Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside ("in the open") rather than into a toilet. People may choose fields, bushes, forests, ditches, streets, canals or other open space for defecation. They do so either because they do not have a toilet readily accessible or due to traditional cultural practices. The practice is common where sanitation infrastructure and services are not available. Even if toilets are available, behavior change efforts may still be needed to promote the use of toilets. 'Open defecation free' (ODF) is a term used to describe communities that have shifted to using toilets instead of open defecation. This can happen, for example, after community-led total sanitation programs have been implemented.
Open defecation can pollute the environment and cause health problems. High levels of open defecation are linked to high child mortality, poor nutrition, poverty, and large disparities between rich and poor.(p11) Ending open defecation is an indicator being used to measure progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6. Extreme poverty and lack of sanitation are statistically linked. Therefore, eliminating open defecation is thought to be an important part of the effort to eliminate poverty.
As of 2019[update] an estimated 673 million people practice open defecation,:74 down from about 892 million people (12 percent of the global population) in 2016. In that year, 76 percent (678 million) of the people practicing open defecation in the world lived in just seven countries.
Defecating in the open is a very ancient practice. In ancient times, there were more open spaces and less population pressure on land. It was believed that defecating in the open causes little harm when done in areas with low population, forests, or camping type situations. With development and urbanization, open defecating started becoming a challenge and thereby an important public health issue, and an issue of human dignity. With the increase in population in smaller areas, such as cities and towns, more attention was given to hygiene and health. As a result, there was an increase in global attention towards reducing the practice of open defecation.
Open defecation perpetuates the vicious cycle of disease and poverty and is widely regarded as an affront to personal dignity. The countries where open defecation is most widely practised have the highest numbers of deaths of children under the age of five, as well as high levels of undernutrition, high levels of poverty, and large disparities between the rich and poor.
Indiscriminate waste dumping and open defecation, Shadda, Cap-Haitien, Haiti
Open defecation along a river bank in Bujumbura, Burundi
Child defecating in the open in a canal in the slum of Gege in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria
The term "open defecation" became widely used in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector from about 2008 onwards. This was due to the publications by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) and the UN International Year of Sanitation. The JMP is a joint program by WHO and UNICEF that was earlier tasked to monitor the water and sanitation targets of the Millennium development goals (MDGs); it is now tasked to monitor Sustainable Development Goal Number 6.
For monitoring of the MDG Number 7, two categories were created: 1) improved sanitation and (2) unimproved sanitation. Open defecation falls into the category of unimproved sanitation. This means that people who practice open defecation do not have access to improved sanitation.
In 2013 World Toilet Day was celebrated as an official UN day for the first time. The term "open defecation" was used in high-level speeches, that helped to draw global attention to this issue (for example, in the "call to action" on sanitation issued by the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations in March 2013).
Open defecation free
"Open defecation free" (ODF) is a phrase first used in community-led total sanitation (CLTS) programs. ODF has now entered use in other contexts. The original meaning of ODF stated that all community members are using sanitation facilities (such as toilets) instead of going to the open for defecation. This definition was improved and more criteria were added in some countries that have adopted the CLTS approach in their programs to stop the practice of open defecation.
- No visible feces found in the environment or village and
- Every household as well as public/community institutions using safe technology option for disposal of feces".
Here, a "safe technology option" means a toilet that contains feces so that there is no contamination of surface soil, groundwater or surface water; flies or animals do not come in contact with the open feces; no one handles excreta; there is no smell and there are no visible feces around in the environment. This definition is part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Campaign).
The reasons for open defecation are varied. It can be a voluntary, semi-voluntary or involuntary choice. Most of the time, a lack of access to a toilet is the reason. However, in some places even people with toilets in their houses prefer to defecate in the open.
A few broad factors that result in the practice of open defecation are listed below.
- Lack of infrastructure: People often lack toilets in their houses, or in the areas where they live.
- Lack of toilets in other places: Lack of toilets in places away from people's houses, such as in schools or in the farms lead the people to defecate in the open. Another example is a lack of public toilets in cities, which can be a big problem for homeless people.
