Online Japan: A political tsunami approaches. By Hisane Masaki. Published July 6, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  14. ^ "Diet | Japanese government". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-22. 
  15. ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan Disagreement between the Two Houses. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
  16. ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan Sessions of the Diet. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
  17. ^ House of Representatives of Japan Opening Ceremony and Speeches on Government Policy. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
  18. ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan From Imperial Diet to National Diet. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  19. ^ Henkin, Louis and Albert J. Rosenthal Constitutionalism and Rights: : the Influence of the United States Constitution Abroad. Page 424. Published 1990. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-06570-1
  20. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication. Chapter 27 – Government Employees and Elections. Published 2003. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
  21. ^ Library of Congress County Data. Japan – The Legislature. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
  22. ^ House of Councillors: 国会の召集と会期
  23. ^ House of Councillors: 参議院の緊急集会
  24. ^ House of Representatives: 国会会期一覧

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 35°40′33″N 139°44′42″E / 35.67583°N 139.74500°E / 35.67583; 139.74500