National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
|National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad|
|ⵜⴰⵏⴾⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⴹ ⴰⵙⵍⴰⵍⵓ ⵏ ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴰⴷ|
الحركة الوطنية لتحرير أزواد
Mouvement national de libération de l'Azawad
|Leaders||Bilal Ag Acherif (General Secretary)|
Mahmoud Ag Aghaly (President of the political bureau)
Mohamed Ag Najem (head of military operations)
Moussa Ag Acharatoumane
Ibrahim Ag Bahanga
|Dates of operation||October 2011 – present|
|Active regions||Azawad/northern Mali|
|Size||9,000–10,000 (MNLA sources)|
|Allies|| Libya (under Jamahiriya) (2011)|
Libya (under NTC) (2011–2012)
Ansar Dine (2011–2012)
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (alleged)
Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa
Ansar Dine (since June 2012)
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (since 2012)
|Battles and wars||2012–present Northern Mali conflict|
The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad or the Azawad National Liberation Movement (Tamasheq: ⵜⴰⵏⴾⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⴹ ⴰⵙⵍⴰⵍⵓ ⵏ ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴷ Tankra n Tumast ḍ Aslalu n Azawd; Arabic: الحركة الوطنية لتحرير أزواد al-Ḥarakat al-Waṭaniyat Litaḥrīr ʾĀzawād; French: Mouvement national de libération de l'Azawad, MNLA), formerly the National Movement of Azawad (French: Mouvement national de l'Azawad, MNA), is a political and military organisation based in Azawad in northern Mali.
The movement is mostly made up of ethnic Tuareg, some of whom are believed to have fought in the Libyan army during the 2011 Libyan Civil War (though other Tuareg MNLA fighters were on the side of the National Transitional Council and returned to Mali after that war). The movement was founded in October 2011 and had stated that it includes other Saharan peoples.
The Malian government has accused the movement of having links to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. The MNLA denies this claim. By 1 April 2012 the MNLA and Ansar Dine were in control of virtually all of northern Mali, including its three largest cities of Kidal, Gao, and Timbuktu. Tensions between the MNLA and Ansar Dine culminated in the Battle of Gao, in which the MNLA lost control of northern Malian cities to Ansar Dine and the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa.
Since 1916 there have been at least five Tuareg rebellions. After the failure of the 2007–2009 rebellion in northern Niger and Mali, some Tuareg fighters left for Libya where they were integrated into the Libyan Army. At the end of 2011, following the defeat of Libyan Arab Jamahiriya several Tuareg from the Libyan Army and the rebel National Transitional Council returned to the Azawad regions of northern Mali. Many fighters returned from Libya for either financial reasons, such as losing their savings, or due to the alleged racism of NTC fighters and militias.
The MNLA was said to have been formed after a fusion of such groups as the Northern Mali Tuareg Movement. An alleged influx of arms intended for rebels in Libya led to a huge cache in the largely ungoverned desert areas around where the Tuareg live and causing concern that much of the heavy weaponry remains unaccounted for and could be sold to the highest bidder.
Though some analysis has denied the connections to either Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) or Muammar Gaddafi and the Libyan Civil War, although the potency of this rebellion was still read as being influenced from weapons from Libya, as well as leftovers from previous rebellions in Azawad and even from Mali's army which were taken by defecting Arab and Tuareg personnel.
The group is considered to be secular. The Tuareg fighters within the ranks of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad have been considered former allies of Muammar Gaddafi which may have organized after the Tuareg Rebellion between 2007 and 2009.