- Use of toilets for other purposes: In some rural communities, toilets are used for other purposes, such as storing household items, animals, farm products or used as kitchens. In such cases, people go outside to defecate.
Uncomfortable or unsafe toilet
- Poor quality of toilet: Sometimes people have access to a toilet, but the toilet might be broken, or of poor quality – outdoor toilets (pit latrines in particular) typically are devoid of any type of cleaning and reek of odors. Sometimes, toilets are not well lit at all times, especially in areas that lack electricity. Others lack doors or may not have water. Toilets with maggots or cockroaches are also disliked by people and hence, they go out to defecate.
- Risky and unsafe: Some toilets are risky to access. There may be a risk to personal safety due to lack of lights at night, criminals around them, or the presence of animals such as snakes and dogs. Women and children who do not have toilets inside their houses are often found to be scared to access shared or public toilets, especially at night. Accessing toilets that are not located in the house might be a problem for disabled people, especially at night. In some parts of the world, Zambia for example, very young children are discouraged from using pit latines due to the risk of them falling into the containment through the open drop-hole. In such cases when there is no other available sanitation facility, children are encouraged to practice open defecation.
- Presence of toilet but not privacy: Some toilets do not have a real door, but have a cloth hung as a door. In some communities, toilets are located in places where women are shy to access them due to the presence of men.
- Lack of water near toilet: Absence of supply of water inside or next to toilets cause people to get water from a distance before using the toilet. This is an additional task and needs extra time.
- Too many people using a toilet: This is especially true in case of shared or public toilets. If too many people want to use a toilet at the same time, then some people may go outside to defecate instead of waiting. In some cases, people might not be able to wait due to diarrhoea (or result of an Inflammatory Bowel Disease emergency).
- Fear of the pit getting filled: In some places, people are scared that their toilet pits will get filled very fast if all family members use it everyday. So they continue to go out to delay the toilet pit filling up. This is especially true in the case of a pit latrine.
- Lack of awareness: People in some communities do not know about the benefits of using toilets.
- Lack of behavior change: Some communities have toilets, yet people prefer to defecate in the open. In some cases, these toilets are provided by the government or other organizations and the people do not like them, or do not value them. They continue to defecate in the open. Also, older people are often found to defecate in the open and they are hesitant to change their behavior and go inside a closed toilet.
- Prefer being in nature: This happens mostly in less populated or rural areas, where people walk outside early in the morning and go to defecate in the fields or bushes. They prefer to be in nature and the fresh air; instead of defecating in a closed space such as a toilet. There may be cultural or habitual preference for defecating "in the open air", beside a local river or stream, or even the bush.
- Combining open defecation with other activities: Some people walk early in the morning to look after their farms. Some consider it as a social activity, especially women who like to take some time to go out of their homes. While on their way to the fields for open defecation they can talk to other women and take care of their animals.
- Social norms: Open defecation is a part of people's life and daily habit in some regions (e.g. in some rural regions of India). It is an ancient practice and is hard for many people to stop practicing. It is a part of a routine or social norm. In some cultures, there may be social taboos where a father-in-law may not use the same toilet as daughter-in-law in the same household.
- Social or personal preferences: Open defecation is a preferred practice in some parts of the world, notably in rural India, with many respondents in a survey from 2015 stating that "open defecation was more pleasurable and desirable than latrine use".
- Fecal incontinence: This medical condition can result in abrupt 'emergencies' and not enough time to access a toilet.
Public defecation for other reasons
In developed countries, open defecation is either due to homelessness, or considered to be a part of voluntary, recreational outdoor activities such as camping in remote areas. It is difficult to estimate how many people practice open defecation in these communities.
Prevalence and trends
The practice of open defecation is strongly related to poverty and exclusion particularly, in case of rural areas and informal urban settlements in developing countries. The Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) of UNICEF and WHO has been collecting data regarding open defecation prevalence worldwide. The figures are segregated by rural and urban areas and by levels of poverty. This program is tasked to monitor progress towards the millennium development goal (MDG) relating to drinking water and sanitation. As open defecation is one example of unimproved sanitation, it is being monitored by JMP for each country and results published on a regular basis. The figures on open defecation used to be lumped together with other figures on unimproved sanitation but are collected separately since 2010.
