List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

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Sultan of
the Ottoman Empire
Osmanlı padişahları
Imperial
Osmanli-nisani.svg
EmperorSuleiman.jpg
Best known office holder
Suleiman I
30 September 1520 – 6 September 1566
Details
StyleHis Imperial Majesty
First monarchOsman I (c. 1299–1323/4)
Last monarchMehmed VI (1918–1922)
Formationc. 1299
Abolition1 November 1922
ResidencePalaces in Istanbul:
AppointerHereditary
Ottoman Imperial Standard
Ottoman Empire in 1683, at the height of its territorial expansion in Europe.

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned an area from Hungary in the north to Yemen in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east. Administered at first from the city of Söğüt since before 1280 and then from the city of Bursa since 1323 or 1324, the empire's capital was moved to Adrianople (now known as Edirne in English) in 1363 following its conquest by Murad I, and then to Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) in 1453 following its conquest by Mehmed II.[1]

Family tree

The Ottoman Empire's early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the difficulty of discerning fact from legend. The empire came into existence at the end of the thirteenth century, and its first ruler (and the namesake of the Empire) was Osman I. According to later, often unreliable Ottoman tradition, Osman was a descendant of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks.[2] The eponymous Ottoman dynasty he founded endured for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans. The Ottoman Empire disappeared as a result of the defeat of the Central Powers with whom it had allied itself during World War I. The partitioning of the Empire by the victorious Allies and the ensuing Turkish War of Independence led to the abolition of the sultanate in 1922 and the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1922.[3]

Names[edit]

The sultan was also referred to as the Padishah (Ottoman Turkish: پادشاه‎, romanized: pâdişâh, French: Padichah). In Ottoman usage the word "Padisha" was usually used except "sultan" was used when he was directly named.[4]

Names of the sultan in languages used by ethnic minorities:[4]

  • Arabic: In some documents "Padishah" was replaced by "malik"[4]
  • Armenian: "Sultann" and "PADIŠAH"
  • Bulgarian: In earlier periods Bulgarian people called him the "tsar". The translation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876 instead used direct translations of "sultan" (Sultan) and "padishah" (Padišax)[4]
  • Greek: In earlier periods the Greeks used the Byzantine Empire-style name "basileus". The translation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876 instead used a direct transliterations of "sultan" (Σουλτάνος Soultanos) and "padishah" (ΠΑΔΙΣΑΧ padisach).[4]
  • Judaeo-Spanish: Especially in older documents, El Rey ("the king") was used. In addition some Ladino documents used sultan (in Hebrew chartacters: שלטנ and ולטנ).[4]
  • Persian: "Padishah" (as pādešāh) was used in Persian as well.

State organisation of the Ottoman Empire[edit]

The Ottoman Empire was an absolute monarchy during much of its existence. By the second half of the fifteenth century, the sultan sat at the apex of a hierarchical system and acted in political, military, judicial, social, and religious capacities under a variety of titles.[a] He was theoretically responsible only to God and God's law (the Islamic شریعتşeriat, known in Arabic as شريعة sharia), of which he was the chief executor. His heavenly mandate was reflected in Islamic titles such as "shadow of God on Earth" (ظل الله في العالمẓıll Allāh fī'l-ʿalem) and "caliph of the face of the earth" (خلیفه روی زمینḪalife-i rū-yi zemīn).[5] All offices were filled by his authority, and every law was issued by him in the form of a decree called firman (فرمان‎). He was the supreme military commander and had the official title to all land.[6] Osman (died 1323/4) son of Ertuğrul was the first ruler of the Ottoman state, which during his reign constituted a small principality (beylik) in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire.

