Human rights in North Korea
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
|North Korea portal|
Human rights in North Korea are very limited. Despite numerous rights being de jure guaranteed by the country's constitution, human rights groups such as Amnesty International and nations such as the United States have asserted that, in practice, there is no right to free speech, and the only radio, television, music and news providers that are deemed legal are those operated by the government. According to reports from Amnesty International and the U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, by 2017 an estimated 200,000 prisoners were incarcerated in camps that are dedicated to political crimes, and subjected to forced labor, physical abuse, and execution.
The North Korean government strictly monitors the activities of foreign visitors. Aid workers are subjected to considerable scrutiny and they are also excluded from places and regions which the government does not want them to enter. Since citizens cannot freely leave the country, it is mainly from stories of refugees and defectors that the nation's human rights record has been constructed. The government's position, expressed through the Korean Central News Agency, is that international criticism of its human rights record is a pretext for overthrowing its Juche-based system, while the abuses of its critics go unpunished.
North Korea's human rights record has been considered the worst in the world and has been globally condemned, with the United Nations and the European Union and groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch all critical of the country's record. Indeed, most international human rights organizations consider North Korea to have no contemporary parallel with respect to violations of liberty.
The General Assembly of the United Nations has since 2003 annually adopted a resolution condemning the country's human rights record. The latest resolution of December 19, 2011, passed by a vote of 123–16 with 51 abstentions, urged the government in Pyongyang to end its "systematic, widespread and grave violations of human rights", which included public executions and arbitrary detentions. North Korea rejected the resolution, saying it was politically motivated and based upon untrue fabrications. In February 2014, a UN special commission published a detailed, 400-page account based on first-hand testimonies documenting "unspeakable atrocities" committed in the country.
- 1 Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
- 2 Position of the DPRK
- 3 Civil liberties
- 3.1 Labor rights
- 3.2 Freedom of expression
- 3.3 Freedom of religion
- 3.4 Freedom of movement
- 3.5 Freedom of the press
- 3.6 Minority rights
- 3.7 Disability rights
- 3.8 Right to food
- 3.9 Forced prostitution
- 3.10 Forced abortion
- 4 Criminal justice
- 5 International abductions
- 6 International reaction
- 7 Number of victims
- 8 Media and organizations
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
On May 6, 2013, the United Nations Human Rights Council announced the appointment of Michael Kirby of Australia, Sonja Biserko of Serbia, and Marzuki Darusman of Indonesia as members of the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
[The] commission of inquiry will investigate the systematic, widespread and grave violations of human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea ... including the violation of the right to food, the violations associated with prison camps, torture and inhuman treatment, arbitrary detention, discrimination, violations of freedom of expression, violations of the right to life, violations of freedom of movement, and enforced disappearances, including in the form of abductions of nationals of other States, with a view to ensuring full accountability, in particular where these violations may amount to crimes against humanity.
On August 20, 2013, the commission began five days of public hearings at Yonsei University in Seoul, South Korea receiving testimony from defectors, and on August 29, 2013, in Japan from relatives of Japanese citizens abducted by North Korea in the 1970s and 1980s. North Korea describes the inquiry as "a political plot" and it has not given investigators access to the country. The UN panel interviewed witnesses in South Korea, Japan, and the UK, and it also conducted hearings in the U.S. on October 30 and 31, 2013. The commission said it has consistently asked North Korean representatives to take part in the public hearings and question witnesses.
On February 17, 2014, the panel published its findings in a 400-page report. The commission accused the North Korean government of being involved in systemic, widespread and gross human rights violations. The panel chairman Michael Kirby described some acts by stating that they resembled those committed by the Nazis.
In many instances, the violations of human rights found by the commission constitute crimes against humanity. These are not mere excesses of the State; they are essential components of a political system that has moved far from the ideals on which it claims to be founded. The gravity, scale and nature of these violations revealed a State that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world.
Roberta Cohen, joint chair of the Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, said it was now up to the world community to take action to protect those persecuted and bring the perpetrators to justice. The DPRK rejected the findings. In a statement it said the commission was "a product of politicization of human rights on the part of the EU and Japan, in alliance with the US hostile policy." On November 18, 2014, the UN voted in favor of a draft resolution to refer North Korea to the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity.
Position of the DPRK
Human-rights discourse in North Korea has a history that predates the establishment of the state in 1948. Based on Marxist theory, Confucian tradition, and the Juche idea, North Korean human-rights theory regards rights as conditional rather than universal, holds that collective rights take priority over individual rights, and that welfare and subsistence rights are important.
The government of North Korea claims that the Constitution of the DPRK guarantees the human rights of its people, and that these guarantees are fully elaborated in its laws and regulations. It claims that these human-rights guarantees and laws are strictly enforced throughout the country and with respect to every individual.
Seven months after the release of the Commission of Inquiry report, North Korea released its own DPRK Association for Human Rights Studies report, which claims that North Koreans enjoy "genuine human rights". North Korea also agreed to implement 113 of the 268 recommendations to improve its human rights performance made at the UN Human Rights Council's Universal Periodic Review process. Kirby cited North Korea's participation in the Universal Periodic Review, the country's publication of their own human rights report, and Hwang Pyong-so's visit to the 2014 Asian Games a "charm offensive" and expressed skepticism about whether the North Korean government has become genuinely concerned about human rights or is simply preparing for imminent criticism in the UN. Kirby welcomed parts of the DPRK Association for Human Rights Studies report as "fair comment" but noted that it fails to discuss the issues raised in the Commission of Inquiry report.
North Korea's founder Kim Il-sung rejected the concept of civil rights for people who oppose the regime. There is an extensive system of informers throughout North Korea which monitor Koreans with respect to political and other possible infractions without reference to formal civil rights.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has officially acknowledged the widespread human rights violations that regularly occur in North Korea. United Nation's Human Rights Resolution 2005/11 referred to specific types of abuses within North Korea:
Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, public executions, extrajudicial and arbitrary detention, the absence of due process and the rule of law, imposition of the death penalty for political reasons, the existence of a large number of prison camps and the extensive use of forced labour;
Sanctions on citizens of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea who have been repatriated from abroad, such as treating their departure as treason leading to punishments of internment, torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or the death penalty;
All-pervasive and severe restrictions on the freedoms of thought, conscience, religion, opinion and expression, peaceful assembly and association and on access of everyone to information, and limitations imposed on every person who wishes to move freely within the country and travel abroad;
Continued violation of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of women, in particular the trafficking of women for prostitution or forced marriage, ethnically motivated forced abortions, including by labour-inducing injection or natural delivery, as well as infanticide of children of repatriated mothers, including in police detention centres and labour training camps.
North Korea is one of the few nations in the world that does not belong to the International Labour Organization (ILO). However, ILO conventions are considered international labor standards regardless of ratification. The ruling Korean Workers’ Party firmly controls the only authorized trade union organization, the General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea.
According to Human Rights Watch, children (some as young as 11) are forced to work on farms and construction sites at the behest of the government, and may be demanded to gather scrap metals and other materials by schools to be sold. The labor can be intensive and children living in the country's Kwalliso (detention camps) are also forced to engage in heavy work.
Freedom of expression
The North Korean constitution has clauses guaranteeing the freedoms of speech and assembly. In practice, other clauses take precedence, including the requirement that citizens follow a socialist way of life. Criticism of the government and its leaders is strictly curtailed and making such statements can be cause for arrest and consignment to one of North Korea's "re-education" camps. The government distributes all radio and television sets; citizens are forbidden to alter them to make it possible to receive broadcasts from other nations; doing so carries severe penalties.
There are numerous civic organizations but all of them appear to be operated by the government. All routinely praise the government and perpetuate the personality cults of the Kim family. Defectors indicate that the promotion of the cult of personality is one of the primary functions of almost all films, plays and books produced within the country.