The current estimate is that around 673 million people practice open defecation.:74
The number of people practicing open defecation fell from 20 percent in 2000 to 12 percent in 2015.(p34) In 2016, the estimate was for 892 million people with no sanitation facility whatsoever and therefore practising open defecation (in gutters, behind bushes, in open water bodies etc.). Most people (9 of 10) who practice open defecation live in rural areas, but the vast majority lives in two regions (Central Asia and South Asia). In 2016, seventy-six percent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world lived in just seven countries.
Some countries with large numbers of people who openly defecate are listed in the table below.
|Country||Total country population (in thousands) in 2015 as reported in 2017 by JMP||Percentage of people who defecate in the open and absolute numbers (data from 2015 as reported in 2017 by JMP)||More recent estimates (based on government provided data or other sources)|
|Cambodia||15,578||41% or 6 million|
|Chad||14,037||68% or 10 million|
|China||1,376,049||2% or 28 million|
|Eritrea||5,228||76% or 4 million|
|Ethiopia||99,391||27% or 27 million|
|India||1,311,051||25% or 335 Million||
|Indonesia||257,564||12% or 31 million|
|Nepal||28,514||21% or 6 million|
|Niger||19,899||68% or 14 million|
|Nigeria||182,202||20% or 40 million|
|Pakistan||188,925||10% or 21 million|
|Philippines||100,699||5% or 6 million|
|South Sudan||12,340||63% or 6 million|
|Sudan||40,235||27% or 11 million|
|Vietnam||93,448||4% or 3.7 million|
Open defecation is a large problem in India, affecting about 50 million people. Many factors contribute to this, ranging from poverty to government corruption. Domestic and foreign agencies have studied these factors in order to better figure out how to deal with these problems and tackle the root causes that hamper progress in sanitation. About 550 million people were affected by lack of access to adequate toilets in 2014 but, since then, through Swachh Bharat, a program managed by the Indian government in conjunction with UNICEF, India has reduced the number of people without access to toilets to about 50 million.
In San Francisco (United States), open defecation complaints for street feces increased fivefold from 2011 to 2018, with 28,084 cases reported. This was mainly due to the rising amount of homelessness in the city.
The negative public health impacts of open defecation are the same as those described when there is no access to sanitation at all. Open defecation—and lack of sanitation and hygiene in general—is an important factor that cause various diseases; the most common being diarrhea and intestinal worm infections but also typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, polio, trachoma, and others.
Adverse health effects of open defecation occur because open defecation results in fecal contamination of the local environment. Consequently, open defecators are repeatedly exposed to faecal bacteria and faecal pathogens, and this is particularly serious for young children whose immune systems and brains are not yet fully developed.
Certain diseases are grouped together under the name of waterborne diseases, which are diseases transmitted via fecal pathogens in water. Open defecation can lead to water pollution when rain flushes feces that are dispersed in the environment into surface water or unprotected wells.
Young children are particularly vulnerable to ingesting feces of other people that are lying around after open defecation, because young children crawl on the ground, walk barefoot, and put things in their mouths without washing their hands. Feces of farm animals are equally a cause of concern when children are playing in the yard.
Those countries where open defecation is most widely practiced have the highest numbers of deaths of children under the age of five, as well as high levels of malnourishment (leading to stunted growth in children), high levels of poverty and large disparities between rich and poor.
Research from India has shown that detrimental health impacts (particularly for early life health) are even more significant from open defecation when the population density is high: "The same amount of open defecation is twice as bad in a place with a high population density average like India versus a low population density average like sub-Saharan Africa."
Safety of women
There are strong gender impacts connected with open defecation. The lack of safe, private toilets makes women and girls vulnerable to violence and is an impediment to girls' education. Women are at risk of sexual molestation and rape as they search for places for open defecation that are secluded and private, often during hours of darkness.