After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, Ottoman sultans came to regard themselves as the successors of the Roman Empire, hence their occasional use of the titles caesar (قیصرqayser) of Rûm, and emperor,[5][7][8] as well as the caliph of Islam.[b] Newly enthroned Ottoman rulers were girded with the Sword of Osman, an important ceremony that served as the equivalent of European monarchs' coronation.[9] A non-girded sultan was not eligible to have his children included in the line of succession.[10]

Although absolute in theory and in principle, the sultan's powers were limited in practice. Political decisions had to take into account the opinions and attitudes of important members of the dynasty, the bureaucratic and military establishments, as well as religious leaders.[6] Beginning in the last decades of the sixteenth century, the role of the Ottoman sultans in the government of the empire began to decrease, in a period known as the Transformation of the Ottoman Empire. Despite being barred from inheriting the throne,[11] women of the imperial harem—especially the reigning sultan's mother, known as the valide sultan—also played an important behind-the-scenes political role, effectively ruling the empire during the period known as the Sultanate of Women.[12]

Constitutionalism was established during the reign Abdul Hamid II, who thus became the empire's last absolute ruler and its reluctant first constitutional monarch.[13] Although Abdul Hamid II abolished the parliament and the constitution to return to personal rule in 1878, he was again forced in 1908 to reinstall constitutionalism and was deposed. Since 2017, the head of the House of Osman has been Dündar Ali Osman, a great-grandson of Abdul Hamid II.[14]

List of sultans[edit]

The table below lists Ottoman sultans, as well as the last Ottoman caliph, in chronological order. The tughras were the calligraphic seals or signatures used by Ottoman sultans. They were displayed on all official documents as well as on coins, and were far more important in identifying a sultan than his portrait. The "Notes" column contains information on each sultan's parentage and fate. For earlier rulers, there is usually a time gap between the moment a sultan's reign ended and the moment his successor was enthroned. This is because the Ottomans in that era practiced what historian Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son": when a sultan died, his sons had to fight each other for the throne until a victor emerged. Because of the infighting and numerous fratricides that occurred, a sultan's death date therefore did not always coincide with the accession date of his successor.[15] In 1617, the law of succession changed from survival of the fittest to a system based on agnatic seniority (اکبریتekberiyet), whereby the throne went to the oldest male of the family. This in turn explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but usually by an uncle or brother.[16] Agnatic seniority was retained until the abolition of the sultanate, despite unsuccessful attempts in the 19th century to replace it with primogeniture.[17]

Sultan Portrait Reigned from Reigned until Tughra Notes
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
(1299 – 1453)
1 Osman I
ĠĀZĪ (the Warrior)
Osman Gazi2.jpg c. 1299 c. 1326 [18]
[c]
  • Son of Ertuğrul Bey[19] and an unknown woman.[20]
  • Reigned until his death.
2 Orhan
ĠĀZĪ (the Warrior)
Orhan Gazi.jpg c. 1326 [21] 1362 Tughra of Orhan
3 Murad I
SULTÂN-I ÂZAM (the Most Exalted Sultan)
HÜDAVENDİGÂR
(the Devotee of God)
ŞEHÎD (the Martyr) [23][b]
Murat Hüdavendigar.jpg 1362 15 June 1389 Tughra of Murad I
4 Bayezid I
SULTÂN-I RÛM (Sultan of the Roman Empire)
YILDIRIM (Thunderbolt)
Bayezid I by Cristofano dell'Altissimo.jpg 15 June 1389 20 July 1402 Tughra of Bayezid I
Ottoman Interregnum[d]
(20 July 14025 July 1413)
İsa Çelebi
The Co-Sultan of Anatolia
İsa Çelebi.jpg 1403–1405
(Sultan of the Western Anatolian Territory)
1406
Emir (Amir)
Süleyman Çelebi

The First Sultan of Rumelia
Arolsen Klebeband 01 449 4.jpg 20 July 1402 17 February 1411[26] Suleyman Celebi Tughra.png
Musa Çelebi
The Second Sultan of Rumelia
Musa Çelebi.jpg 18 February 1411 5 July 1413[28]
Mehmed Çelebi
The Sultan of Anatolia
Çelebi Mehmet.jpg 1403–1406
(Sultan of the Eastern Anatolian Territory)

1406–1413
(The Sultan of Anatolia)
5 July 1413
Sultanate resumed
5 Mehmed I
ÇELEBİ (The Affable)
KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker for his support)
Çelebi Mehmet.jpg 5 July 1413 26 May 1421 Tughra of Mehmed I
Mustafa Çelebi
The Third Sultan of Rumelia
January 1419 May 1422
6 Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
Ghazavat-ı Sultan

