National anthem of Austria

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Bundeshymne der Republik Österreich
English: National Anthem of the Republic of Austria
Land der Berge, Land am Strome.jpg

National anthem of  Austria
Also known asLand der Berge, Land am Strome (English: Land of the mountains, land by the river)
LyricsPaula von Preradović, 1947 (modified in 2012)
MusicUnknown, probably either Johann Holzer [de] or Paul Wranitzky, 1791
Adopted1946 (as instrumental)
1947 (with lyrics)
Preceded by"Sei gesegnet ohne Ende" (as independent Austria)
"Deutschlandlied" and "Horst-Wessel-Lied" (as part of Germany)
Audio sample
"Bundeshymne der Republik Österreich" (instrumental, one verse)

The "National Anthem of the Republic of Austria" (German: "Bundeshymne der Republik Österreich", lit. Federal Hymn of [the] Republic [of] Austria), also known by its incipit "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (German pronunciation: [lant dɐ ˈbɛɐ̯ɡə lant ʔam ˈʃtʁoːmə]; English: "Land of mountains, land by the river"), is the national anthem of Austria.

History[edit]

Nineteen days before his death on 5 December 1791, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed his last complete work, the Freimaurerkantate, K. 623. In parts of the printed edition of this cantata there appeared the song K. 623a "Lasst uns mit geschlungnen Händen" ("Let us with joined hands"). To this melody the Austrian national anthem is sung. Today, Mozart's authorship is regarded as dubious and the song is attributed to Johann Holzer [de] (either solely or co-authored with Mozart)[1] or Paul Wranitzky.[2] The lyrics were written by Paula von Preradović, one of the few women to have written lyrics for a national anthem.[3] On 22 October 1946, the song was officially declared Austria's national anthem, albeit without words. Lyrics were added in February 1947. On 1 January 2012, parts of the lyrics were changed to make the composition gender-neutral.

Before the World War II Anschluss, Austria's state anthem was "Sei gesegnet ohne Ende", set to the tune of Haydn's "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser", the state anthem of imperial Austria since 1797. The current German national anthem "Deutschlandlied" uses the same tune, but with different words (it was also the co-national anthem of Germany during National Socialist rule). To avoid the association, and because singing it was banned for a time after the war, a new state anthem was created.

Attempts at gender-neutral language[edit]

Since the 1990s, several attempts have been made to modify the lyrics to use more gender-neutral language. In 2005, Women's Minister Maria Rauch-Kallat from the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) stated her objection to the words sons, fraternal and fatherland in the lyrics and proposed changes.[4] Her proposal met strong resistance by Austria's largest newspaper, the Kronen Zeitung, and failed to gain support from the then coalition partner, the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ).

In January 2010 Austrian pop singer Christina Stürmer presented a pop version of the hymn "Heimat bist du großer Söhne und Töchter" ("Thou art home to great sons and daughters")[5] as part of a campaign by the Austrian federal ministry of education. She was sued for violation of copyright by the estate of Paula von Preradović but subsequently cleared by the Austrian Supreme Court[6] who called it "a mere modernisation" and allowed the version to stand.

Since 1 January 2012 a few words in the state anthem are different from before. The line "Heimat bist du großer Söhne" was replaced by (metrically not fitting) "Heimat großer Töchter und Söhne". As a result, the anthem became gender-neutral. Also, the text and notes of the state anthem were officially codified in the "Bundesgesetz über die Bundeshymne der Republik Österreich" (English: Federal act about the federal anthem of the Republic of Austria).[7]

Lyrics[edit]

Land der Berge, Land am Strome,
Land der Äcker, Land der Dome,
Land der Hämmer, zukunftsreich!
Heimat großer Töchter und Söhne,
Volk, begnadet für das Schöne,
|: Vielgerühmtes Österreich! :|

Heiß umfehdet, wild umstritten,
Liegst dem Erdteil du inmitten
Einem starken Herzen gleich.
Hast seit frühen Ahnentagen
Hoher Sendung Last getragen,
|: Vielgeprüftes Österreich. :|

Mutig in die neuen Zeiten,
Frei und gläubig sieh uns schreiten,
Arbeitsfroh und hoffnungsreich.
Einig lass in Jubelchören,
Vaterland, dir Treue schwören.
|: Vielgeliebtes Österreich. :|

Land of mountains, land by the river,
Land of fields, land of cathedrals,
Land of hammers, with a promising future!
Home to great daughters and sons,
A nation highly blessed with beauty,
|: Much-praised Austria! :|