Lack of privacy has an especially large effect on the safety and sense of dignity of women and girls in developing countries. They face the shame of having to defecate in public so often wait until nightfall to relieve themselves. They risk being attacked after dark, though it means painfully holding their bladder and bowels all day. Women in developing countries increasingly express fear of assault or rape when having to leave the house after dark. Reports of attacks or harassment near or in toilet facilities, as well as near or in areas where women defecate openly, are common.
The following joint strategies can enable communities, both rural and peri-urban, to become completely open defecation free and remain so: Sanitation marketing, behavior change communication, and 'enhanced' community-led total sanitation ('CLTS + ’), supplemented by 'nudging'.
There are several drivers used to eradicate open defecation, one of which is behaviour change. SaniFOAM (Focus on Opportunity, Ability and Motivation) is a conceptual framework which was developed specifically to address issues of sanitation and hygiene. Using focus, opportunity, ability and motivation as categories of determinants, SaniFOAM model identifies barriers to latrine adoption while simultaneously serving as a tool for designing, monitoring and evaluating sanitation interventions. The following are some of the key drivers used to fight against open defecation in addition to behavior change:
- Political will
- Sanitation solutions that offer a better value than open defecation
- Stronger public sector local service delivery systems
- Creation of the right incentive structures
Efforts to reduce open defecation are more or less the same as those to achieve the MDG target on access to sanitation. A key aspect is awareness raising (for example via the UN World Toilet Day at a global level), behaviour change campaigns, increasing political will as well as demand for sanitation. Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) campaigns have placed a particular focus on ending open defecation by "triggering" the communities themselves into action.
Simple sanitation technology options
There are some simple sanitation technology options available to reduce open defecation prevalence if the open defecation behavior is due to not having toilets in the household and shared toilets being too far or too dangerous to reach, e.g., at night.
People might already use plastic bags (also called flying toilets) at night to contain their feces. However, a more advanced solution of the plastic toilet bag has been provided by the Swedish company Peepoople who are producing the "Peepoo bag", a "personal, single-use, self-sanitizing, fully biodegradable toilet that prevents feces from contaminating the immediate area as well as the surrounding ecosystem". This bag is now being used in humanitarian responses, schools, and urban slums in developing countries.
Bucket toilets and urine diversion
Bucket toilets are a simple portable toilet option. They can be upgraded in various ways, one of them being urine diversion which can make them similar to urine-diverting dry toilets. Urine diversion can significantly reduce odors from dry toilets. Examples of using this type of toilet to reduce open defecation are the "MoSan" toilet (used in Kenya) or the urine-diverting dry toilet promoted by SOIL in Haiti.
In popular culture
Open defecation during outdoor activities
Open defecation may not be environmentally friendly as human diet can contain non-natural and non-local components, including pathogens. Open defecation can be antisocial as faeces can take considerable time (for example a year) to be broken down by bacteria, particularly in dry or cold conditions. Some parks now prohibit open defecation in some areas. If defecating openly, most advice is to defecate into a dug hole, and cover with soil. 
- Hannah Ritchie (2019) - "Sanitation". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/sanitation' [Online Resource]
- Ritchie, Roser, Mispy, Ortiz-Ospina (2018) "Measuring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals." (SDG 6) SDG-Tracker.org, website
- Clasen; Boisson; Routray; Torondel; et al. (2014). "Effectiveness of a rural sanitation programme on diarrhoea, soil-transmitted helminth infection, and child malnutrition in Odisha, India: a cluster-randomised trial". The Lancet Global Health. 2 (11): e645–e653. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70307-9. ISSN 2214-109X. PMID 25442689.
- Progress on drinking water and sanitation, 2014 Update. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). 2014. ISBN 9789241507240.
- Ahmad, J (30 October 2014). "How to eliminate open defecation by 2030". devex. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- WHO and UNICEF (2019) Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000–2017: Special focus on inequalities, Geneva, Switzerland
- WHO and UNICEF (2017) Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
- O'Reilly, Kathleen (1 January 2016). "From toilet insecurity to toilet security: creating safe sanitation for women and girls". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water. 3 (1): 19–24. doi:10.1002/wat2.1122. ISSN 2049-1948.