II. Murat.jpg 25 June 1421 1444 Tughra of Murad II
7 Mehmed II
FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror)
فاتح
Gentile Bellini 003.jpg 1444 1446 Tughra of Mehmed II
  • Son of Murad II and Hüma Hatun.[20]
  • Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power, along with rising threats from Janissaries.[32]
(6) Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
II. Murat.jpg 1446 3 February 1451 Tughra of Murad II
  • Second reign;
  • Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary insurgence;[33]
  • Reigned until his death.
Growth of the Ottoman Empire
(1453 – 1550)
(7) Mehmed II
KAYSER-İ RÛM (Caesar of the Roman Empire)
FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror)
فاتح
Gentile Bellini 003.jpg 3 February 1451 3 May 1481 Tughra of Mehmed II
8 Bayezid II
VELÎ (The Saint)
Beyazid II.jpg 19 May 1481 25 April 1512 Tughra of Bayezid II
Sultan Cem Cem-in-italy.jpg 28 May 1481 20 June 1481 Tughra of Cem
  • Son of Mehmed II
  • Acquired the title Cem bin Mehmed Han.[36]
  • Died in exile
9 Selim I
YAVUZ (The Strong)
Hadim'ul Haramain'ish-Sharifain
(Servant of Mecca and Medina)
Yavuz Sultan I. Selim Han.jpg 25 April 1512 21 September 1520 Tughra of Selim I
10 Suleiman I
MUHTEŞEM (The Magnificent)

or KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver)
قانونى

EmperorSuleiman.jpg 30 September 1520 6 September 1566 Tughra of Suleiman I
Transformation of the Ottoman Empire
(1550 – 1700)
11 Selim II
SARI (The Blond)

Fatih Cyprus (The Conqueror of Cyprus) Sarhoş (The Drunk)

II. Selim Han.jpg 29 September 1566 21 December 1574 Tughra of Selim II
12 Murad III
Dindar (The Pious)
Sultan Murad III.jpeg 22 December 1574 16 January 1595 Tughra of Murad III
13 Mehmed III
ADLÎ (The Just)
Sultan Mehmet III of the Ottoman Empire.jpg 16 January 1595 22 December 1603 Tughra of Mehmed III
14 Ahmed I
BAḪTī (The Fortunate)
Sultan I. Ahmet.jpg 22 December 1603 22 November 1617 Tughra of Ahmed I
15 Mustafa I
DELİ (The Mad)
I Mustafa (cropped).jpg 22 November 1617 26 February 1618 Tughra of Mustafa I
16 Osman II
GENÇ (The Young)
ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)

شهيد
Osman 2.jpg 26 February 1618 19 May 1622 Tughra of Osman II
(15) Mustafa I
DELİ (The Mad)
I Mustafa (cropped).jpg 20 May 1622 10 September 1623 Tughra of Mustafa I
  • Second reign;
  • Returned to the throne after the assassination of his nephew Osman II;
  • Deposed due to his poor mental health and confined until his death in Istanbul on 20 January 1639.[43]
17 Murad IV
SAHİB-Î KIRAN
The Conqueror of Baghdad
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