Freedom of religion
North Korea is officially a secular state and the North Korean Constitution provides for "freedom of religious belief". However, government policies continue to interfere with the individual's ability to choose and to manifest their religious belief. The government continues to repress the religious activities of unauthorized religious groups.
Reports from refugee, defector, missionary, and nongovernmental organizations report that individuals engaging in proselytizing, with ties to overseas evangelical groups operating in China, or who were repatriated from China and found to been in contact with foreigners or missionaries are likely to be arrested and harshly penalized.
Refugees and defectors allege that they witnessed the arrests and execution of members of underground Christian churches by the regime. Due to the country's inaccessibility and the inability to gain timely information, the continuation of this activity remains difficult to verify.
Persecution of Christians and Buddhists
According to the Christian Open Doors organization, North Korea is the leader among countries who persecute Christians. Christian Solidarity Worldwide say there are numerous reports of people being sent to prison camps and subjected to torture and inhuman treatment because of their faith. It is estimated that 50,000–70,000 Christians are held in North Korean prison camps. There are reports of public executions of Christians. For example, Ri Hyon-ok was publicly executed in Ryongchon on June 16, 2009 for giving out bibles, while her husband and children were deported to the Hoeryong political prison camp. If authorities discover that North Korean refugees deported from China have converted to Christianity, they suffer harsher ill-treatment, torture, and prolonged imprisonment. The government considers religious activities political crimes, because they could challenge the personality cult and semi-deification of Kim Il-sung and his family.
From 1949 to the mid-1950s, under the rule of Kim Il-sung, all churches were closed. According to AsiaNews, all non-foreign Catholic priests were executed, and Protestant leaders who did not renounce their faith were purged as "American spies." The martyrdom of the Benedictine monks of Tokwon Abbey was documented as the process of beatification was initiated for them. Only 60 out of 400 Buddhist temples have survived the religious persecution in the 1950s. The 1,600 monks were killed, disappeared in prison camps or were forced to recant their faith. The remaining temples are now preserved as national cultural heritage. North Korean defectors reported that government-employed "monks" are serving as caretakers and tourist guides, but they did not see genuine worship. As reported, most Buddhists are afraid to openly practice their religion in the temple areas and practice their religion only in secret. However, on special occasions, ceremonies were permitted by the authorities.
The North Korean government estimated the number of religious believers in 2002 to be 12,000 Protestants, 10,000 Buddhists and 800 Catholics, while estimates by South Korean and international church-related groups were considerably higher. In addition, the Chondoist Chongu Party, a government-approved traditional religious movement, had approximately 15,000 practitioners.
Since 1988, four church buildings have been erected in Pyongyang with foreign donations: one Catholic, two Protestant and one Russian Orthodox. However, they are only open to foreigners, and North Korean citizens cannot attend the services. The services are used to bring in foreign currency from foreign visitors, including South Koreans. It is therefore clear that the churches are there solely for propaganda purposes. The North Korean constitution nominally protects religious freedom, as long as it is not used to harm the state or the social order. However, in practice, there is no genuine religious freedom, and the government severely restricts religious activity except if it is supervised by government organizations.
Freedom of movement
North Korean citizens usually cannot freely travel around the country, let alone travel abroad. Emigration and immigration are strictly controlled. Only the political elite may own or lease vehicles, and the government limits access to fuel and other forms of transport due to frequent shortages of gasoline/petrol, diesel fuel, crude oil, coal and other fossil fuels due to the severe sanctions placed on North Korea by the USA and other nations (satellite photos of North Korea show an almost complete absence of vehicles on all of its roads throughout the country, even in its cities). Forced resettlement of citizens and whole families, especially as punishment for political reasons, is said to be routine.
North Korean refugees who flee to China are often later forcibly repatriated back to North Korea by authorities, are routinely beaten and sent to prison camps. This is because the North Korean government treats emigrants from the country as defectors. This treatment is more severe in cases where North Korean refugees have come into contact with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are associated with South Korea or with religions, especially Christianity. In cases where the North Korean government discovers that contact has occurred between refugees and these NGOs, the punishments for these refugees are torture and execution upon their repatriation back to North Korea.
According to The Independent, in May 2016 Kim Jong-un temporarily banned all weddings and funerals across the country, and freedom of movement into and out of the capital, in preparation for a meeting, on 6 May, of the Workers' Party of Korea, the first gathering of its kind in 36 years.
Freedom of the press
As of 2017[update], North Korea occupies the last place on the Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders. The constitution of North Korea provides for freedom of the press, but in practice, all media is strictly controlled by the government. The national media is focused almost entirely on political propaganda and the promotion of the personality cults surrounding Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il. It emphasizes historical grievances toward the United States and Japan.
Reporters Without Borders claims that radio or television sets that can be bought in North Korea are preset to receive only the government frequencies and sealed with a label to prevent tampering with the equipment. It is a serious criminal offense to manipulate the sets and receive radio or television broadcasts from outside North Korea. In a party campaign in 2003, the head of each party cell in neighborhoods and villages received instructions to verify the seals on all radio sets.
As North and South Korea use different television systems (PAL and NTSC, respectively), it is not possible to view broadcasts across the border between the two countries; however, in areas bordering China, it has reportedly been possible to receive television from that country. A United Nations envoy reported that any North Korean citizen caught watching a South Korean film may result in that person being sent to a labor camp.
North Korea's population is one of the world's most ethnically homogeneous and today, immigration is almost non-existent. Among the few immigrants that have willingly gone to North Korea are Japanese spouses (generally wives) of Koreans who returned from Japan from 1955 to the early 1980s. These Japanese have been forced to assimilate, and for the most part, the returnees overall are reported to have not been fully accepted into North Korean society (with a few exceptions, such as those who became part of the government), and instead ended up on the fringes. Foreigners who visit the country are generally strictly monitored by government minders and are forbidden to enter certain locations.
In 2014, after the United Nations Human Rights Council published a report on human rights in North Korea advising a referral to the International Criminal Court, the official Korean Central News Agency responded with an article that included homophobic insults against report author Michael Kirby, who is openly gay. The KCNA's article went on to state that gay marriage "can never be found in the DPRK boasting of the sound mentality and good morals, and homosexuality has become a target of public criticism even in Western countries, too. In fact, it is ridiculous for such gay [sic] to sponsor dealing with others' human rights issue."
As a state party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), North Korea has international obligations to refrain from discriminating against its people based on disability (among others). Under Article 2 of the CRC, "States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or their parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status" (emphasis added).
On March 22, 2006, the Associated Press reported from South Korea that a North Korean doctor who defected, Ri Kwang-chol, has claimed that babies born with physical defects are rapidly put to death and buried. A report by the United Nations special rapporteur for human rights in North Korea highlighted reports from defectors describing how disabled people are allegedly "rounded up" and sent to "special camps."
However, the charity Handicap International reports that it has been operating in North Korea since 1999, assisting the Korean Federation for the Protection of Disabled People, including supporting orthopedic centers serving thousands of disabled people. The International Committee of the Red Cross reported in 2006 that it had assisted in setting up a rehabilitation center for disabled people in Pyongyang. The International Campaign to Ban Landmines reports that North Korea "has a comprehensive system for assisting persons with disabilities; however, this system is limited by the general economic situation of the country." North Korea participated in the Paralympic Games for the first time in 2012.
Still, the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Marzuki Darusman, stated the following in his report before the UN Human Rights Council’s twenty-second session:
As early as 2003 the Commission on Human Rights expressed deep concern at the "mistreatment of and discrimination of disabled children". Since 2006 the General Assembly has consistently decried "continuing reports of violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms of persons with disabilities, especially on the use of collective camps and coercive measures that target the rights of persons with disabilities to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children.” Whereas in 2006 the Special Rapporteur noted "to date, those with disabilities are sent away from the capital city, and particularly those with mental disabilities are detained in areas or camps known as 'Ward 49' with harsh and subhuman conditions."
