Pidjanan languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Pidjanan
Rio Branco, Mapidianic, Wapishanan
Geographic
distribution
Brazil, Guyana, Suriname
Linguistic classificationArawakan
  • Central[1]
    • Pidjanan
Subdivisions
Glottologmapi1253

The Pidjanan languages are a subgroup of Arawakan languages of northern South America.

Names[edit]

The term Pidjanan was coined by Sérgio Meira (2019) from Wapishana pidan ‘people’, as can be seen in the ethnonyms Wa-pishana and Mao-pidian.[2]

They are referred to as Mapidianic in Glottolog 4.3, and as Rio Branco by Nikulin & Carvalho (2019: 270).[3]

Languages[edit]

According to Meira (2019), the Pidjanan languages are:[2]

Wapishana is more conservative, while Mawayana has innovated more from Proto-Pidjanan.[2]

Ramirez's (2019) classification is:[1]:562

Parawana and Aroaqui are closely related, and may be the same language.[1]

Proto-language[edit]

Proto-Pidjanan
Reconstruction ofPidjanan languages
Reconstructed
ancestor

Proto-Pidjanan has been reconstructed by Meira (2019).[2]

Phonology[edit]

Proto-Pidjanan consonant phonemes:

*p *t *k
*ɗʲ
*ʦ,*ʧ
*s
*m *n
*w (*j)


Proto-Pidjanan vowel phonemes:

*i *u
*a

Morphology[edit]

Proto-Pidjanan person-marking prefixes:

pronoun Proto-Pidjanan Mawayana Wapishana
1S *nu- n- ũ-
2S *pɨ- ɨ- pɨ-
3S.MASC *(ɾ)ɨ- ɾɨ- ɨ-
3S.FEM *(ɾ)u- u- u-
3S.COREF *pa- a- pa-
1P *wa- wa- wa-
2P *ɨ- ɨ- pɨ-
3P *nV- na-


Proto-Pidjanan person-marking suffixes:

pronoun Proto-Pidjanan Mawayana Wapishana
1S *-na -na -n, -na
2S *-pV -i -p, -pa
3S.MASC *-(ɽ)ɨ -sɨ -ʐɨ
3S.FEM *-(ɽ)u -ʐu
1P *-wi -wi
2P *-wiko -wiko
3P *-nu -nu -ʐɨ


The functions of person markers (verbs in the -ɲɨ ‘realis’/‘present’ form).

personal marker function Proto-Pidjanan Mawayana Wapishana
A and O on transitives *nu-ɾuɁita-ɲɨ-ɽɨ ‘I hit him’ n-ɾite-sɨ ũ-ʐuɁita-nɨ-ʐɨ
SA on active intransitives *(ɾ)ɨ-siɁuka-ɲɨ ‘he walks’ ɾɨ-suke ɨ-ʧiɁika-n
SO on stative intransitives *wɨɽa(-ɲɨ)-ɽɨ ‘he is red’ usa-sɨ ɨ-wɨʐa(-n)
arguments on adpositions *(ɾ)ɨ-(i)tɨma ‘with him’ ɾi-ʃima ɨ-tɨma
possessors on nouns *nu-kɨnɨ ‘my song’ n-kɨnɨ ũ-kɨnɨ


Nominal possession possessed and non-possessed forms.

possession marker Proto-Pidjanan Mawayana Wapishana
Possession marker *-nɨ (e.g., *wa-maɾija-nɨ ‘our knife’) wa-maɾe-nɨ wa-marija-n
Possession marker zero *(ɾ)ɨ-ʦaɓa ‘his seat’ ɾiɁ-isaɓa ɨ-taɓa
Non-possessed status *(i)ʦaɓa-i ‘seat’ isaɓe taɓa-i

Lexicon[edit]

Unless indicated otherwise, the Mawayana and Wapishana data below is from Sérgio Meira's field notes, as cited in Meira (2019).