غازى
Murad IV.jpg 10 September 1623 8 February 1640 Tughra of Murad IV
18 Ibrahim
DELİ (The Mad)
The Conqueror of Crete
ŞEHÎD
Ibrahim I.jpg 9 February 1640 8 August 1648 Tughra of Ibrahim
19 Mehmed IV
AVCI (The Hunter)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
غازى
Sultan Mehmed IV (2).jpg 8 August 1648 8 November 1687 Tughra of Mehmed IV
20 Suleiman II
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Süleyman II.jpg 8 November 1687 22 June 1691 Tughra of Suleiman II
21 Ahmed II
ḪĀN ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior Prince)
Ahmet II.jpg 22 June 1691 6 February 1695 Tughra of Ahmed II
22 Mustafa II
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
II. Mustafa.jpg 6 February 1695 22 August 1703 Tughra of Mustafa II
Stagnation and reform of the Ottoman Empire
(1700 – 1827)
23 Ahmed III
Tulip Era Sultan
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
III. Ahmet.jpg 22 August 1703 1 October 1730 Tughra of Ahmed III
24 Mahmud I
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
KAMBUR (The Hunchback)
Mahmud1.jpg 2 October 1730 13 December 1754 Tughra of Mahmud I
25 Osman III
SOFU (The Devout)
OsmanIII.jpg 13 December 1754 30 October 1757 Tughra of Osman III
26 Mustafa III
YENİLİKÇİ (The First Innovative)
Mustafa3.jpg 30 October 1757 21 January 1774 Tughra of Mustafa III
27 Abdul Hamid I
Abd ūl-Hāmīd (The Servant of God)
ISLAHATÇI (The Improver)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Portrait of Abdülhamid I of the Ottoman Empire.jpg 21 January 1774 7 April 1789 Tughra of Abdul Hamid I
28 Selim III
BESTEKÂR (The Composer)
NİZÂMÎ (Regulative - Orderly)
ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)
Joseph Warnia-Zarzecki - Sultan Selim III - Google Art Project.jpg 7 April 1789 29 May 1807 Tughra of Selim III
29 Mustafa IV IV. Mustafa.jpg 29 May 1807 28 July 1808 Tughra of Mustafa IV
Modernization of the Ottoman Empire
(1827 – 1908)
30 Mahmud II
İNKILÂPÇI (The Reformer)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Mahmud II.jpg 28 July 1808 1 July 1839 Tughra of Mahmud II
31 Abdulmejid I
TANZİMÂTÇI
(The Strong Reformist or
The Advocate of Reorganization)

ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
Sultan Abdulmecid Pera Museum 3 b.jpg 1 July 1839 25 June 1861 Tughra of Abdulmejid I
32 Abdulaziz
BAḪTSIZ (The Unfortunate)
ŞEHĪD (The Martyr)
Abdulaziz.jpg 25 June 1861 30 May 1876 Tughra of Abdulaziz
  • Son of Mahmud II and Pertevniyal Sultan;
  • Deposed by his ministers;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[60]
33 Murad V Portrait of Murad V.jpg 30 May 1876 31 August 1876 Tughra of Murad V
34 Abdul Hamid II
Ulû Sultân Abd ūl-Hāmīd Khan

(The Sublime Khan)

Abdul Hamid II in Balmoral Castle in 1867-colored.jpg 31 August 1876 27 April 1909 Tughra of Abdul Hamid II
35 Mehmed V
REŞÂD (Rashād)

(The True Path Follower)

Sultan Muhammed Chan V., Kaiser der Osmanen 1915 C. Pietzner.png 27 April 1909 3 July 1918 Tughra of Mehmed V
36 Mehmed VI
VAHDETTİN (Wāhīd ād-Dīn)

(The Unifier of Dīn (Islam) or The Oneness of Islam)

Sultan Mehmed VI of the Ottoman Empire.jpg 4 July 1918 1 November 1922 Tughra of Mehmed VI
Caliph under the Republic
(1 November 1922 – 3 March 1924)
Abdulmejid II Portrait Caliph Abdulmecid II.jpg 18 November 1922 3 March 1924
[c]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