According to Marked for Life: Songbun, North Korea's Social Classification System, North Korea adopted a law in 2003 to promote equal access to public services for disabled people and it claimed in its second report on compliance with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights that its handicapped citizens are protected. North Korea acceded to this covenant on September 14, 1981. However, its law has not been implemented, and North Korean refugees in the South testify that the handicapped are severely discriminated against unless they are wounded soldiers who say their wounds were the result of American aggression during the Korean War.
Right to food
A January 2004 report by Amnesty International noted that "Korea remains dependent on food aid to feed its people, yet government policy still prevents the swift and equitable distribution of this aid, while the population is denied the right to freedom of movement, which would enable people to go and search for food." The report found that the North Korean government had "failed in its duty to uphold and protect" the right to food and that the regime's actions "have exacerbated the effects of the famine and food crisis."
Shortly thereafter, the Committee for Human Rights in North Korea published Hunger and Human Rights: The Politics of Famine in North Korea (by Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland, 2005), which discussed the probability that North Korean food shortages in the 1990s were a man-made (regime) phenomenon and that with plausible policy adjustments – such as maintaining food imports on commercial terms or aggressively seeking multilateral assistance – the North Korean government could have avoided famine and food shortages. Instead, in a desperate attempt to conserve resources for the Korean government. The regime blocked humanitarian aid and diverted resources to the military.
In 2016, British scholar Hazel Smith reported that health and nutrition of the population had improved greatly and was comparable to other developing countries. She disputed the view that government policies were creating a human rights crisis that was unique to North Korea.
Discrimination and unequal access to food
Economic reform abolished the old coupon system in North Korea, which had favored non-productive citizens regarding access to food. After the coupon system disappeared, an average urban family spent between 75 and 85 percent of their income on food, while state farmers were spending only a third of their income on food. These disparities show that North Korea does not have safety net mechanisms to protect the vulnerable people in society, such as housewives and the elderly.
When the food crisis began, access to food came through a public distribution system (PDS) controlled by the regime, and entitlements were partly a function of political status. As the planned economy crumbled and markets developed in response to the state's inability to fulfill its obligations under the old social compact, the character of the crisis changed. Current shortages bear a closer resemblance to food emergencies in market and transition economies, where access to food is determined by one's capacity to command resources in the marketplace. This type of emergency is no less severe, but poses different challenges to outside donors.
Food is distributed to the civilian population of North Korea through two channels. Workers on state and cooperative farms account for roughly 30 percent of the population, and most of these farmers are granted an annual allotment of grain at the time of the harvest. However, the country is highly urbanized, and the bulk of the population is fed through the PDS. The PDS distributes food as a monthly or biweekly ration. Rations, in turn, vary according to occupational status and age. For example, high-ranking party, government, and military officials are fed through separate distribution channels and receive higher rations, as do certain classes of workers.
In confronting the fundamentally non-cooperative stance of the North Korean government, the humanitarian community has pursued two basic strategies to guarantee the integrity of its assistance: the targeting of vulnerable groups, and the monitoring of food deliveries to assure that these targeted populations are being reached. At virtually every point, the North Korean government has placed roadblocks in the way of the donor community in North Korea, which succeeded to the extent that it did only through extraordinary perspicacity and flexibility. Yet, even by its own admission, this monitoring effort is a leaky sieve, and it is estimated that between 10 and 30 percent of food aid is diverted. Most concerns with diversion center on the appropriation of food by the military. Military and party elites have other sources of food; an equal if not greater problem is the diversion of food to the market or to less deserving groups.
Also, the remote regions that suffered from the most severe famine conditions were the first regions to stop receiving shipments of food supplies, and at the same time, as local industry collapsed, residents' purchasing power decreased.
Restrictions on the freedom to move caused the so-called 'hostile class' ‒ whose members were relocated to remote mountain areas ‒ to suffer from the limited access to food.
A UN human rights office report released in May 2019 highlighted the “appalling” levels of hunger that have been affecting around 10.9 million people particularly in north-eastern and rural provinces of North Korea. UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet said, “The rights to food, health, shelter, work, freedom of movement and liberty are universal and inalienable, but in North Korea they depend primarily on the ability of individuals to bribe State officials.”
Food shortage and malnutrition in detention
According to testimony by a previous detainee, detention was most often severely overcrowded and there existed a serious lack of food. "Malnourishment made life in Yodok very difficult. We were given corn-rice in small quantities; at times we got only salt soup with cabbage leaves. No meat was served. We were always hungry; and resorted to eating grass in spring. Three or four people died of malnutrition. When someone died, fellow prisoners delayed reporting his death to the authorities so that they could eat his allocated breakfast." Prisoners were punished with withdrawal of food as well as torture and harsh labor. Malnutrition and infectious disease caused more than half of the deaths in detention.
A group called "A Woman's Voice International" alleged that the state forcibly drafts girls as young as 14 years old to work in the so-called kippŭmjo, which includes prostitution teams. The source used is unclear as to whether only adult kippŭmjo are assigned to prostitution or whether there is prostitution of children – other kippŭmjo activities include massaging and cabaret dancing. Claims were made that they are ordered "to marry guards of Kim Jong-il or national heroes" when they are 25 years old.
The People’s Republic of China returns all refugees from North Korea, treated as illegal immigrants, usually imprisoning them in a short term facility. Women who are suspected of being impregnated by Chinese men are subjected to forced abortions; babies born alive are killed. Abortions up to full term are induced by injection; live premature babies or full-term newborns are sometimes killed but more commonly simply discarded into a bucket or box and then buried. They may live several days in the disposal container.
The death penalty, often without judicial due process, is administered for a wide variety of political and common crimes. Attempts to escape from the country or from a prison camp within the country may result in execution on the spot. Personnel in the criminal justice system have wide discretion and are allegedly authorized to operate without regard to the formal legal rights of Koreans.
A number of members of the regime itself have disappeared or been executed after falling out of favor. The most prominent example is Jang Sung-taek, the uncle of North Korea's leader, Kim Jong-un. On December 8, 2013, Jang was publicly expelled from the ruling Workers’ Party of Korea. Some of the accusations included "illicit affairs with women, obstructing the nation's economic affairs, and committing anti-party factional acts." On December 13, 2013, the state media announced that Jang had been executed.
The constitution states that courts are independent and that judicial proceedings are to take place in strict accordance to the law; however, an independent judiciary does not exist. Little information is available on formal criminal-justice procedures and practices, with outside access to the legal system limited to trials for traffic violations and other minor offenses.
The Ministry of People's Security (MPS) dispenses with trials in political cases and refers prisoners to the State Security Department (SSD) for punishment. According to Hidden Gulag, most inmates in prison camps arrive there without trial, without knowing the charges against them, and without having legal counsel. Witness to Transformation reported that only 13 percent of the 102 respondents who had been incarcerated in the country received a trial.
North Korea resumed public executions in October 2007 after they had declined in the years following 2000 amidst international criticism. Prominent executed criminals include officials convicted of drug trafficking and embezzlement. Common criminals convicted of crimes such as murder, robbery, rape, drug dealing, smuggling, piracy, vandalism, etc. have also been reported to be executed, mostly by firing squad. The country does not publicly release national crime statistics or reports on the levels of crimes.
In October 2007, a South Pyongan province factory chief convicted of making international phone calls from 13 phones he installed in his factory basement was executed by firing squad in front of a crowd of 150,000 people in a stadium, according to a report from a South Korean aid agency called Good Friends. Good Friends also reported that six were killed in the crush as spectators left. In another instance, 15 people were publicly executed for crossing the border into China.
