# Negative imaginary systems

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**Negative imaginary (NI) systems** theory was introduced by Lanzon and Petersen in.^{[1]}^{[2]} A generalization of the theory was presented in ^{[3]}
In the single-input single-output (SISO) case, such systems are defined by considering the properties of the imaginary part of the frequency response G(jω) and require the system to have no poles in the right half plane and > 0 for all ω in (0, ∞). This means that a system is Negative imaginary if it is both stable and a nyquist plot will have a phase lag between [-π 0] for all ω > 0.

## Negative Imaginary Definition^{[3]}[edit]

A square transfer function matrix is NI if the following conditions are satisfied:

- has no pole in .
- For all such that is not a pole of and .
- If is a pole of , then it is a simple pole and furthermore, the residual matrix is Hermitian and positive semidefinite.
- If is a pole of , then for all and is Hermitian and positive semidefinite.

These conditions can be summarised as:

- The system is stable.
- For all positive frequencies, the nyquist diagram of the system response is between [-π 0].

## Negative Imaginary Lemma^{[3]}[edit]

Let be a minimal realization of the transfer function matrix . Then, is NI if and only if and there exists a matrix

such that the following LMI is satisfied:

This result comes from positive real theory after converting the negative imaginary system to a positive real system for analysis.

## References[edit]

**^**Lanzon, Alexander; Petersen, Ian R. (May 2008). "Stability Robustness of a Feedback Interconnection of Systems With Negative Imaginary Frequency Response".*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*.**53**(4): 1042–1046. arXiv:1401.7739. doi:10.1109/TAC.2008.919567.**^**Petersen, Ian; Lanzon, Alexander (October 2010). "Feedback Control of Negative-Imaginary Systems".*IEEE Control Systems Magazine*.**30**(5): 54–72. arXiv:1401.7745. doi:10.1109/MCS.2010.937676.- ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}Mabrok, Mohamed A.; Kallapur, Abhijit G.; Petersen, Ian R.; Lanzon, Alexander (October 2014). "Generalizing Negative Imaginary Systems Theory to Include Free Body Dynamics: Control of Highly Resonant Structures With Free Body Motion".*IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control*.**59**(10): 2692–2707. arXiv:1305.1079. doi:10.1109/TAC.2014.2325692.