The MNLA was founded in October 2011; though it is sometimes considered to have been founded more than a year earlier in relation to other such groups. The MNLA have presented themselves as a movement for the liberation of all the peoples of Azawad (Songhai, Arab, Fula and Tuareg). There were also rumours that the group has been supported by battle-hardened Tuaregs from Niger. On the subject of its composition, the MNLA has declared:
The MNLA (National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad) would like to make it clear that within the MNLA military command there are: old rebels from the uprisings of the 1990s (MFUA – Movements of the united Fronts of Azawad), of 2006 (MTNM – The Tuareg Movement of Northern Mali, which was led by the late Ibrahim Ag Bahanga), fighters who have returned from Libya but who mostly participated in the liberation of that country, volunteers from the various ethnicities of northern Mali (Tuareg, Songhai, Peul and Moor) and both soldiers and officers who have deserted from the Malian army.— Official Website of the MNLA
The MNLA was rumoured to have factionalised, according to the sources in the Malian government, with the Islamist Ansar Dine claiming control of the region after the capture of several cities, previously attributed to the MNLA. Though the international media has linked the MNLA to Ansar Dine and AQIM, the MNLA has distanced itself from both groups, stating that their sole goal is the independence of Azawad. However, after the fall of Timbuktu it said that Azawad would be governed along with Ansar Dine. On 26 May, the MNLA and Ansar Dine announced a pact in which they would merge to form an Islamist state, renamed the Islamic Republic of Azawad.
In January, its fighters attacked Andéramboukane, Menaka, Tessalit, Niafunke, and Aguelhoc. They were reported to be in control of parts of northern Mali, such as Menaka on 1 February. During that time the movement was said to have opened a fifth front in the town of Lere. At the end of January, they claimed to have shot down a Malian Air Force Mig-21 with the surface-to-air missiles acquired from NATO arms drops over Libya. The military of Mali have also used helicopter gunships to target the group.
On 4 February 2012, the movement's fighters attacked government forces in Kidal with the aim of taking control of the town and occupying the two military bases there. Further towns were seized and re-seized over the course of February and March. At the same time, following clashes in the north, Tuareg civilians were said to have left Bamako for fear of reprisals. The International Committee of the Red Cross also said that 3,500 people had fled across the border to Mauritania and that 10,000 people had crossed into Niger during the clashes.
On 8 February 2012, Tinzawaten was wrested from central government control after Malian troops took a "tactical withdrawal" following the death of one soldier and injuries to two other soldiers, amid calls by the United Nations for a halt to the offensive. One rebel was also killed and another was wounded, while the MNLA seized two military bases and the weapons storages there. The ICRC added that there were 30,000 internally displaced persons, while the UN said that over 20,000 people have fled to Burkina Faso, Algeria and Mauritania. The United Nations also warned of food shortages as a result of the fighting. The UN refugee agency estimated 22,000 people had been displaced in February.
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) planned to send a team to investigate the violence. It also condemned their actions and called for logistical support for Mali. After the March coup d'etat the MNLA, as well as Ansar Dine, took control of several small towns and also the bigger cities of Kidal, Gao, and Timbuktu. Timbuktu was read by Reuters of being the culmination of the plan to capture northern Mali. The MNLA announced that by taking Timbuktu it sought to "dislodge Mali's remaining political and military administration" in the region and said that it would rule the region with Ansar Dine in opposition to the administration in Bamako.
On 6 April, in an interview with France 24, an MNLA spokesman declared the independence of Azawad as an independent state and said the movement would act as a provisional administration until the establishment of a government.
Mali is an anarchic state. Therefore we have gathered a national liberation movement to put in an army capable of securing our land and an executive office capable of forming democratic institutions. We declare the independence of Azawad from this day on.— Mossa Ag Attaher, MLNA spokesman, 6 April 2012
In the same interview, Attaher also promised that Azawad would "respect all the colonial frontiers that separate Azawad from its neighbours" and insisted that Azawad's declaration of independence has "some international legality". Two days following the declaration of independence, the Arab-dominated National Liberation Front of Azawad (FLNA) were formed to defend Timbuktu from alleged Tuareg domination.