A UN General Assembly committee has adopted a draft resolution, co-sponsored by more than 50 countries, expressing "very serious concern" at reports of widespread human rights violations in North Korea, including public executions. North Korea has condemned the draft, saying it is inaccurate and biased, but it was still sent to the then 192-member General Assembly for a final vote.
In 2011, two people were executed in front of 500 spectators for handling propaganda leaflets that had floated across the border from South Korea, apparently as part of a campaign by former North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il to tighten ideological control as he groomed his youngest son as the eventual successor.
In June 2019, a Seoul-based human rights group the Transitional Justice Working Group said to have identified at least 323 sites in North Korea, where public executions took place. The group said the most common charges for execution ranged from “stealing copper and livestock” to “anti-state” activities and illegally crossing into China.
According to many organizations, the conditions in North Korean prisons are harsh and life-threatening. Additionally, prisoners are subjected to torture and inhumane treatment by North Korean authorities. Public and secret executions of prisoners, including children, especially in cases of escape attempts, and infanticides (forced abortions and baby killings upon birth) often occur. The mortality rate is very high, because many prisoners die of starvation, illnesses, work accidents, or torture.
The North Korean government flatly denies all allegations of human rights violations in prison camps, claiming that it is prohibited by criminal procedure law, but former prisoners testify that there are completely different rules in the prison camps. The North Korean government has failed to provide any information on prisoners or prison camps or even to allow access to any human rights organization.
Lee Soon-ok gave detailed testimony on her treatment in the North Korean prison system to the United States House of Representatives in 2002. In her statement she said, "I testify that most of the 6,000 prisoners who were there when I arrived in 1987 had quietly perished under the harsh prison conditions by the time I was released in 1992." Many other former prisoners, such as Kang Chol-hwan, have given detailed testimonies on the human rights crimes in North Korean prison camps.
According to the testimony of former camp guard Ahn Myong Chol of Camp 22, the guards are trained to treat the detainees as sub-human. He gave an account of children in one of the camps fighting over who got to eat a kernel of corn retrieved from cow dung.
Internment camps for political prisoners
The internment camps for people accused of political offenses or denounced as politically unreliable are run by the state security department. Political prisoners were historically subjected to the family responsibility principle, which meant that the immediate family members of a convicted political criminal were also regarded as political criminals and interned. However, since 1994 there has been a near-abandonment of this family responsibility principle.
The internment camps are located in central and northeastern North Korea. They comprise many prison labor colonies in secluded mountain valleys, completely isolated from the outside world. The total number of prisoners is estimated to be 80,000 to 120,000. The Yodok and Bukchang camps are separated into two sections: one for political prisoners in lifelong detention, the other similar to re-education camps where prisoners are serving long-term sentences with the vague hope that they will eventually be released.
The prisoners are forced to perform hard and dangerous slave labor with primitive means in mining and agriculture. The food rations are very small, so the prisoners are constantly on the brink of starvation. In combination with the hard work, this leads to huge numbers of prisoners dying. An estimated 40% of prisoners die from malnutrition. Moreover, many prisoners are crippled from work accidents, frostbite or torture. There is a rigid punishment system in the camp. Prisoners who work too slowly or do not obey an order are beaten or tortured. In cases of stealing food or attempting to escape, the prisoners are publicly executed.
Initially, there were around twelve political prison camps, but some were merged or closed (e.g. Onsong prison camp, Kwan-li-so No. 12 was closed down following an unsuccessful riot in 1987 where around 5,000 prisoners were killed). Today there are six political prison camps in North Korea (see below). Most of the camps are documented in testimonies of former prisoners, and coordinates and satellite images of all are available.
|English name||Official name||Size||Prisoners|
|Kaechon Political Prison Camp||Kwan-li-so No. 14||155 km² (60 mi²)||15,000|
|Yodok Political Prison Camp||Kwan-li-so No. 15||378 km² (146 mi²)||46,500|
|Hwasong Political Prison Camp||Kwan-li-so No. 16||549 km² (212 mi²)||10,000|
|Bukchang Political Prison Camp||Kwan-li-so No. 18||73 km² (28 mi²)||50,000|
|Hoeryong Political Prison Camp||Kwan-li-so No. 22||225 km² (87 mi²)||50,000|
|Chongjin Political Prison Camp||Kwan-li-so No. 25||0,25 km² (0,1 mi²)||3,000+|
The South Korean journalist Kang Chol-hwan is a former prisoner of Yodok Political Prison Camp and has written a book, The Aquariums of Pyongyang, about his time in the camp. The International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea (ICNK) estimates that over 10,000 people die in North Korean prison camps every year.
The re-education camps for criminals are run by the interior ministry. There is a fluent passage between common crimes and political crimes, because people who get on the bad side of influential partisans are often denounced on the basis of false accusations. They are then sent to detention centers, threatened with brutal torture and forced to make false confessions (Lee Soon-ok, for example, had to kneel down whilst being showered with water at icy temperatures with other prisoners, of whom six did not survive) and are then condemned in a brief show trial to a long-term prison sentence. In North Korea, political crimes are greatly varied, from border crossing to any disturbance of the political order, and they are rigorously punished. Due to the dire prison conditions with hunger and torture, a large percentage of prisoners do not survive their sentence term.
The re-education camps are large prison building complexes surrounded by high walls. The plight of the prisoners is quite similar to that in the political prison camps. They have to perform slave labor in prison factories. If they do not meet the work quota, they are tortured and (at least in Kaechon camp) confined for many days to special prison cells, too small to stand up or lie full-length in.
In distinction from the internment camps for political prisoners, the re-education camp prisoners are instructed ideologically after work and are forced to memorize speeches of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il and to undergo self-criticism rites. Many prison inmates are guilty of common crimes penalized also in other countries, but often they were committed out of economic necessity, e.g. illegal border crossing, stealing food or illegal trading.
There are around 15–20 reeducation camps in North Korea.
Two camps are documented with coordinates, satellite images and testimonies of former prisoners.
|Reeducation Camp||Official Name||Size||Prisoners|
|Kaechon Reeducation Camp||Kyo-hwa-so No. 1||300 x 300 m (328 x 328 yds)||6,000|
|Chongori Reeducation Camp||Kyo-hwa-so No. 12||150 x 350 m (164 x 383 yds)||2,000|
Other camps are documented with short testimonies of former prisoners.
- Kyo-hwa-so No. 3 Sinuiju (c. 2,500 prisoners) in North Pyongan
- Kyo-hwa-so No. 4 Kangdong (c. 7,000 prisoners) in South Pyongan
- Kyo-hwa-so No. 8 Yongdam (c. 3,000 prisoners) in Kangwon
- Kyo-hwa-so No. 11 Chungsan (c. 3,300 prisoners) in South Pyongan
- Kyo-hwa-so No. 15 Hamhung (c. 500 prisoners) in South Hamgyong
- Kyo-hwa-so No. 22 Oro (c. 1,000 prisoners) in South Hamgyong
- Kyo-hwa-so No. 77 Danchon (c. 6,000 prisoners) in South Hamgyong
- Kyo-hwa-so Hoeryong (c. 1,500 prisoners) in North Hamgyong
The South Korean human rights activist Lee Soon-ok has written a book (Eyes of the Tailless Animals: Prison Memoirs of a North Korean Woman) about her time in a camp and testified before the US Senate.
In October 2014, North Korea admitted for the first time that it had labor camps. Choe Myong Nam, a North Korean foreign ministry, said "Both in law and practice, we do have reform through labor detention camps – no, detention centers – where people are improved through their mentality and look on their wrongdoings".
