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P

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P
P p
(See below)
Writing cursive forms of P
Usage
Writing systemLatin script
TypeAlphabetic and Logographic
Language of originLatin language
Phonetic usage[p]
[]
[(p)f]
[]
[b]
/p/
Unicode codepointU+0050, U+0070
Alphabetical position16
History
Development
D21
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants •
 •
 •
 •
 •
 •
 • 𐍀
SistersΠ π

П
פּ
פ
ף
ف
ܦ

پ

𐎔



Պ պ
Variations(See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used withp(x), ph

P, or p, is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is pee (pronounced /ˈp/), plural pees.[1]

History

The Semitic Pê (mouth), as well as the Greek Π or π (Pi), and the Etruscan and Latin letters that developed from the former alphabet, all symbolized /p/, a voiceless bilabial plosive.

Phoenician
P
Archaic Greek
Pi
Greek
Pi
Cyrillic
Pe
Etruscan
P
Latin
P
PhoenicianP-01.svg GreekP-02.svg Pi uc lc.svg Cyrillic letter Pe - uppercase and lowercase.svg EtruscanP-01.svg Latin P

Use in writing systems

Late Renaissance or early Baroque design of a P, from 1627

In English orthography and most other European languages, ⟨p⟩ represents the sound /p/.

A common digraph in English is ⟨ph⟩, which represents the sound /f/, and can be used to transliterate ⟨φ⟩ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph ⟨pf⟩ is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Most English words beginning with ⟨p⟩ are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic;[citation needed] these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with ⟨f⟩, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

However, native English words with non-initial ⟨p⟩ are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the consonant cluster /sp/ (PIE *p has been preserved after s).

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /p/ is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

Related characters

Ancestors, descendants and siblings

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter Pi, but it looks like the Greek letter Rho.

  • 𐤐 : Semitic letter Pe, from which the following symbols originally derive
    • Π π : Greek letter Pi
      • 𐌐 : Old Italic and Old Latin P, which derives from Greek Pi, and is the ancestor of modern Latin P. The Roman P had this form (𐌐) on coins and inscriptions until the reign of Claudius, ca. 50 AD (See also Claudian letters).
      • 𐍀 : Gothic letter pertra/pairþa, which derives from Greek Pi
      • П п : Cyrillic letter Pe, which also derives from Pi
    • Ⲡ ⲡ : Coptic letter Pi
    • Պ պ: Armenian letter Pe
  • P with diacritics: Ṕ ṕ Ṗ ṗ Ᵽ ᵽ Ƥ ƥ [2] [3]
  • Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to P:[4]
    • U+1D18 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL P
    • U+1D3E MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL P
    • U+1D56 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL P
  • ₚ : Subscript small p was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902[5]

Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols

Computing codes

Character information
Preview P p
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P     LATIN SMALL LETTER P
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 80 U+0050 112 U+0070
UTF-8 80 50 112 70
Numeric character reference P P p p
EBCDIC family 215 D7 151 97
ASCII 1 80 50 112 70
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

NATO phonetic Morse code
Papa
About this sound▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ICS Papa.svg

Semaphore Papa.svg

Sign language P.svg Braille P.svg
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Unified English Braille

See also

References

  1. ^ "P", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "pee," op. cit.
  2. ^ Constable, Peter (2003-09-30). "L2/03-174R2: Proposal to Encode Phonetic Symbols with Middle Tilde in the UCS" (PDF).
  3. ^ Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  4. ^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).
  5. ^ Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF).
  6. ^ Perry, David J. (2006-08-01). "L2/06-269: Proposal to Add Additional Ancient Roman Characters to UCS" (PDF).
  7. ^ Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF).

External links

  • Media related to P at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of P at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of p at Wiktionary