Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
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|Founded||4 December 1965 (MDB)
30 June 1981 (registered as PMDB)
|Preceded by||Brazilian Democratic Movement|
|Headquarters||Câmara dos Deputados - Presidência do PMDB, Ed. Principal sala T4 - Esplanada dos Ministérios
|Political position||Centre to Centre-left |
|Colours||Green, yellow, red, black|
|TSE Identification Number||15|
|Seats in the Federal Senate||
23 / 81
|Seats in the Chamber of Deputies||
64 / 513
7 / 27
|Seats in Legislative Assemblies||
147 / 1,024
1,022 / 5,568
|Seats in Municipal Chambers||
7,825 / 56,810
Under military rule from 1965 to 1979, Brazil had a legally enforced two party system, with supporters of the regime gathered under the National Renewal Alliance Party (ARENA) umbrella, and the official opposition making up the MDB. From 1979 onwards, a restricted number of parties were allowed, and nearly all of the old MDB reorganized as the PMDB.
The MDB had been a big tent party uniting nearly all of the opposition to the military dictatorship. As such, it harboured elements ranging across the political spectrum. The PMDB has a similar character to its predecessor, including a range of politicians from conservatives as José Sarney to liberals as Pedro Simon, left-liberals as Roberto Requião, populists as Íris Resende, nationalists as Orestes Quércia as well as the former guerilla movement MR-8.
In 1985, party leader Tancredo Neves won the presidential election, but died before taking office. His running mate Jose Sarney, who had recently joined the party after defecting from the political wing of the military, became president, serving until 1990. He was the only president of Brazil to come from the party. In recent presidential elections the party has not run candidates of its own, preferring to focus on congressional and governatorial elections.
At the legislative elections on 6 October 2002, the party won 74 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 19 out of 81 seats in the Senate, making it one of the biggest parties in Brazil.
The party decided not to launch a candidate for the 2006 presidential election in order to be free to make any coalition in the states. Under Brazilian electoral law, parties launching presidential candidates cannot make any alliance at state level unless such state coalition comprises parties allied at country level. At the congressional elections which occurred at the same time as the presidential elections in October 2006, the PMDB won 89 of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, becoming the biggest party in the Chamber of Deputies, and following elections to 1/3 of the Senate, it had 15 of the 81 seats, becoming the third largest party in the Senate. The PMDB also won 7 state gubernatorial elections in October 2006.
In 2010, the party made gains in the Senate, winning 16 of the elected seats for a total of 20. It was somewhat weakened in other elections, winning 79 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (becoming the second largest party) and winning 5 state governorships.
Notable PMDB members include: Wanderlei Silva, Tancredo Neves, Ulysses Guimarães, Itamar Franco, Orestes Quércia, Michel Temer, Anthony Garotinho, José Sarney, Renan Calheiros, Pedro Simon, Roberto Requião, Germano Rigotto, Paulo Skaf, Ramez Tebet, Marcelo Fortuna, Iris Rezende and Maguito Vilela.
On March 29, 2016, the PMDB announced that they were breaking their coalition with the Workers' Party following accusations against President Dilma Rousseff and former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of corruption. The PMDB support the Impeachment process against Dilma Rousseff. After the impeachment process began, vice president Michel Temer formed a new center-right conservative coalition government with PSDB and other parties.
The predecessor of the party, MDB, was founded as a legal, civil movement of opposition to Brazilian military government. Without a clear program except the democratization of the country, the party was a umbrella of opponents of military regime, ranging from liberal conservatives and christian democrats from parties like Christian Democratic Party and Social Democratic Party to former labourists, socialists and even communists, of Brazilian Labour Party, Brazilian Socialist Party and Brazilian Communist Party. With the redemocratization, many centrists and leftists left the party to another parties with more consistent ideology; Many Christian democrats, progressive liberals and Social democrats broke with the party in 1988 to form Brazilian Social Democracy Party, led by Mario Covas, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, José Serra and Franco Montoro. Another PMDB members left the party to more leftist legends, like the new incarnation of Brazilian Socialist Party, Communist Party of Brazil and Democratic Labour Party. In 2009, the last left-wing section of the party abandoned the party and formed the Free Homeland Party, a hard left party descending from the MR-8 guerrilla. Some strong leftists, like the senator Roberto Requião, stayed in the party, but more isolated and with less power. Another people with a left-wing past and history, like the former governor of Rio de Janeiro Sérgio Cabral Filho, son of the communist journalist Sergio Cabral and Renan Calheiros, was renegated by the dominant left-wing in the country as a "Physiological right-wingers", despite their strong support of the government of PT, even in the eve of Rousseff's downfall.
The left-wing loss, however, was strong replaced by eventual dissidents of centrist, centre-left and even right-wing parties which joined the party to avoid stay far from the power and/or loss feuds with local or national party leadership. It's replacement changed the character of the party; From a catch-all party, the party started to gravitate around the centre-right. The party, however, denies the centre-right character or any strict aderence to any political ideology. The party stayed that is a centrist party of all brazilians committed with democracy.
- [dead link]
- Rhodes, Sybil (2006). Social Movements and Free-Market Capitalism in Latin America. State University of New York Press. p. 117.
- Lansford, Tom, ed. (2014). "Switzerland". Political Handbook of the World 2014. CQ Press/SAGE. p. 183.
- Power, Timothy J. (2008). Kingstone, Peter, ed. Centering Democracy?: Ideological Cleavages and Convergence in the Brazilian Political Class. Democratic Brazil Revisited. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 89.
- Porto, Mauro P. (2008). Democratization and Election News Coverage in Brazil. Handbook of Election News Coverage Around the World. Routledge. p. 253.
- "Brazil's biggest party quits ruling coalition, Rousseff isolated". 30 March 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via Reuters.
- Brazilian Democratic Movement Party – official website
14 - BLP (PTB)
|Numbers of Brazilian Official Political Parties
15 - BDMP (PMDB)
16 - USWP (PSTU)