In the decades after the Korean War, there were reports that North Korea had abducted many foreign nationals, mainly South Korean and Japanese. There are many testimonies that nine European citizens and several U.S. citizens have also been abducted to North Korea. For years, these were dismissed as conspiracy theories even by many of the regime's critics; however, in September 2002, Kim Jong-Il partially acknowledged to Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi the involvement of North Korean "special institutions" in the kidnapping of Japanese citizens during a period of six years from 1977 to 1983. Kim officially admitted to abducting 13 Japanese citizens out of 17 Japanese the Japanese government accused North Korea of abducting. He stated that those responsible had been punished.
Five surviving victims were allowed to visit Japan and decided not to return to North Korea. For eight more Japanese abductees, officials claimed deaths caused by accidents or illnesses; Japan says this leaves two still unaccounted for, and says that what the North claimed were the ashes of Megumi Yokota were not hers.
Despite the admission to Prime Minister Koizumi, the North Korean government continues to deny the kidnappings of other foreign nationals and refuses any cooperation to investigate further cases of suspected abductions. In 2017, a former Japanese abductee Hasuike publicly stated that “Japan’s prime minister needs to visit North Korea again”, urging Prime Minister Abe to visit North Korea to discuss the continuing abduction issues between North Korea and Japan by taking the advantage of the Pyongyang Declaration.
Officials of the South Korean government claim that 486 South Koreans, mostly fishermen, are believed to have been abducted since the end of the Korean War. Advocates and family members have accused the government of doing little or nothing to gain their freedom. South Korea officially recognized 480 South Korean abductees to be held in North Korea. Even after the Korean War, North Korea is accused of abducting South Koreans such as Kim Dongsik, who was abducted on January 16, 2000 and Jin Gyeong-suk, a North Korean defector to South Korea who was abducted on August 8, 2004.
In November 2013, a civic group, the Korean War Abductees Family Association (KWAFA), consisting of family members of South Koreans abducted to North Korea during the Korean War (1950–53), said it will take North Korean leader Kim Jong-un to the International Criminal Court (ICC) for unlawful detention of the abductees and failure to address related abuses.
David Sneddon, an American college student known for his disappearance in China in 2004, was initially declared dead. Yet, recent news from the National Association for the Rescue of Japanese Kidnapped by North Korea found that Sneddon was arrested in China on false charges for helping illegal residents travel. They made further claims that Sneddon is alive in North Korea and in fact has been abducted in China and sent to North Korea in order to teach English to Kim Jong Un.
Most countries and multilateral organizations have criticized North Korea for its alleged human rights abuses. Since 2005, the United Nations General Assembly has adopted a resolution every year to condemn the human rights situation in North Korea.
Multiple countries have been critical of the allegations made against North Korea. China's delegation to the United Nations said that North Korea has made considerable progress in protecting human rights. Sudan's government said that instead of criticizing the country, there should be support by the international community for North Korea's efforts to protect human rights. Venezuela's delegation to the United Nations asserted that the allegations made by UN observers against North Korea are based on flawed criteria and are not credible. Cuba's delegation to the United Nations said that the body's claims made against North Korea are politically motivated and seek to impose isolation and pressure on the country, in violation of the Human Rights Council's stated principles.
The U.S. and Japan have passed laws and created envoys in order to bring this issue to public attention. The U.S. initially passed the North Korean Human Rights Act of 2004 in October of that year, and reauthorized the law in 2008. It created an office at the State Department focused on North Korean human rights, run originally by Special Envoy Jay Lefkowitz.
The NGO Freedom House has ranked North Korea at the very bottom of its "Freedom in the World" ratings since the survey was first launched in 1973. In Freedom House's 2013 survey, North Korea was one of nine countries that earned a 7 (its lowest rating) for both political rights and civil liberties. Its current report on North Korea categorizes it as "Not Free", and states that there are virtually no organizations independent of state control. North Korea has charged that those who make allegations about human rights in the country are interfering with the country's internal affairs and trying to force down their values.
Other international NGOs have been established with the purpose of relieving the human rights abuses faced by North Koreans. The North Korea Strategy Center works to provide people living in North Korea with access to videos, music, and other external media that promotes human rights and democracy. An organization called Liberty in North Korea collects charitable donations in order to perform rescue missions for defectors attempting to escape North Korea through China. Still other organizations focus on assisting defectors after they arrive in Southeast Asia, South Korea, the United States, or other destinations. Saejowi, a Seoul-based NGO, aims to provide medical support to defectors in South Korea, because they are often unable to understand the treatment options available to them.
With the exception of the international abductions issue regarding Japanese, Americans, and South Koreans, which it says has been fully resolved, North Korea strongly rejects all reports of human rights violations and accuses the defectors of promoting only an anti-North agenda.
Number of victims
Estimates based on the North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the North Korean famine and that excess mortality during the whole period 1993 to 2008 was between 600,000 and 850,000. The famine has been described as the result of the economic policies of the North Korean government or as deliberate "terror-starvation". Co-author of The Black Book of Communism Pierre Rigoulot estimates 100,000 executions, 1.5 million deaths in concentration camps and 500,000 deaths from famine, reaching a total of 2.1 million victims (not counting 1.3 million Korean soldiers and civilians killed on both sides during the Korean War).
Media and organizations
- Chosun Journal, an independent non-profit website that links communities for human rights in North Korea.
- Hanvoice, a Canadian-based human rights organization that assists North Korean refugees.
- North Korea Uncovered, a comprehensive set of maps of North Korea showing thousands of buildings, monuments, missile-storage facilities, mass graves, secret labor camps, palaces, restaurants, tourist sites, and main roads.
- Seoul Train, a 2004 documentary film that deals with North Korean defectors fleeing through or to China.
- Escape from Camp 14, a book about a North Korean born child and his life under the camp conditions.
- In Order to Live, a memoir published in 2015 that talks about a North Korean girl's journey to freedom. Written by Park Yeon-mi, a North Korean defector known for her speech at One Young World 2014 Summit in Dublin Ireland, the memoir gives a detailed description of the life in North Korea and the process of defection.
- Children of the Secret State, a documentary film that focuses on showing the pitiful lives of North Korean orphans.The film consists of much visual proof of North Korea's humanitarian crisis such as prison camp, famine and malnutrition. The film was released in 2001 and movie critiques such as Allison Gorman noted that the film "shows... the gross abuse of power and money to favor the few."
- List of fact-finding reports on human rights in North Korea
- Human experimentation in North Korea
- Korean War POWs detained in North Korea
- Kotjebi, a Korean term denoting North Korean homeless children.
- North Korea's cult of personality
- North Korea's illicit activities
- Human trafficking in North Korea
- Politics in North Korea
- Propaganda in North Korea
- List of foreign nationals detained in North Korea
- North Korea: Human Rights Concerns Archived June 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Amnesty International, November 28, 2006.
- Cooper, Helene (March 7, 2007). "U.S. Releases Rights Report, With an Acknowledgment". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016.
- Szoldra, Paul (March 24, 2017). "The Stories from inside North Korea's Prison Camps Are Horrifying". Business Insider.
- United Nations Human Rights Council Session 25 Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea A/HRC/25/63 page 12 (paragraph 61). February 7, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "North Korean Refugees NGO". Northkoreanrefugees.com. October 20, 2008. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (July 2, 2008). "UNHCR Freedom in the World 2008 – North Korea". Unhcr.org. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- KCNA Assails Role Played by Japan for UN Passage of "Human Rights" Resolution against DPRK Archived April 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, December 22, 2005.
- KCNA Refutes U.S. Anti-DPRK Human Rights Campaign Archived April 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, November 8, 2005.
- "Issues North Korea". Amnesty International UK. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "VII. Conclusions and Recommendations". Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. February 17, 2014. p. 365. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "World Report 2014: North Korea". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "North Korea". Christian Solidarity Worldwide. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "ICNK welcomes UN inquiry on North Korea report, calls for action". International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea. February 20, 2014. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "February 2012 DPRK (North Korea)". United Nations Security Council. February 2012.