a1 2 : The full style of the Ottoman ruler was complex, as it was composed of several titles and evolved over the centuries. The title of sultan was used continuously by all rulers almost from the beginning. However, because it was widespread in the Muslim world, the Ottomans quickly adopted variations of it to dissociate themselves from other Muslim rulers of lesser status. Murad I, the third Ottoman monarch, styled himself sultân-ı âzam (سلطان اعظم, the most exalted sultan) and hüdavendigar (خداوندگار, emperor), titles used by the Anatolian Seljuqs and the Mongol Ilkhanids respectively. His son Bayezid I adopted the style Sultan of Rûm, Rûm being an old Islamic name for the Roman Empire. The combining of the Islamic and Central Asian heritages of the Ottomans led to the adoption of the title that became the standard designation of the Ottoman ruler: Sultan [Name] Khan.[68] Ironically, although the title of sultan is most often associated in the Western world with the Ottomans, people within Turkey generally use the title of padishah far more frequently when referring to rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty.[69]
b1 2 3 : The Ottoman Caliphate was one of the most important positions held by rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty.[citation needed] The caliphate symbolized their spiritual power, whereas the sultanate represented their temporal power. According to Ottoman historiography, Murad I adopted the title of caliph during his reign (1362 to 1389), and Selim I later strengthened the caliphal authority during his conquest of Egypt in 1516-1517. However, the general consensus among modern scholars is that Ottoman rulers had used the title of caliph before the conquest of Egypt, as early as during the reign of Murad I (1362–1389), who brought most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and established the title of sultan in 1383. It is currently agreed that the caliphate "disappeared" for two-and-a-half centuries, before being revived with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed between the Ottoman Empire and Catherine II of Russia in 1774. The treaty was highly symbolic, since it marked the first international recognition of the Ottomans' claim to the caliphate. Although the treaty made official the Ottoman Empire's loss of the Crimean Khanate, it acknowledged the Ottoman caliph's continuing religious authority over Muslims in Russia.[70] From the 18th century onwards, Ottoman sultans increasingly emphasized their status as caliphs in order to stir Pan-Islamist sentiments among the empire's Muslims in the face of encroaching European imperialism. When World War I broke out, the sultan/caliph issued a call for jihad in 1914 against the Ottoman Empire's Allied enemies, unsuccessfully attempting to incite the subjects of the French, British and Russian empires to revolt. Abdul Hamid II was by far the Ottoman Sultan who made the most use of his caliphal position, and was recognized as Caliph by many Muslim heads of state, even as far away as Sumatra.[71] He had his claim to the title inserted into the 1876 Constitution (Article 4).[72]
c1 2 : Tughras were used by 35 out of 36 Ottoman sultans, starting with Orhan in the 14th century, whose tughra has been found on two different documents. No tughra bearing the name of Osman I, the founder of the empire, has ever been discovered,[73] although a coin with the inscription "Osman bin Ertuğrul" has been identified.[19] Abdulmejid II, the last Ottoman Caliph, also lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not serve as head of state (that position being held by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly founded Republic of Turkey) but as a religious and royal figurehead.
d^ : The Ottoman Interregnum, also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate (Turkish: Fetret Devri), was a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire which lasted from 1402 to 1413. It started following the defeat and capture of Bayezid I by the Turco-Mongol warlord Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara, which was fought on 20 July 1402. Bayezid's sons fought each other for over a decade, until Mehmed I emerged as the undisputed victor in 1413.[74]
e^ : The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was a gradual process which started with the abolition of the sultanate and ended with that of the caliphate 16 months later. The sultanate was formally abolished on 1 November 1922. Sultan Mehmed VI fled to Malta on 17 November aboard the British warship Malaya.[64] This event marked the end of the Ottoman Dynasty, not of the Ottoman State nor of the Ottoman Caliphate. On 18 November, the Grand National Assembly (TBMM) elected Mehmed VI's cousin Abdulmejid II, the then crown prince, as caliph.[75] The official end of the Ottoman State was declared through the Treaty of Lausanne (24 July 1923), which recognized the new "Ankara government," and not the old Istanbul-based Ottoman government, as representing the rightful owner and successor state. The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed by the TBMM on 29 October 1923, with Mustafa Kemal as its first President.[76] Although Abdulmejid II was a figurehead lacking any political power, he remained in his position of Caliph until the office of the Caliphate was abolished by the TBMM on 3 March 1924.[72] Mehmed VI later tried unsuccessfully to reinstall himself as caliph in the Hejaz.[77]

Architectural work of Sultans[edit]

Architectural Contributions

Between the time of Mehmed II’s first reign in 1444 and the end of Mahmud II’s sultanate in 1839, it became tradition for Sultans and other esteemed members of the Ottoman state to build mosques, public works, and other types of architecture. Some of these works were used to commemorate individuals, while others were formed to advance the needs of the state through infrastructure such as schools, dams, or libraries[78]

Some sultanates were more active than others in producing well-known architectural works. Others, like Selim I, spent much of their time out on campaign, and had less of a focus on architectural feats. Some Sultans, such as Ahmed III, were coerced by epidemics and other societal developments into pursuing architectural improvement projects in order to serve the needs of the Empire[79].

Structural, Artistic, and Technological Development

Over the course of time, Ottoman signatures in architectural work changed, as well as the technologies employed. Some examples of this include the changes in the number and size of cupolas, the style of courtyards, the eventual introduction of free-standing libraries, and the advancement of aqua-duct and dam work.