- "Nearly a Billion People Still Defecate Outdoors. Here's Why". 25 July 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "United Nations Deputy Secretary-General's Call to Action on Sanitation" (PDF). United Nations. 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- Cavill; Chambers; Vernon (2015). Sustainability and CLTS: Taking Stock Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights Issue 4. IDS. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-78118-222-2.
- "Guidelines for ODF Verification" (PDF). Indian Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. 2015.
- "Definition of ODF – Open Defecation Free (Indian government publication)". 18 June 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Routray, Parimita; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W. (10 September 2015). "Socio-cultural and behavioral factors constraining latrine adoption in rural coastal Odisha: an exploratory qualitative study". BMC Public Health. 15: 880. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2206-3. ISSN 1471-2458. PMC 4566293. PMID 26357958.
- "Public Bathrooms Become Ground Zero in the Opioid Epidemic". www.wbur.org. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- Bardosh, Kevin (1 November 2015). "Achieving "Total Sanitation" in Rural African Geographies: Poverty, Participation and Pit Latrines in Eastern Zambia". Geoforum. 66 (Supplement C): 53–63. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.09.004.
- "Understanding Gendered Sanitation Vulnerabilities: A Study in Uttar Pradesh - Resources • SuSanA". www.susana.org. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- O’Connell, Kathryn. "What Influences Open Defecation and Latrine Ownership in Rural Households?: Findings from a Global Review" (PDF).
- "Nowhere to go How a lack of safe toilets threatens to increase violence against women in slums" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2014.
- Kwiringira, Japheth; Atekyereza, Peter; Niwagaba, Charles; Günther, Isabel (19 June 2014). "Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums". BMC Public Health. 14: 624. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-624. ISSN 1471-2458. PMC 4071028. PMID 24948084.
- "Document". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan (10 December 2013). "Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 10 (12): 6939–6954. doi:10.3390/ijerph10126939. PMC 3881150. PMID 24336021.
- Water and Sanitation Programme and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2015). "Child Feces Disposal in Zambia" (PDF). International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank and UNICEF.
- O’Reilly, Kathleen (1 November 2006). ""Traditional" women, "modern" water: Linking gender and commodification in Rajasthan, India". Geoforum. 37 (6): 958–972. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.05.008.
- In 2016, Kunwar Bai Yadav, a woman claiming to be 105 years old, said she had never heard about a toilet until that year, and had always gone into the nearby woods to defecate. Only when she learned about them, did she have one built in her community. Source: BBC News (India): "How a 105-year-old ended open defecation in her village", 1 November 2016
- "Revealed Preference for Open Defecation: Evidence from a new survey in rural north India (longer working paper) | r.i.c.e." riceinstitute.org. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Mara, Duncan (2017). "The elimination of open defecation and its adverse health effects: a moral imperative for governments and development professionals". Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 7 (1): 1–12. doi:10.2166/washdev.2017.027. ISSN 2043-9083.
- "We Urge You 'Mad Pooper,' Stop Crapping in Your Neighbor's Yard". Runner's World. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- "Data and estimates". JMP – WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation. WHO/UNICEF. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Hathi, Payal; Srivastav, Nikhil (1 October 2018). "Why we still need to measure open defecation in rural India". Ideas for India. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
- "People practicing open defecation (% of population)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- "Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (page 80)" (PDF).
- "People practicing open defecation (% of population)". WorldBank. 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- Findings of annual rural sanitation survey questionable Retrieved 16 November 2020.
- World's Biggest Toilet-building Program in India Gets Mixed Results Retrieved 16 November 2020.