Meira's Mawayana data is from Marurunau, Guyana, and his Wapishana data is from Mapuera (a village that is mostly ethnic Waiwai), Nhamundá-Mapuera Indigenous Area, Pará State, Brazil. The other sources are:

  • Howard (1985-1986)[4]
  • Carlin (2006)[5]
  • Carlin (no date)[6]
  • WLP (2000)[7]
  • Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)[8]
  • WLP (2001)[9]
no. gloss Proto-Pidjanan Mawayana source (Mawayana) Wapishana source (Wapishana)
1 açaí palm *waɓu waɓu waɓu WLP (2000)
2 acouchy *aɗuɾi aɗuɾi aɗuɾi WLP (2000)
3 ant sp. *kuki kuki ‘saúva kuki ‘leafcutter ant
4 armadillo sp. *mVɾuɾV ? muɾuɾa ‘armadillo sp.’ maɾuɾu ‘giant armadillo
5 armpit *kisapu ɾɨ-keːsu ɨ-kiʃapu
6 as (essive) *niː ni ‘(change) into’ Carlin (2006) niː ‘future’, ‘essive’
7 bacaba palm *mapɨɽɨ mɨsɨ mapɨʐa WLP (2000)
8 banana *sɨːɽɨ sɨsɨɓa sɨːʐɨ WLP (2000)
9 bat *tamaɾɨwa tamaɾɨwa tamaɾɨu WLP (2000)
10 bathe (to) *kawa kaw-e Carlin (no date) ũ-kau-pa-n Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
11 beads *kasuɾuː kasuɾu kaʃuɾuː WLP (2000)
12 bee / honey *maːɓa maɓa maːɓa
13 belt *ɽantawɨ ɨ-ɾantawɨɗa ʐaːɗawi WLP (2000)
14 bird *kutɨʔɨɽa kuʧɨsa kutɨʔɨʐa
15 bird sp. 1 *anaɾau anaɾu ‘socó (heron sp.)’ anaɾau ‘marrecão (duck sp.)’ Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
16 bird sp. 2 *ma(ɾ)atɨ maːtɨ ‘jacu bird’ maɾatɨ ‘unidentified bird’ WLP (2000)
17 bird sp. 3 *kaɾapa kaɾahpaɗa ‘arahka Carlin (no date) kaɾapa ‘aracuã WLP (2001)
18 bite (to) *a(ɾ)uːta ɾ-autʃa-na ‘he bit me’ Carlin (2006) aɾuːta-n Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
19 black *puɗɨ uɗɨ-ɾe puɗɨ-ʔu WLP (2000)
20 blow (to) *puːta ɾ-uʧ-e Howard (1985-1986) ɨ-puːta-n WLP (2000)
21 Brazil nut *minaɨ minɨ ‘peanut’, ‘Brazil nut minaɨ WLP (2000)
22 breast *ɗɨɲɨ ɾiː-ɗɨ ɨ-ɗɨnɨ WLP (2000)
23 buriti palm *ɗʲɨwɨ jɨwɨ ‘buriti ɗʲɨwɨ ‘ité fruit’ WLP (2000)
24 burn (to) *kaʔawa kaw-e ‘burn (intr.)’ kaʔawa-n ‘burn (intr.)’ WLP (2000)
25 butterfly *ʦamaʦama samasama tamtam WLP (2000)
26 caiman sp. *atuɾɨ aʧuɾɨ atuɾɨ ‘small caiman
27 cajá fruit *ɽuːɓa ɾuɓa ʐuːp Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
28 canoe *kanawa kanawa kanawa WLP (2000)
