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|Provincia Pannonia Inferior|
|Province of the Roman Empire|
|Capital||Aquincum and Sirmium|
|Today part of|| Bosnia and Herzegovina|
Pannonia Inferior, lit. Lower Pannonia, was a province of the Roman Empire. Its capital was Sirmium. It was one of the border provinces on the Danube. It was formed in the year 103 AD by Emperor Trajan who divided the former province of Pannonia into two parts: Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior. The province included parts of present-day states of Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The province was bordered to the east (across the Danube) by a Sarmatian tribe—the Iazyges. Later, the Vandals appeared to the north-east.
Major settlements in Pannonia Inferior included:
- Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) which several times served as an imperial residence for several emperors.
- Aquincum (Buda), the provincial capital.
- Cuccium (Ilok)
- Cibalae (Vinkovci)
- Mursa (Osijek)
- Certissa (Đakovo)
- Marsonia (Slavonski Brod)
- Sopianae (Pécs)
Aftermath and legacy
The province was yet again split during the reign of the tetrarchs into two more provinces, Pannonia Valeria in the north, with the new provincial capital at Sopianae, and Pannonia Secunda in the south with Sirmium as the provincial capital. In the Frankish period, in the 9th century, Lower Pannonia was a duchy that spanned from the Drava to the Sava.
List of Roman governors
- Publius Aelius Hadrianus 106-108
- Titus Julius Maximus Manlianus 108-110/111
- Publius Afranius Flavianus 111/112-114/115
- Quintus Marcius Turbo 117/118-118/119
- Lucius Attius Macro 130/131-133/134
- Lucius Aelius Cesar 136-137
- Claudius Maximus 137-c. 141
- Marcus Pontius Laelianus Larcius Sabinus c. 141-c. 144
- Quintus Fuficius Cornutus c. 144-147
- Cominius Secundus 147-c. 150
- Marcus Nonius Macrinus c. 150-c. 153
- Marcus Iallius Bassus Fabius Valerianus c. 156-c. 159
- Gaius Julius Geminius Capellianus c. 159-c. 161
- Tiberius Haterius Saturninus c. 161-164
- Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus c. 167
- Lucius Ulpius Marcellus before 173
- Gaius Vettius Sabinanus Julius Hospes c. 173-175
- Sextus Quintilius Condianus c. 175-c. 179
- Lucius Septimius Flaccus c. 179-c. 183
- The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation, Taylor & Francis, page 381.
- Unless otherwise noted, governors from 69 to 137 are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), pp. 281-362; 13 (1983), pp. 147-237
- Unless otherwise noted, governors from 149 to 182 are taken from Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), pp. 250-252
- Mirković, Miroslava B. (2017). Sirmium: Its History from the First Century AD to 582 AD. Novi Sad: Center for Historical Research.
- Mócsy, András (2014) . Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. New York: Routledge.