- Michael Kirby; Marzuki Darusman; Sonja Biserko (February 17, 2014). "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on February 17, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Council President appoints Members of Commission of Inquiry on the Democratic People's Republic in Korea" (News release). The United Nations. Geneva. May 7, 2013. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "Resolution adopted by the Human Rights Council: Situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea" (PDF). United Nations. April 9, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 29, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Choe Sang-hun (August 20, 2013). "North Korean Defectors Tell U.N. Panel of Prison Camp Abuses". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "UN Panel Hears from Relatives of Japanese Abducted by N. Korea" Archived August 31, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Voice of America News, August 29, 2013.
- "UN human rights probe on DPR Korea set to begin hearings in Japan" Archived February 8, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, UN News Centre, August 23, 2013.
- "UN panel on North Korea details horrific torture, appeals to world to act", Asia Bulletin, February 17, 2014.
- "North Korea: UN moves closer to ICC human rights probe". November 19, 2014. Archived from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved April 22, 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
- Sanchez, Ray. "Un votes against North Korea on human rights - CNN.com". cnn.com. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Song, Jiyoung; Robert Weatherley (June 2008). "The Evolution of Human Rights Thinking in North Korea". Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics. 24 (2): 272–296. doi:10.1080/13523270802003111.
- Jiyoung Song. Human Rights Discourse in North Korea: Post-Colonial, Marxist, and Confucian Perspectives. Taylor & Francis US. p.104
- "NATIONAL REPORT SUBMITTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH 15 (A) OF THE ANNEX TO HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL RESOLUTION 5/1* Democratic People's Republic of Korea" (PDF). HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Sixth session. United Nations. November 30 – December 11, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 13, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Adam Taylor (September 17, 2014). "North Korea wrote a 53,558-word report on its human rights record. The conclusion? It's pretty good". Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Byul Ryan-im (October 26, 2014). "Yongusil 50: A Cause for Optimism—Michael Kirby in Hong Kong". Sino-NK. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- "North Korea defends human rights record in report to UN – BBC News" (video). BBC News. October 8, 2014. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- "Epic Exchange Between Justice Kirby and DPRK Councilor Kim Song". YouTube. The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. October 24, 2014. Archived from the original on January 10, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of" (PDF). Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011. United States Department of State. 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) is an authoritarian state led by the Kim family for more than 60 years. On December 31, 2011, Kim Jong Un was named supreme commander of the Korean People's Army following the December 17 death of his father Kim Jong Il. Kim Jong Un's grandfather, the late Kim Il-sung, remains "eternal president." The national elections, held in March 2009, were neither free nor fair. Security forces report to the supreme leader of North Korea, Kim Jong Un, and to the civilians and military officers that form the National Defense Commission, the supreme ruling body of the state. Citizens did not have the right to change their government. The government subjected citizens to rigid controls over many aspects of their lives, including denial of the freedoms of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement and worker rights. There continued to be reports of a vast network of political prison camps in which conditions were often harsh and life threatening. Defectors continued to report extrajudicial killings, disappearances, arbitrary detention, arrests of political prisoners, and torture. The judiciary was not independent and did not provide fair trials. There continued to be reports of severe punishment of some repatriated refugees and their family members. There were reports of trafficked women among refugees and workers crossing the border into China. The government made no known attempts to prosecute officials who committed human rights abuses.
- "The situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. April 3, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 10, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
Deploring the grave, widespread and systematic human rights abuses in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, in particular the use of torture and labour camps against political prisoners and repatriated citizens of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea,
- UN Commission on Human Rights (April 14, 2005). "Situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea: Human Rights Resolution 2005/11". Archived from the original on August 4, 2007. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
- "Labor Rights" Archived February 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Chapter on North Korea (page 2), World Report 2013, Human Rights Watch. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Reid Standish (June 12, 2014). "Child Labor Is Declining Worldwide, But It's Thriving in These Six Countries". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- Debra Killalea (February 10, 2017). "North Korea: Child exploitation lands country in hot water". News.Com.Au. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- "DPRK's Constitution (Full Text)". NovexCn.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2002. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- "Korea, Democratic People's Republic of" , Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Uri Tours: Exclusive Buddhist Temple Tour of North Korea Archived December 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "Article 68, Chapter V, Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens" Archived March 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. September 2007. ISBN 9780761476313. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
North Korea is officially an atheist state in which almost the entire population is nonreligious.
- The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster. December 1993. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
Atheism continues to be the official position of the governments of China, North Korea and Cuba.
- "Korea, Democratic People's Republic of" , International Religious Freedom Report for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "North Korea" Archived September 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, World Watchlist, 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "World Watch List 2012: North Korea No. 1 Persecutor of Christians for 10th Straight Year". Open Doors, January 2, 2012. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "North Korea: A case to answer, a call to act" (PDF). Christian Solidarity Worldwide, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "50,000 Christians imprisoned in North Korea". Vatican Radio, April 15, 2011. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Death of Kim Jong-Il may not change much for North Korean Christians". Open Doors UK, December 2011. Archived from the original on March 4, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "North Korea crushing churches". National Post Canada, November 18, 2005. Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "New Reports Tell of Executions, Torture of Christians in North Korea". Christian Today, May 27, 2005. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "North Korea executes woman for giving out bibles". New York Post, July 24, 2009. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "A prison without bars, Eyewitness accounts of the persecution of members of religious groups and repatriated refugees (p. 27–31)" (PDF). U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, March 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "North Korea: Harsher Policies against Border-Crossers". Human Rights Watch, March 5, 2007. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "N. Korea escalates 'cult of Kim' to counter West's influence". The Christian Science Monitor, January 3, 2007. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- Andrei Lankov (March 16, 2005). "North Korea's missionary position". Asia Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- "Destroyed Church in Wonsan Vicinity". Willibroard's Gallery. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "First Church Building Opened in Communist North Korea". The Forerunner, December 2007. Archived from the original on January 29, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "N. Korea martyrs slated for sainthood". Religion and Spirituality, May 28, 2007. Archived from the original on March 14, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "The Martyrs of Tokwon: Historical Preliminary Notes". Missionary Benedictines of St. Ottilien. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "North Korean Martyrs, the first process for beatification gets underway". Asia News, May 25, 2007. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea 2011 (p. 303 – 310)". Korea Institute for National Unification, August 30, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- "A prison without bars, Eyewitness accounts of the persecution of members of religious groups and repatriated refugees (p. 19 – 21)" (PDF). U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, March 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- "White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea 2011 (p. 310)". Korea Institute for National Unification, August 30, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- Caroline Gluck (January 6, 2002). "Eyewitness: Christianity in North Korea". BBC. Archived from the original on December 9, 2003. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- "2010 International Religious Freedom Report". U.S. State Department, September 13, 2011. Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Giving Out Bibles Leads to Executions". Washington Times, December 8, 2006. Archived from the original on December 26, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Bongsu Church in Pyongyang a Fraud, Only for False Propagation of Freedom of Religion". Daily NK, August 2, 2005. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". International Constitutional Law (ICL) Project, April 2009. Archived from the original on January 28, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Thank You Father Kim Il Sung" (PDF). U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, November 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 26, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "2010 International Religious Freedom Report". US State Department, September 13, 2011. Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Korea: North, Amnesty" Archived May 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Migration News, University of California, Davis, Vol.9 No.4 (April 2002). Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (February 28, 2005). "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Korea, Democratic People's Republic of". US Department of State. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
- Neaderland, Benjamin (2004). "Quandary on the Yalu: International Law, Politics, and China's North Korean Refugee Crisis". Stanford Journal of International Law (1): 143–178. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014.