Notable Mosques

Fatih Mosque and the Blue Mosque are among the more famous mosques constructed by Sultans. The Fatih Mosque was originally built under “The Conqueror”, Mehmed II, in the mid-1400s AD in hopes of rivaling the greatness of the Hagia Sofia[80]. This act was a significant show of power following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople. Due to severe earthquakes in the region in 1766, the Fatih Mosque was damaged and had to undergo reconstruction in the early 1770s under Mustafa III’s Sultanate[81].

The Blue Mosque was constructed under Ahmed I in approximately 1603. The mosque in part gains its name from its stunning interior and exterior blue attributes, and placement near the seashore of Istanbul. To this day, the mosque dominates the sea-side view of Istanbul.

The Blue Mosque was notably constructed on the opposite hill of the Hagia Sofia, and both mosques played a part in the political developments of the Kadizadeli movement spanning much of the 17th century. While the Hagia Sofia preached towards a puritanical movement, the Blue Mosque preached the Sufi order[82]. The power of two mosques in the same relative neighborhood preaching different interpretations of muslim faith invited political, religious, and social discourse in Istanbul that at times served as a threat to the power of the Sultan[83].

An important thing to note is that while the Hagia Sofia was an influential mosque in Ottoman history, and is well-known to this day, the mosque was actually not built by the Ottomans themselves. The Hagia Sofia was converted into a mosque from a church following the capture of Constantinople in 1453, when control of the area moved from the hands of the Byzantines to the Ottomans.


Major Architectural Works of Sultanates

Below is a chart of several major architectural projects, listed by sultanate[84]:

Sultanate Architecture Year Type, Notes
Mehmed II Palace at Theodosian Forum 1453 Palace site
Mosque in Eyyub 1458 Mosque
Fatih - Imperial complex
Bezistan - -
Eski Odalar - Mosque, “Old Barracks”
Karaman 1467 Markets of the major and the minor
Sarradj Khane 1475 Saddlers’ market
Bayezid II Dawud Pasha’s Mosque 1485 Mosque
Atik Ali Pasha’s Mosque 1500 Religious complex in the capital
Selim I - - -
Sulyeman Mosque of Sultan Selim 1522 Mosque in memory of Suleyman’s father, Selim I
Topkapi Palace Renovations - Renovations to the Topkapi palace
Ibrahim Pasha’s Palace - On the hippodrome
Khurrem Sultane’s Complex - Includes a mosque, imaret, and hospital on Awret Bazari
Mosque of Mehemmed 1543 Mosque in memory of prince Mehemmed
Mihir-i Mah Sultane’s Mosque 1548 Mosque with a medrese and caravanserai at Uskudar
Suleymaniyye 1550 New imperial complex built on land of the Old Palace
Rustem Pasha’s Kahn 1550 At Ghalata
Rustem’s Medrese 1550 Placed below Mahmud Pasha’s mosque
Kara Ahmed Pasha’s Mosque 1560 Located near Topkapi Palace, including a medrese
Mosque of Rustem Pasha 1562 Built on Attar Khalil
Sinan Pasha’s Mosque - Placed at Beshiktash, including a medrese
Mihir-i Mah Sultane’s Mosque Approx 1568 Includes a courtyard medrese at Edirne Kapi
Selim II Funeral Monument 1568 Placed at Eyyub, includes a mausoleum and a medrese
Complex by Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 1572 Includes a courtyard medrese and zaqiya
Piyale Pasha’s Mosque 1572 Placed behind the Arsenal outside of Ghalata, set for prayers before departure of the fleet
Mosque of Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 1577 Located beside the Arsenal outside of Ghalata, commemorates the Sultan’s service
Murad III Mosque of the High Admiral Kilidj Ali Pasha 1581 Mosque at Topkhane
Complex by Nur Banu Sultane 1583 Complex near Uskudar, with a caravanserai, zawiya, mosque, and medrese, serving as a transit depot for caravans arriving from Anatolia
Contribution by Shemsi Pasha 1581 Located at Uskudar
Mosque of Zal Mahmud Pasha 1580 Placed at Eyyub, includes medreses
Mosque of Mesih Mehmed Pasha 1586 Placed at Kara Gumruk
Mosque of Nishandji Mehmed Pasha 1588 Placed between Fatih and Edirne Kapi
Djerrah Mehmed Pasha’s Mosque 1593 Mosque
Mehmed III Safiyye Sultane’s Mosque 1595 - 1663* *Mosque uncompleted until Mehemmed IV
Contributions by Ghandanfer Agha 1590 Includes medrese, mausoleum, fountain
Contributions by Sinan Pasha 1592 Includes medrese, mausoleum, fountain
Ahmed I Ahmed I’s Imperial Complex and the Blue Mosque 1603 Mosque as well as a new imperial complex
Contributions by Kuyudju Murad Pasha 1610 Includes a medrese, mausoleum, and fountain
Contributions by Ekmekdj-zade Ahmed Pasha Pre-1618 Includes a medrese, mausoleum, and fountain
Kosem Sultane’s Mosque - Placed in Uskudar
Mustafa I - - -
Osman II - - -
Murad IV Contributions by Bayram Pasha 1634 Includes a medrese, mausoleum, fountain, and zawiya
Ibrahim - - -
Mehmed IV Contributions by Koprulu Mehmed Pasha 1660 -
Koprulu Fadil Ahmed Pasha’s First Independent Library Pre-1676 Free-standing library
Contributions by Merzinfonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha 1681 Includes a medrese, mausoleum, and fountain
Suleiman II - - -
Ahmed II Contributions by Damad Ibrahim Pasha 1719 Includes medrese, mausoleum, fountain
Mustafa II Contributions by Amjazade Huseyin Pasha 1700 Includes medrese, mausoleum, fountain
Ahmed III Ali Pasha’s Independent Library 1715 Free-standing library
Ahmed III’s Independent Library 1719 Free-standing library
Monumental Fountain by Damad Ibrahim Pasha 1728 “Tulip Period” construction of fountains
Ahmed III’s Monumental Fountain 1729 At the Topkapi Palace
“Tulip Period” Construction 1718 - 1730 Construction of housing, libraries, mosques, fountains, and public works
Mahmud I Mahmud I’s Monumental Fountain 1732 Placed in Topkhane
Saliha Sultane’s Monumental Fountain 1732 In front of the Arsenal, of Azap Kapi
Hekim-oghlu Ali Pasha’s Monumental Fountain 1732 Of Ka’ba Tash
Complex by Hadjdji Mehmed Emin Agha 1741 Placed at Dolma Baghce, includes sebit, mausoleum, fountain, school
Topluzu Bend Dam 1750 Placed on the network of Taksim, utilized improved water pressure balancing technology
Osman III Library Complex of Nur-u Othmaniyye 1755 -
Mustafa III Library Complex of Raghib Pasha 1762 -
Aywad Bendi Dam 1765 -
Mosque of Ayazma 1758 Mosque
Mosque of Laleli 1760 Mosque
Mosque of Fatih 1766 Mosque
Abdul Hamid I Library Complex of Murad Molla 1775 -
Mosque of Rabi a Sultane and Humashah Kadin 1789 Mosque
Selim III Walide Bend Dam 1797 -
Funeral Monument by Mihr Shah Sultane 1792 Placed in Eyyub, includes imaret, sebit, mausoleum
Funeral Monument by Shah Sultane 1800 Placed in Eyyub, includes mausoleum, school, sebil
Funeral Monument of Nakshidil Sultane 1818 Placed in the cemetery of Fatih
Mosque Zawiya Kucuk Efendi 1825 Mosque
Selim III’s Mosque 1802 Mosque
Mustafa IV - - -
Mahmud II Pavilion of Ceremonies 1810 Placed in the Topkapi Palace
School of Djerwi Kalfa 1819 -
Mahmud II’s Dam 1839 -
Mahmud II’s Mausoleum 1839 -

[85]

References[edit]

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    • Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6. Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 (almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes), we may posit that...
    • Lindner, Rudi Paul (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Indiana University Press. p. 10. In fact, no matter how one were to try, the sources simply do not allow the recovery of a family tree linking the antecedents of Osman to the Kayı of the Oğuz tribe. Without a proven genealogy, or even without evidence of sufficient care to produce a single genealogy to be presented to all the court chroniclers, there obviously could be no tribe; thus, the tribe was not a factor in early Ottoman history.
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]