- UNICEF South Asia/ 2018-2021 progress report, UNICEF
- People practicing open defecation (% of population) - Pakistan, The World Bank
- Zakaria R (11 April 2019). "India's Futile War on Open Defecation". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "An open defecation free India". unicef.org. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
- Dinnoo S (17 June 2014). "Why do millions of Indians defecate in the open?". BBC News. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- Coffey, Diane. Where India goes : abandoned toilets, stunted development and the costs of caste. Spears, Dean E. Noida, Uttar Pradesh. pp. 7–11. ISBN 978-93-5264-565-7. OCLC 994315306.
- "Call to action on sanitation" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver (2013). "Open Defecation and Childhood Stunting in India: An Ecological Analysis of New Data from 112 Districts". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e73784. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...873784S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073784. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3774764. PMID 24066070.
- "WHO | Diarrhoeal disease". World Health Organization. 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Vyas (2014). Population density and the effect of sanitation on early-life health], slide 19 (presentation at UNC conference in Oct. 2014) (PDF). Research Institute for Compassionate Economics, project (r.i.c.e.).
- House, Sarah, Suzanne Ferron, Marni Sommer and Sue Cavill (2014) Violence, Gender & WASH: A Practitioner’s Toolkit – Making water, sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming and services. London, UK: WaterAid/SHARE.
- Lennon, S. (2011). Fear and anger: Perceptions of risks related to sexual violence against women linked to water and sanitation in Delhi, India – Briefing Note. SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) and WaterAid, UK
- Cavill, Sue. "Violence, gender and WASH: A practitioner's toolkit: Making Water, Sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming and services". WaterAid, SHARE Research Consortium. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Lennon, Shirley (November 2011). "Fear and anger: Perceptions of risks related to sexual violence against women linked to water and sanitation in Delhi, India". SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) and WaterAid, UK. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Devine, J (2009). Introducing Sanifoam: A Framework to Analyze Sanitation Behaviors to Design Effective Sanitation Programs. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank.
- Devine, J (2010). "Beyond tippt-taps: The role of enabling products in scaling up and sustaining handwashing". Waterlines. 29 (4): 304–314. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2010.033.
- "Field Notes: UNICEF Policy and Programming in Practice" (PDF). UNICEF. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Why take poo to the loo". Poo2Loo. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Wheaton, A. (2009). Results of a medium-scale trial of single-use, self-sanitising toilet bags in poor urban settlements in Bangladesh. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Dhaka, Bangladesh
- Owako, E. (2012). Nyando peepoo trial project report. Kenya Red Cross, Kenya
- Naeem, K., Berndtsson, M. (2011). Peepoo Try Pakistan – Sindh Floods, November 2011. UN-HABITAT, Pakistan
- Mijthab M., Woods E., Lokey H., Foote A., Rieck. C (2013). Sanivation and MoSan Toilet – 4 week Service Pilot in Karagita Naivasha, Kenya. GIZ and Sanivation
- Russel, K. (2013). Mobile sanitation services for dense urban slums – Various documents on results from research grant. Stanford University, U.S.
- Biswas, Soutik (6 October 2014). "Why India's sanitation crisis needs more than toilets". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "India has highest number of people practicing open defecation |". DNA India. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "More than 40m Pakistanis defecate openly: Unicef – Pakistan". Dawn. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Lack of toilets tied to stunted growth in Pakistan: UNICEF". The Express Tribune. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Over 43 million people in Pakistan defecate in the open". The News International. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Municode Library". library.municode.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "'Mad Pooper': Jogger Wanted for Defecating in Front Yards of Colorado Homes". WNEP.com. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- Dispatch, Allison Manning, The Columbus. "The world is NOT your toilet, Columbus police note". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "Adventures at Poo Corner". This American Life. 12 December 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- Apollo, Michal (2 January 2017). "The good, the bad and the ugly – three approaches to management of human waste in a high-mountain environment". International Journal of Environmental Studies. 74 (1): 129–158. doi:10.1080/00207233.2016.1227225. ISSN 0020-7233. S2CID 113843846.
- Using human waste for compost requires significant processing to speed up breakdown. https://www.motherearthnews.com/organic-gardening/gardening-techniques/human-waste-zmgz11zrog
- Deuteronomy 23:12–13, , The Bible