- Kayleigh Lewis (May 2, 2016). "Kim Jong-un bans all weddings, funerals and freedom of movement in North Korea". The Independent. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
- "North Korea". Reporters Without Borders. 2017. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
- "Kim Jong Il's leadership, key to victory". Naenara. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved January 27, 2006.
- "North Korea – Annual report 2005". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on December 31, 2005. Retrieved January 25, 2006.
- "N. Korea human rights 'abysmal'". British Broadcasting Corporation. October 23, 2009. Archived from the original on November 4, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- McElroy, Damien (April 6, 2002). "North Korea, where minders keep visitors in check". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009.
- "Korea, Democratic People's Republic of: Consular Information Sheet". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
- Taylor, Adam (April 22, 2014). "North Korea slams U.N. human rights report because it was led by gay man". Washington Post. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- "KCNA Commentary Slams Artifice by Political Swindlers". kcna.co.jp. the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA). April 22, 2014. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
As for Kirby who took the lead in cooking the "report", he is a disgusting old lecher with a 40-odd-year-long career of homosexuality. He is now over seventy, but he is still anxious to get married to his homosexual partner. This practice can never be found in the DPRK boasting of the sound mentality and good morals, and homosexuality has become a target of public criticism even in Western countries, too. In fact, it is ridiculous for such gay to sponsor dealing with others' human right issue.
- Sheridan, Michael (October 15, 2006). "Nation under a nuclear cloud: 'Racially not impure' children killed". The Times Online. London. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- "U.N.: N. Korea puts disabled in camps". Disabled Peoples' International. Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- "North Korea". Handicap International. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
- "North Korea: ICRC inaugurates a second physical rehabilitation centre". International Committee of the Red Cross. April 24, 2006. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- "Democratic People's Republic Of Korea – Mine Ban Policy". International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Archived from the original on June 16, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- A/HRC/22/57, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Marzuki Darusman, 26, para. 72.
- David Hawk (2012). Marked for Life: Songbun, North Korea's Social Classification System (PDF). Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. p. 83. ISBN 978-0985648008. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
- "Starved of Rights". Human Rights and the Food Crisis in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). Amnesty International. January 2004. Archived from the original on March 12, 2015.
- Haggard, Stephen; Noland, Marcus (2005). Hunger and Human Rights: The Politics of Famine in North Korea (PDF). Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. ISBN 978-0-9771-1110-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 7, 2013.
- Smith, Hazel (Spring 2016). "Nutrition and Health in North Korea: What's New, What's Changed and Why It Matters". North Korean Review: 27. Archived from the original on December 12, 2016.
- Stephan Haggard; Marcus Noland. Hunger and Human Rights: The Politics of Famine in North Korea (PDF). Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 7, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
- Natsios, Andrew (1999). The Politics of Famine in North Korea. US Institute of Peace. pp. 5–11.
- "People in North Korea trapped in vicious cycle of deprivation, corruption and repression – UN human rights report". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
- "North Koreans trapped in 'vicious cycle of deprivation, corruption, repression' and endemic bribery: UN human rights office". UN News. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
- "Testimony of Kim to Amnesty International on 2 and 7 December 2002". Starved of Rights: Human Rights and the Food Crisis in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). Amnesty International. January 2004. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Intervention Agenda Item 12: Elimination of Violence Against Women" at the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in April 2004; speaker: Ji Sun JEONG for A Woman's Voice International Archived March 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- James Brooke (June 10, 2002). "N. Koreans Talk of Baby Killings". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- David Hawk (2012). The Hidden Gulag Second Edition The Lives and Voices of "Those Who are Sent to the Mountains" (PDF) (Second ed.). Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. pp. 111–155. ISBN 978-0615623672. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- "Even by North Korean standards, this announcement of Jang Song Thaek's execution is intense". Washington Post. December 12, 2013. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
- The Hidden Gulag Archived March 13, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, David Hawk, Committee for Human Rights in North Korea (Washington, D.C.), Second edition (2012), ISBN 0615623670. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "North Korea: Witness to Transformation" Archived September 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Peterson Institute for International Economics. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Economic Crime and Punishment in North Korea Archived June 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland, Working Paper 10-2 (March 2010), Peterson Institute for International Economics. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "150,000 Witness North Korea Execution of Factory Boss Whose Crime Was Making International Phone Calls" Archived May 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Fox News, November 27, 2007.
- Public executions by North Korea is another injustice Archived January 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Amnesty International, March 7, 2008.
- "North Korea resumes public executions". A non-profit organization work towards realization of Human rights and protects crime against humanity. English-language version of Pravda. November 26, 2007. Archived from the original on July 16, 2009. Retrieved December 19, 2007. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Public Executions over Leaflets" Archived January 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Parameswaran Ponnudurai. Radio Free Asia (RFA). January 24, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- "Mapping the fate of the dead: killings and burials in North Korea" (PDF). Transitional Justice Working Group. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
- "Hundreds of North Korean execution sites identified, says rights group". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
- "2009 Human Rights Report: Democratic People's Republic of Korea". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- Nicholas D. Kristof (July 14, 1996). "Survivors Report Torture in North Korea Labor Camps". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 26, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- "North Korea: Torture, death penalty and abductions". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on April 23, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- "White paper on human rights in North Korea 2009 (page 74–75)" (PDF). Korea Institute for National Unification. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- "The Hidden Gulag – Part Five: Summary of torture and infanticide information (page 148 – 154)" (PDF). The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "Running Out of the Darkness". TIME Magazine. April 24, 2006. Archived from the original on November 25, 2006. Retrieved October 31, 2006.
- "N. Korean Defectors Describe Brutal Abuse". The Associated Press. October 29, 2008. Archived from the original on May 15, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Democratic People's Republic of Korea (page 7)" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
- "Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (page 8)" (PDF). Citizens' Alliance for North Korean Human Rights (NKHR) and Korean Bar Association (KBA). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
- "Report by the Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Theo van Boven: Democratic People's Republic of Korea". United Nations/Derechos Human Rights. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
- "Testimony of Ms. Soon Ok Lee, North Korean prison camp survivor". United States Senate Hearings. Archived from the original on November 9, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- National Geographic: Inside North Korea, aired on the History Channel in 2006, accessed on Netflix July 22, 2011
- "The Hidden Gulag – Part Two: Kwan-li-so political panel-labor colonies (page 25 – 82), Part Three: Kyo-hwa-so long-term prison-labor facilities (page 82 – 110)" (PDF). Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- Lankov, Andrei (October 13, 2014). "The Surprising News From North Korea's Prisons". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
- ""Escapee Tells of Horrors in North Korean Prison Camp", Washington Post, December 11, 2008". The Washington Post. December 11, 2008. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- McDonald, Mark (May 4, 2011). "North Korean Prison Camps Massive and Growing". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- "Report: Torture, starvation rife in North Korea political prisons". CNN. May 4, 2011. Archived from the original on December 28, 2014.