Conflict with Islamist groups
Although both the MNLA and the various Islamist groups fought against a common foe (the Malian government) in the beginning of the conflict, there were deep ideological differences between them. The goal of the MNLA, to establish a secular and independent state of Azawad out of Northern Mali, contrasted sharply with the aims of the Islamist groups, who wanted a united Mali under Sharia law. Once the Malian government's forces had been evicted the region, the two ideological camps began to turn against each other.
On 26 May, the MNLA and Ansar Dine announced a pact in which they would merge to form an Islamist state. However, some later reports indicated the MNLA had decided to withdraw from the pact, distancing itself from Ansar Dine.
On 26 June 2012, the tension came to all-out combat in Gao between the MNLA and the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA), with both sides firing heavy weapons. MNLA Secretary General Bilal ag Acherif was wounded in the battle. The MNLA were soon driven from the city, and from Kidal and Timbuktu shortly after. However, the MNLA stated that it continued to maintain forces and control some rural areas in the region. The following day, Ansar Dine announced that it was in control of all the cities of northern Mali.
At first, the MNLA retained control of the city of Ménaka, with hundreds of people taking refuge in the city from the rule of the Islamists, and the city of Tinzawatène near the Algerian border. In the same month, a splinter group broke off from the MNLA; calling itself the Front for the Liberation of the Azawad (FPA), stating that Tuareg independence was no longer a realistic goal and that they must concentrate on fighting the Islamists.
On 16 November 2012, MNLA forces launched an offensive against Gao in an attempt to retake the town. However, by the end of the day, the Tuaregs were beaten back by the MOJWA forces after the Islamists laid an ambush for them. On 19 November 2012, MOJWA and AQIM forces took over Ménaka from the MNLA.
On 14 January 2013, after the French intervention in the conflict had commenced, the MNLA declared it would fight alongside the French and even the Malian government to "end terrorism in Azawad". At the same time the MNLA warned the Malian forces not to enter territories it considered its own before an autonomy agreement was signed. The spokesman also declared that the MNLA would be a more effective force than those of the neighboring West African nations "because of our knowledge of the ground and the populations".
Return of Malian troops to Azawad
Following the French intervention in Mali, Malian troops and the MNLA signed a peace agreement. This allowed for Malian troops to return to such cities as Kidal. There were still reports of conflict between those who supported the presence of the 200 Malian soldiers at a local barracks and those that supported the MNLA, who sought to keep Malian soldiers out. Kidal's Deputy Mayor Abda Ag Kazina said: "The Malian army arrived in Kidal. There were two demonstrations, one was to support the army and the other was to prevent the army from returning. There were shots fired in the air and the protesters dispersed."
On 28 November 2013, after a few hundreds Tuareg protesters were violently confronted by Malian soldiers over the visit of Malian Prime Minister Oumar Tatam Ly to MNLA-controlled Kidal, one of the MNLA founders, Attaye Ag Mohamed, said: "The political and military wings of the Azawad declare the lifting of the ceasefire with the central government in Bamako. All our military positions are on alert."
One of the founding leaders was said to be Moussa Ag Acharatoumane. Another influential leader in the group was Ibrahim Ag Bahanga (as well as his father-in-law Hama Ag Sid'Ahmed, who was also a spokesman for a group in the previous rebellion) from the 1990 and 2006 rebellions. After he was defeated and forced into exile in Libya, he was said to have met with other leaders of the 1990 rebellion who had taken up posts in a new unit of the Libyan army to fight desert warfare. Ibrahim sought to have a proficient force to fight against the Malian state and outside the media spotlight. He was killed on 26 August 2011.
One of the officers he had met in Libya was Colonel Ag Mohamed Najem, who is said by the movement to be the head of its military wing. He is of Malian origin but resigned from the Libyan Army shortly after the uprising to join the Tuareg rebellion in Mali. Colonel Dilal Ag Alsherif is another military leader of the movement.