29 capybara *kasu kasu kaʃu WLP (2000)
30 child *kuɾai- kuɾenu kuɾaiɗaunaː
31 child / egg *ɗaɲi ɾiː-ɗe, ɾiː-ɗesi ɨ-ɗani
32 cicada *wamu womu wamu Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
33 claw / nail *ɓaɗʲi ɾɨ-ɓaɗʲi ɨ-ɓaʐi WLP (2000)
34 coati *kuaɗjɨ kaɗɨ kuaʧi WLP (2000)
35 cockroach *ɓasaɾawa ɓasaɾawa ɓaʃaɾau WLP (2000)
36 comb *mauCi mutiɓa maudi WLP (2000)
37 corn *maɽiki maɾiki maʐiki WLP (2000)
38 curassow *pawisi awisi pawiʃi Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
39 deer sp. *kusaɾa kusaɾa ‘deer, small’ kuʃaɾa ‘deer, bush
40 die (to) *mawa- maw-ɗa mawa-ka, mau-ka-n WLP (2000)
41 dry *maːɾa maɾa-ɓa-sɨ Howard (1985-1986) maːɾa-n WLP (2000)
42 eagle sp. *kuku- kukuɗa ‘hawk sp.’ kukui ‘harpy eagle WLP (2000)
43 earthworm *paɽaɾu aɾaɾu paʐaɾu WLP (2000)
44 eat (to) *ɲika ɾ-ĩka pɨ-nika WLP (2000)
45 elbow *patuɾi ɾiː-ɸaʧuɾi ɨ-patuɾi WLP (2000)
46 electric eel *kaʦumi katumi kasumi WLP (2000)
47 fan *awaɾiba wiɾiɓe, n-wiɾiɓa awaɾiɓa-i WLP (2000)
48 father *Ca ɾɨ-ta ɨ-daɾɨ
49 fire *tikaɽi ʃikaɾi tikaʐi
50 fish *kupaɨ kuwɨ kupaɨ
51 fish sp. 1 *ɽiːta ɾiʧe ‘traíra ʐiːtaɓa ‘fish sp.’ WLP (2000)
52 fish sp. 2 *aʧimaɾa atimaɾa ‘trairão aʧimaɾa ‘fish sp.’ WLP (2000)
53 fish sp. 3 *kuɾɨɽɨ kuɾɨsɨ ‘surubim kuɾɨʐɨ ‘surubim WLP (2000)
54 flat area *ɗaːɾa ɗaɾa ‘grass(land)’ ɗaːɾa ‘a flat barrier’ WLP (2000)
55 flower *sɨwɨ ɾɨ-sɨwɨ Howard (1985-1986) ɨ-suːsu WLP (2000)
56 from *(ɾ)iki aʔu-ɾiki ‘from there’ Carlin (2006) iki WLP (2000)
57 fruit *(a)ka ɾɨ-ka ɨ-aka WLP (2000)
58 give (to) *taː ɾɨ-ʧ-e-sɨ Howard (1985-1986) ɨ-taː-n
59 grandmother *(ʃ)Vːɽu ? wa-ʃuɾu ɨʔ- ɨːʐu WLP (2000)
60 hair *iCi ɾ-iʃiɾama ɨ-iʃi WLP (2000)
61 hand *kaʔɨ ɾɨ-kɨɓa ɨ-kaʔɨ
62 heart *ɲɨkɨɲɨja ɾiːʔ-ĩkĩjã ɨ-ɲɨkɨnɨː WLP (2000)
63 hit (to) *ɽuʔita ɾita-ka-nu ‘hit each other’ Howard (1985-1986) ɨ-ʐuʔita-n ‘he hit’ WLP (2000)
64 house *paɲi- aĩku paniɓa ‘outside’, paniːnum ‘entrance, door, doorway’ WLP (2000)
65 I *nnu nnu ũɡaɾɨ WLP (2000)
66 if / when *ana ana Carlin (2006) ana WLP (2000)
67 iguana *suwana suwanaɗa suwan WLP (2000)
68 inajá palm *puk- ? ukatɨ ‘inajá pukuɾidi ‘kokorite palm’ WLP (2000)
