Northern Pashto

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Northern Pashto
Native toPakistan, Afghanistan
EthnicityPashtun
Native speakers
21 million (2013)[1]
Pashto alphabet
Official status
Regulated byPashto Academy (Peshawar, Pakistan)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3pbu
Glottolognort2646[3]

Northern Pashto (Pashto: شمالي پښتو) compromises of the North Western (Pashto: شمال لويديزه پښتو) and North Eastern (Pashto: شمال ختيځه پښتو) Dialects.[4]

North Eastern[edit]

Northeastern Pashto,[5] sometimes known as Yusufzai Pashto after its principal subdialect,[6] is a Northern dialect of Pashto spoken in northern Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

Comparison:

Dialects[7] ښ ږ څ ځ ژ
North Western (e.g. Wardak) [ç] [ʝ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ, z]
North Eastern (e.g. Yusapzai) [x] [ɡ] [s] [z] [d͡ʒ]
North Western (e.g Jalalabad) [x] [ɡ] [s] [z] [ʒ]

North Western[edit]

The North Western is spoken in the east and northeast Afghanistan.[8]

There is regional difference in North Western Pashto:[9]

Meaning Wardak Jalalabad Bati Kot
دوی they deɪ ˈduwi ˈduwi
راکړه give [imperative of راکول] ˈrɑka ˈrɑka ˈrɑkɽa
پوهېدل to know [infinitive] pijeˈdəl pojeˈdəl pojidəl
شپږ six ʃpaʝ ʃpag ʃpiʒ
وريځ cloud wərˈjed͡z wrez wəˈred͡z
ښځه woman ˈçəd͡za ˈxəza
اوبه water oˈbə uˈbə oˈbə

References[edit]

  1. ^ Northern Pashto at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976). Current Trends in Linguistics: Index. Walter de Gruyter. p. 705.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Northern Pashto". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ "Glottolog 4.3 - Northern Pashto". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
  5. ^ Prods Oktor Skjærvø, P.O. 1989. Pashto. In "Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum", R. Schmitt (ed.), 384-410.
  6. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/19/language/pbu/
  7. ^ Hallberg, Daniel G. 1992. Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4.
  8. ^ Anna B. David (2014). A Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-61451-303-2.
  9. ^ Coyle, Dennis (2014-01-01). "Placing Wardak Among Pashto Varieties". Theses and Dissertations.