There are said to be about 40 officers in the MNLA movement. There are also deserters from the Malian Army, including officers. Colonel Nagim is one such officer, who led the charge to capture two cities. The General Secretary of the movement is Bilal Ag Acherif. The spokesman for the MNLA's political wing is Hama Ag Mahmoud. Following the independence declaration, Mahmoud Ag Aghaly was appointed as the head of the interim Executive Committee of the MNLA that was said to govern Azawad.
Armed forces and equipment
Following their victory over the Malian army, the MNLA established their main base at the airport of Gao where they had stocked 30 functional tanks and 10 being repaired. An unnamed commander of the MNLA said that at the beginning they were mainly armed from weapons brought by fighters returning from Libya, but that later of their equipment was seized from the Malian army.
Ibrahim Ag Mohamed Assaleh, a former external relations representative of the MNLA, split off from the party in March 2014 and formed the Coalition for the People of Azawad. He was said to be frustrated at the hardline negotiations position Bilal Ag Acherif took when dealing with the Malian government.
- "Bureau Exécutif du Mouvement National de Libération de L'Azawad (MNLA)". Mnlamov. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- Mann, Gregory (5 April 2012), "The Mess in Mali", Foreign Policy, archived from the original on 29 October 2014, retrieved 10 March 2017
- "Images et témoignage exclusifs du nord du Mali: un colonel du MNLA dévoile son arsenal militaire" (in French). France24. 21 June 2012. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Mali government official says al-Qaida fighters among those attacking northern towns". The Washington Post. 27 January 2012. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Pflanz, Mike (1 April 2012), "Mali rebels seize Timbuktu", The Telegraph, London, archived from the original on 17 June 2018, retrieved 4 April 2018
Tuareg rebellion sparks crisis in Mali, Al Jazeera English, 18 February 2012, archived from the original on 5 April 2012, retrieved 2 April 2012
- "Mouvement National de Liberation de l'Azawad" (in French). Mnlamov. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Morgan, Andy (6 February 2012). "The Causes of the Uprising in Northern Mali". Think Africa Press. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- Vogl, Martin (31 January 2012). "Tuareg rebels attack 6th town in Mali". Google News. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 February 2012.[dead link]
- Stephen, Tankel (22 May 2018). With us and against us : how America's partners help and hinder the war on terror. New York. ISBN 9780231547345. OCLC 1037351563.
- Daniel, Serge (17 January 2012). "Mali army bombs Tuareg rebels, four arrested: military". Google News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Mali: 47 Die in Clashes Between Troops, Rebels". allafrica.com. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Mali's irrevocable crisis". Al Jazeera. 15 April 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "They are not mercenaries". Mnlamov. 22 January 2012. Archived from the original on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- [dead link]
- Oumar, Jemal; Ramzi, Walid (30 January 2012). "Loose Libyan missiles threaten air traffic". Magharebia. Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- Stewart, Scott (2 February 2012). "Returning Malian Mercenaries Present a Challenge for Mali and the West". The Cutting Edge News. Archived from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Mali coup leaders to stand down as part of Ecowas deal". BBC. 7 April 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- The People of Uganda: A Social Perspective - Godfrey Mwakikagile. ISBN 9789987160334. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Mali says rebels fight with Qaeda, rebels deny". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 27 January 2012. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- Vogl, Martin (26 January 2012). "In Mali, a Tuareg rebellion _ without Gadhafi". Google News. Associated Press. Retrieved 5 February 2012.[dead link]
- "Mali: Fighting In North; The New Touareg War". Eurasia Review. 20 January 2012. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- Jeremy Keenan (20 March 2012). "Mali's Tuareg rebellion: What next?". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- "Rupture entre le MNLA et Ançar Dine au nord du Mali" (in French). maliweb. RFI. 20 March 2012. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- "Armed Islamist group claims control in northeast Mali". Agence France Presse. 20 March 2012. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Warriors and websites – a new kind of rebellion in Mali?". IRIN. 26 March 2012. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Mali Tuareg and Islamist rebels agree on Sharia state". BBC News. 26 May 2012. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "JTIC Brief: MNLA re-awakens Tuareg separatism in Mali". Jane's Information Group. 2 February 2012. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Dozens of Tuareg rebels dead in Mali clash, says army". BBC. 20 January 2012. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Diallo, Tiemoko; Diarra, Adama (4 February 2012). "Mali says 20 rebels killed, thousands flee". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- Stewart, Scott (2 February 2012). "Mali Besieged by Fighters Fleeing Libya". Stratfor. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Tuareg rebels take Mali town after army pullout". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Tuareg rebels attack fifth town in Mali". Al Jazeera. 26 January 2012. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Heavy weapons fire rocks town in Mali's north". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 4 February 2012. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "UPDATE 1-Mali capital paralysed by anti-rebellion protests". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 2 February 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "UPDATE 1-Malian rebels seize key border town, civilians flee". Reuters. 9 February 2012. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "Malian refugees in Niger await food and water," Archived 13 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine AlJazeera (7 February 2012)
- Clottey, Peter (8 February 2012). "ECOWAS Team to Investigate Fighting in Mali". Voice of America. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "Mali News: ECOWAS warns Tuareg rebels". GlobalPost. 21 March 2012. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- Tiemoko Diallo and Adama Diarra (1 April 2012). "Mali rebels say surround Timbuktu, army flees". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- Mike Pflanz (1 April 2012). "Timbuktu encircled as Mali coup intensifies". London: Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- "Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali". Al Arabiya. 6 April 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Tuareg rebels declare independence in north Mali". France 24. 6 April 2012. Archived from the original on 8 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "New north Mali Arab force seeks to "defend" Timbuktu". Reuters. 10 April 2012. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- Biiga, Bark (3 June 2012). "Nord Mali: le MNLA refuse de se mettre "en sardine"!" (in French). FasoZine. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
- "Mali Islamists Reopen Talks With Tuareg Rebels". Voice of America. 2 June 2012. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Mali Islamists 'oust' Tuaregs from Timbuktu". News 24. Agence France-Presse. 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Zoe Flood (29 June 2012). "Trouble in Timbuktu as Islamists extend control". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Adam Nossiter (15 July 2012). "As Refugees Flee Islamists in Mali, Solutions Are Elusive". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- Tiemoko Diallo and Adama Diarra (28 June 2012). "Islamists declare full control of Mali's north". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Salima Tlemçani (11 October 2012). "The limits of military intervention". El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Brahima Ouedraogo (24 September 2012). "Mali's secular Tuareg rebels splinter, new group says independence unrealistic". The Star Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "New fighting breaks out in northern Mali". France 24. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "North Mali clashes kill dozens, some unarmed: source" Archived 1 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine Google News (AFP), 20 November 2012
- Hirsch, Afua; Willsher, Kim (14 January 2013). "Mali conflict: France has opened gates of hell, say rebels". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "Tuaregs promise to help defeat Mali rebels". Starafrica.Com. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "Mali's army returns to northern city of Kidal". Aljazeera. 6 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Mali's Tuareg fighters end ceasefire". Aljazeera. 30 November 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "The Associated Press: Mali state TV goes off air; fear of countercoup". 23 March 2012. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- "Après la prise de Tessalit: Le MNLA continue sa conquête du nord-Mali" (in French). Fratmat. 16 March 2012. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- "Tuareg rebels ready for Mali talks". Al Jazeera. 2 April 2012. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Communiqué du Président du bureau politique du MNLA, Mahmoud Ag Aghaly" (in French). Temoust. 1 April 2012. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Peggy Bruguière (21 June 2012). "Images et témoignage exclusifs du nord du Mali: un colonel du MNLA dévoile son arsenal militaire" (in French). France 24. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Andrew McGregor (4 April 2014). "New rebel movement declared in Northern Mali". Terrorism Monitor. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Official website (in French)