69 ingá tree *kuɾami kuɾami ‘ingá kuɾami ‘ingá do mato’ Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
70 intestines *ukuɾi(ɾi) ɾ-ukuɾiɾi ɨ-ukuɾi
71 knee *kuɗuɾu ɾiː-kuɗuɾu ɨ-kuɗuɾu
72 knife *maɾija maɾe maɾiː, ɨ-maɾija-n
73 language *paɾa ɾiːʔ-aɾa ɨ-paɾada-n WLP (2000)
74 leaf *anaɓa ɾ-anaɓa ɨ-anaɓa WLP (2000)
75 left hand *asVɓa- asuɓaɗʲanu ‘right hand’ Howard (1985-1986) aʃaɓaɾu Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
76 leg / shin *(i)taɓa ɾiː-ʃaɓa ‘leg, shin’ ɨ-taɓaʔu ‘leg’
77 louse *nnai nni nai
78 macaw sp. *(k)aɽaɾu aɾaɾu ‘yellow macaw kaʐaɾɨ ‘yellow macaw’ WLP (2000)
79 manioc *kaɲɨɽɨ kaːsɨ, kãːsɨ kanɨʐɨ WLP (2000)
80 manioc press *(ɲ)iːɽu- ? isune niːʐu WLP (2000)
81 meat food *wɨɲɨ wĩ, ɾɨ-wɨnɨ Howard (1985-1986) wɨnɨ-i, ɨ-wɨnɨ WLP (2000)
82 medicine *-ʦaɾa ɾɨ-ɨtaɾa ɨ-kasaɾa WLP (2000)
83 monkey sp. 1 *ɾuːmu ɾumu ‘spider monkey ɾuːmi ‘spider monkey
84 monkey sp. 2 *ʦɨɓɨɾɨ tɨɓɨɾɨ ‘howler monkey sɨɓɨɾɨ ‘howler monkey
85 monkey sp. 3 *puwatɨ otʃɨ ‘capuchin monkey puwatɨ ‘capuchin monkey
86 monkey sp. 4 *(i)ʧaɨmaː ʧɨma ‘tamarin monkey ʧaɨmaː ‘black tamarin Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
87 moon *kaɨɽɨ kɨsɨ kaɨʐɨ
88 mosquito sp. *miʦu mitu misu
89 mother *Caɾu ɾiː-taɾu ɨ-daɾu
90 murumuru *ɓɨɾɨ ɓɨɾɨ ‘murumuru palm’ ɓɨɾɨ ‘palm (unidentified)’ WLP (2000)
91 nose *(i)ɗiɓa ɾɨ-tiɓa ɨ-iɗiɓa
92 old man *tɨɲa(u)ɾɨnau tauɾɨnu tɨnaɾɨnau
93 opossum sp. *waːʦa wata ‘opossum sp.’ waːsa ‘opossum, woolly WLP (2000)
94 other *ɓaʔuɾVnu ɓuɾunu Howard (1985-1986) ɓaʔuɾan, ɓaʔuɾanɨ-aɓa WLP (2000)
95 papaya *maʔapaja maɓaja maʔapai WLP (2000)
96 parrot sp. *waɾu waɾu waɾu WLP (2000)
97 partner *miɲa- ? ɾiː-meːɾawa ɨ-minaɨɗaʔɨ WLP (2000)
98 path *ɗɨnapu ɗɨnu ɗɨnapu WLP (2000)
99 payment *winipa ɾi-wina ɨ-winipa WLP (2000)
100 peccary sp. 1 *ɓakɨɾa ɓakɨɾa ‘collared peccary ɓakɨɾɨ ‘collared peccary
101 peccary sp. 2 *Ciʧa ɾita ‘white-lipped peccary ɓiʧa, ɓiʧi ‘white-lipped peccary
102 person *piɗaɲa ɗʲe, ɗʲeː piɗan, piɗana-n WLP (2000)
103 pet *ɨɽa ɾ-ɨsa Howard (1985-1986) ɨʔ-ɨʐa WLP (2000)
104 red *wɨɽa usa-sɨ wɨʐa-ʔu WLP (2000)
105 rib *aɾaɗɨ(ɗɨ) ɾiːʔ-aɾaɗɨ ɨ-aɾaɗɨɗɨ, ɨ-aɾaɗɨʔɨ
106 rope *iɲuʔi jũwi inuʔi, inuɓi ‘hammock rope’ WLP (2000)