- ""5000 Prisoners Massacred at Onsong Concentration Camp in 1987", Chosun Ilbo, December 11, 2002". Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Determined from satellite images. "North Korea's Hard Labor Camps". The Washington Post. July 20, 2009. Archived from the original on September 19, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- Estimated by former prisoners. "The Hidden Gulag – Part Two: Kwan-li-so political panel-labor colonies (page 25–82)" (PDF). The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Glionna, John M. (April 7, 2010). ""North Korea gulag spurs a mission", Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2010". Articles.latimes.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "Human Rights Groups Call on UN Over N.Korea Gulag". The Chosunilbo, April 4, 2012. Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- "United States Senate Hearings: Testimony of Ms. Soon Ok Lee, June 21, 2002". Judiciary.senate.gov. Archived from the original on August 7, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "North Korea – The Judiciary". Country-data.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "Brutality beyond belief: Crimes against humanity in North Korea". Daily NK. Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "6.2.2 Trial, Charge and Sentence" (PDF). Prisoners in North Korea Today. Database Center for North Korean Human Rights. July 15, 2011. pp. 363–367. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
- "Hidden Gulag (2003 edition) – Satellite imagery: Selected North Korean Prison Camp Locations (page 89)" (PDF). The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 14, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "The Hidden Gulag – Part Three: Kyo-hwa-so Long-Term Prison-Labor Facilities (p. 82 – 110)" (PDF). The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- ""N.Korea's Worst Concentration Camp Exposed", Chosun Ilbo, March 23, 2010". English.chosun.com. March 23, 2010. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "US Senate Hearings: Testimony of Ms. Soon Ok Lee, June 21, 2002". Judiciary.senate.gov. Archived from the original on August 7, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- Cara Anna (October 7, 2014). "NORTH KOREA ACKNOWLEDGES LABOR CAMPS FOR 1ST TIME". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Les captives étrangèresde la Corée du Nord". Le Figaro. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "ABDUCTION - An Unforgivable Crime - - Japanese Government Internet TV". Japanese Government Internet TV. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "North Korea trip not a winner in Japan". Asia Times Online. Retrieved January 26, 2006.
- Ji, Ji (October 9, 2017). "Former Abductee Hasuike Urges Abe to Visit North Korea to Discuss Abduction Issue". The Japan Times.
- "Daughter Calls for Abducted Father's Return From North". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2006.
- "Useful Materials". www.sukuukai.jp. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
- "Civic group to file suit with ICC against NK leader" Archived June 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Chung Min-uck, The Korea Times, November 18, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- Wilkinson, James. “American Student Kidnapped by Kim Jong Un 'Was Arrested in China for Helping North Korean Refugees Escape Oppressive Country'.”Daily Mail Online, Associated Newspapers, September 6, 2016, www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3772624/American-student-kidnapped-Kim-Jong-arrested-China-helping-North-Korean-refugees-escape-oppressive-country.html.
- Corbin, Cristina. “Family of David Sneddon, Missing US Student, Says North Korea Kidnapped Him.” Fox News, FOX News Network, June 28, 2017, www.foxnews.com/world/2017/06/28/family-david-sneddon-missing-us-student-says-north-korea-kidnapped-him.html.
- "Resolution on N. Korea's human rights violations presented to U.N. committee". Yonhap. October 28, 2016. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- "Palestinian Self-Determination, Human Rights In Democratic People's Republic Of Korea Addressed In Texts Approved By Third Committee". United Nations. November 17, 2005. Archived from the original on February 8, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "DisplayNews". Ohchr.org. March 25, 2010. Archived from the original on September 4, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- The Worst of the Worst: The World's Most Repressive Societies Archived June 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Freedom House, 2012.
- Country ratings Archived October 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine for 2013 Freedom in the World survey
- Freedom in the World 2015 – North Korea Archived September 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Freedom House.
- "Past news". Kcna.co.jp. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- Greenburg, Andy (March 1, 2015). "The plot to free North Korea with smuggled episodes of 'Friends'". Wired. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- "Refugee Rescues". Liberty in North Korea. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- "Improving Cooperation and Medical Treatment for North Korean Refugees" (in Korean). National Medical Center. July 15, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- Ridiculous Move of S. Korean Pro-U.S. Elements under Fire Archived June 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, December 20, 2005.
- Spoorenberg, Thomas; Schwekendiek, Daniel (March 2012). "Demographic Changes in North Korea: 1993–2008". Population and Development Review. 38 (1): 133–158. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00475.x.
According to the results of the population reconstruction and our counterfactual population projections, the famine caused between 240,000 and 420,000 total excess deaths—lower than the previous estimate of 600,000–1 million; and the human costs of the deteriorating living conditions between 1993 and 2008 may be estimated as 600,000 to 850,000 total excess deaths attributable to economic decline in the post‐Cold war era.
- Stephan Haggard, Marcus Noland, and Amartya Sen (2009), Famine in North Korea, Columbia University Press, p.209
- Rosefielde, Stephen (2009), Red Holocaust, Routledge, p. 109.
- Rigoulot, Pierre (1999). "Crimes, Terror, and Secrecy in North Korea". The Black Book of Communism. Harvard University Press. pp. 547–564. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2.
To the 100,000 who have died in Party purges and the 1.5 million deaths in concentration camps must be added at least 1.3 million deaths stemming from the war, which was organized and instigated by the Communists, a war that continues in small but murderous actions, including commando attacks on the South and acts of terrorism; and the uncertain but growing number of direct and indirect victims of malnutrition. Even if we content ourselves with a figure of 500,000 victims of the primary or even secondary effects of malnutrition (including the usual, unverifiable rumors of cannibalism), we end up with an overall figure of more than 3 million victims in a country of 23 million inhabitants that has lived under Communism for fifty years.
- "5 Eye-Opening Documentaries about North Korea". Pastemagazine. May 2, 2017.
- Choi Sung Chul: Human Rights and North Korea. Hanyang University, Seoul 1999, ISBN 89-86763-05-2.
- Kim Ji-ho (2017). Human Rights (PDF). Understanding Korea. 9. Translated by Kim Yong-nam; Ri Chung-hyon. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. ISBN 978-9946-0-1639-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Lankov, Andrei (September 12, 2013). "How human rights in North Korea are gradually improving". NK News.
- Piergiorgio Pescali. La nuova Corea del Nord-Come Kim Jong Un sta cambiando il paese. Rome: Castelvecchi Editore. ISBN 9788832826678.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human rights in North Korea.|
- Daily NK run by the Network for North Korean Democracy and Human Rights, includes reports citing informers inside North Korea.
- Liberty in North Korea, website of a North American-based organization devoted to the North Korean human rights and humanitarian crises.
- List of North Korea-related human rights abuse articles and studies, Human Rights Watch.
- Network for North Korean Democracy and Human Rights, website, based in Seoul, South Korea.
- North Korea coverage at the International Freedom of Expression Exchange.
- North Korea Freedom Coalition, website.
- Official materials related to the North Korean Human Rights Act.
- U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, website.
- National Human Rights Commission of Korea, website.
Articles and reports
- United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
- "Country chapter: North Korea", World report 2013, Human Rights Watch.
- North Korea: Political Prison Camps – Amnesty International document on conditions in North Korean prison camps (May 2011).
- Survey Report on Political Prisoners’ Camps in North Korea (PPC) – National Human Rights Commission of Korea analysis of political prison camps on the basis of in-depth interviews with North Korean witnesses (December 2009).
- Escaping North Korea, by Tom O'Neill, National Geographic (February 2009).
- Final Report of Jay Lefkowitz, U.S. Special Envoy for Human Rights in North Korea (January 2009).
- A prison without bars – Refugee and defector testimonies of severe violations of freedom of religion or belief in North Korea as reported by U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (March 2008).
- North Korea’s Largest Concentration Camps on Google Earth – Satellite imagery and witness accounts of North Korean political prison and reeducation camps (2006–2008).
- Concentrations of inhumanity – Freedom House analysis of the phenomena of repression associated with North Korea's political labor camps (May 2007).
- North Korea: A case to answer – a call to act – Report by Christian Solidarity Worldwide to emphasize the urgent need to end mass killings, arbitrary imprisonment, torture and related international crimes (2007).
- Thank you father Kim Il Sung – Eyewitness accounts of severe violations of freedom of thought, conscience, and religion in North Korea reported by the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (November 2005).
- "Seoul Train", at Independent Lens, PBS documentary by Jim Butterworth, Lisa Sleeth, and Aaron Lubarsky, also available as "Seoul Train" at Global Voices (2004).