Strongly feuded for, fiercely hard-fought for,
You lie in the middle of the continent
Like a strong heart,
Since the early days of the ancestors thou hast
Borne the burden of a high mission,
|: Much-tried Austria. :|

Bravely towards the new ages
See us striding, free, and faithful,
Assiduous and full of hope,
Unified, let us in jolly choirs
Pledge allegiance to thee, Homeland
|: Much-beloved Austria. :|

Original (pre-2012) lyrics had the line Heimat bist du großer Söhne (Home art thou to great sons) instead of Heimat großer Töchter und Söhne on first verse as well as Brüderchören (fraternal choirs) instead of Jubelchören (jolly choirs) in the third verse. The anthem is currently sung to the following melody:


<<
  \new Voice="melody" \relative c'' {
    \autoBeamOff
    \override Score.BarNumber #'transparent = ##t
    %\voiceOne
    \language "deutsch"
    \key f \major
    \time 3/4
    % \override FirstVoice.DynamicText.direction = #UP
    c2^\f b4 a2 b8 [( c )]
    d2 c4 c8 [( b )] b4 r
    b2 a4 g2 a8 [( b )]
    c2 b4 b8 [( a )] a4 r
    h2 c4 d2 e4 f ( d ) h c2 r4
    g2^\p a4 c ( b ) g a2 d8 b a4 g r
    g2 a4 c ( b ) g a2 d8 [( b )] a4 g r
    b2^\f a4 d2 c4 c8 [ ( b ] a4 ) g a2 r4
    d2^\ff c4 e2 f8 [( c )] c [ ( b ] a4 ) g f2 r4
  }
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto "melody" {
  Land der Ber -- ge, Land am Stro -- me,
  Land der Äk -- ker, Land der Do -- me,
  Land der Häm -- mer, zu -- kunfts -- reich!
  Hei -- mat gros -- ser
  \set ignoreMelismata = ##t
  Töch -- ter und Söh -- ne,
  \unset ignoreMelismata
  Volk, be -- gna -- det für das Schö -- ne:
  viel -- ge -- rühm -- tes Ö -- ster -- reich.
  Viel -- ge -- rühm -- tes Ö -- ster -- reich.
  }
>>

Parody[edit]

The same evening after von Preradović learned that her lyrics were chosen for the national anthem, her sons, Otto and Fritz Molden [de], composed a satirical version of them.[8]

Land der Erbsen, Land der Bohnen,
Land der vier Besatzungszonen,
Wir verkaufen dich im Schleich!
Und droben überm Hermannskogel
Flattert froh der Bundesvogel.
Vielgeliebtes Österreich!

Land of the peas, land of the beans,
Land of the four zones of occupation,
we sell thee on the black market!
And up there over the Hermannskogel
gladly the federal bird flutters.
Much beloved Austria!

According to media researcher Peter Diem [de], the first two of these lines were popular in the schools of Vienna in 1955.[9]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Werke zweifelhafter Echtheit – Band 3 Orchesterwerke und Lieder, vol. X/29/3, pp. xxxiii, xxxiv, Neue Mozart-Ausgabe ‹See Tfd›(in German)
  2. ^ Diederichs, Joachim (2018). "Von wem stammt die Melodie der österreichischen Bundeshymne?" [From whom is the melody of the Austrian national anthem?]. Österreichische Musikzeitschrift (in German). Vienna: Hollitzer Verlag. pp. 79–82. Retrieved 7 June 2019., year 73
  3. ^ "Austria—Land der Berge, Land am Strome". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  4. ^ "Austrian national anthem 'sexist'". BBC news. 26 September 2005. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
  5. ^ Bildungshymne on YouTube
  6. ^ Decision "Bundeshymne II/Rock me Paula", Supreme Court of Justice (Austria) (4Ob171/10s, 15 December 2010) ‹See Tfd›(in German)
  7. ^ Bundesgesetzblatt I Nr. 127/2011, 27 December 2011 ‹See Tfd›(in German)
  8. ^ "Fepolinski und Waschlapski auf dem berstenden Stern. Bericht einer unruhigen Jugend" [Fepolinsky and Waschlapski on a bursting star. Report of a troubled youth.] (in German). Vienna: Ibera & Molden. 1997. ISBN 3-900436-42-8.
  9. ^ Land der Berge, Land am Strome... in Austria-Forum ‹See Tfd›(in German) by Peter Diem

External links[edit]