107 salt *ɗɨwɨ ɗɨwɨ ɗɨwɨ WLP (2000)
108 sand *kaːtɨ kaʧɨ Howard (1985-1986) kaːtɨ WLP (2000)
109 seat *(i)ʦaba isaɓe, ɾiːʔ-isaɓa taɓa-i, ɨ-taɓa WLP (2000)
110 see (to) *tVka ɾi-ʧika ɨ- tɨka-pa-n
111 shaman *maɾɨnawɨ maɾɨnawɨ maɾɨnau WLP (2000)
112 shoulder / arm *(i)ʦawaɗa ɾiː-sawaɗa ‘arm’ ɨ- tawaɗa ‘shoulder’
113 sieve *manaɾɨ manaɾɨ manaɾɨ ‘cassava sifter’ WLP (2000)
114 skin / bark *maɗa ɾiː-maɗa ɨ-maɗa WLP (2000)
115 sky *Vkaɽi ɨkaɾi aukaʐi
116 sloth sp. *awɨ awɨ awɨ Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
117 small *suɗi ? ʃiɗʲiɗʲa-ɾe ‘small, narrow’ Howard (1985-1986) suɗi
118 smoke *isa- ise-sɨ Howard (1985-1986) iʃa-n ‘cloud’
119 song *kɨnɨ kɨni, ɾiː-kɨnɨ kɨnɨ-i, ɨ-kɨnɨ W5
120 spider *(s)uːwa uwaɓa suːwa
121 stone *kɨɓa kɨɓa kɨɓa
122 sun *kamuː kamu kamuː
123 sweet potato *kaCɨɽɨː katɨ kaːʐɨː WLP (2000)
124 tapir *kuɗui kuɗi kuɗui
125 tell (to) *kɨwaːɗa ɾɨ-kɨwaɗ-e-sɨ ‘he tells it’ kuwaːɗa-n ‘tell’ WLP (2000)
126 termite *maɽi maɾiɓa maʐi WLP (2000)
127 thin *miCa- metaɗa Howard (1985-1986) miɗaʔɨ WLP (2000)
128 thornbush *Cawɨɽɨ tawɨsɨ kawɨʐɨ WLP (2000)
129 throat *kuɾukuɾu ɾiː-kuɾukuɾu kuɾukuɾu-n ‘larynx’ WLP (2000)
130 tick *kuCVCVɓa kunuriɓa kuɾinaɓa
131 timbó liana *uku uku ‘timbó liana uku ‘poison for fish’
132 tinamou sp. *mami mami ‘tinamou sp.’ mami ‘bird sp.’ Silva, Silva & Oliveira (2013)
133 toad sp. *tuɾuɾuɓa tʃuɾuɾuɓa tuɾuɾuɓa WLP (2000)
134 tobacco *ʦuma tuma suːma
135 tongue *ɲiɲuɓa ɾɨ-jũjũɓa ɨ-ninuɓa
136 tortoise *wɨɾV uːɾɨ wɨɾaɗa
137 toucan sp. *ʧaːkui takwe ‘toucan sp.’ ʧaːkui ‘toucan sp.’
138 tree / wood *atamɨna aʧamɨna atamɨn, atamɨnɨ
139 tree trunk *kaɗɨ- ɾɨ-kaɗɨ ɨ-kaɗɨnaː WLP (2000)
140 trumpeter *namVʧɨ namɨtɨ ‘jacamim namaʧi ‘gray trumpeter WLP (2000)
141 tucumã palm *sawaɾa sawaɾa ‘tucumã ʃawaɾaɨ ‘unidentified palm’ WLP (2000)
142 vulture sp. *kuɾumu kuɾumu ‘vulture sp.’ kuɾɨm ‘bird sp.’ WLP (2000)
143 walk *siʔuka ? ɾu-suka tʃiʔika-n WLP (2000)
144 water *wɨnɨ unɨ, uːnɨ wɨnɨ
145 we *waɨnau weʔawɨnu waɨnau WLP (2000)
146 what / who *ka ka kan, kanum WLP (2000)
147 wind *awaɾɨ awaɾɨ awaɾɨ WLP (2000)
148 with *(i)tɨma ri-ʃima ɨ-tɨma WLP (2000)
149 woman *ɽɨna ɾɨnaɾu ʐɨna

Vocabulary[edit]

100-word Swadesh list for Mawayana and Wapishana:[2]

no. gloss Mawayana Wapishana
1 I nnu ũgaɾɨ
2 you (sg.) i pɨgaɾɨ
3 we (incl.) weʔawɨnu waɨnau
4 this tiʔa wɨɾɨʔɨ
5 that aɾu wɨɾɨʔɨ
6 who ka kanum
7 what ka kanum
8 not ʧika, ma-sɨ aunaː
9 all meke-nu ipai
10 many ɾea-nu iɾiɓa-ʔu
11 one aɓõ(i)ja ɓaɨɗaʔapa
12 two aɗaka ɗʲaʔɨtam
13 big tawɾe-ɾe ɨɗaɾɨ-ʔu
14 long kɨʔu-ɾe ʐaʔaɓaʔɨ
15 small ʃiɗʲiɗʲa-ɾe soɗi
16 woman ɾɨnaɾu ʐɨna
17 man asɨna ɗaunajuɾa
18 person ɗʲe piɗan
19 fish kuwɨ kupaɨ
20 bird kuʧɨsa kutɨʔɨʐa
21 dog jimaɗa aɾimaɾaka
22 louse Nni nai
23 tree itiɓaɾi atamɨn
24 seed ɾɨ-su ɨ-ɨːɗa
25 leaf ɾ-anaɓa ɨ-anaɓa
26 root ɾɨ-ʧaɓaɗa ɨ-iʃitaɓaʔu
27 bark ɾiː-maɗa ɨ-maɗa
28 skin ɾiː-maɗa ɨ-maɗa
29 meat wɨnɨ-i
30 blood ɾiː-sɨkɨwɨɗa iʐa-i
31 bone ɾiː-kɨɓɨ ɨ-niwaʔɨʐi
32 grease ɾiti kiwin-iː
33 egg ɾiː-ɗe ɨ-ɗani
34 horn ɾ-õʃĩɗa ɨ-uʐuː
35 tail ɾɨ-tuna ɗʲɨu
36 feather ɾ-iʃiɓa kɨtɨɓa
37 hair ɾ-iʃiɾama ɨ-iʃi
38 head ɾɨ-kɨwɨ ɨ-ʐuwaɨ
39 ear ɾiː-siɗʲa ɨ-tain
40 eye ɾ-oso ɨ-awɨn
41 nose ɾɨ-tiɓa ɨ-iɗiɓa
42 mouth ɾ-umiɗʲa ɨ-ɗaku
43 tooth ɾɨ-ʔu ɨ-ɨɗaku
44 tongue ɾ-ĩjũjũɓa ɨ-ninuɓa
45 claw ɾɨ-ɓaɗʲi ɨ-ɓaʐi
46 foot ɾɨ-ɾuɓa ɨ-kidiɓa
47 knee ɾiː-kuɗuɾu ɨ-kuɗuɾu
48 hand ɾɨ-kɨɓa ɨ-kaʔɨ
49 belly ɾ-ijika ɨ-tuɓa
50 neck ɾiː-ɾewɨ ɨ-kanaɨ
51 breast ɾiː-ɗɨ ɨ-ɗɨnɨ
52 heart ɾiːʔ-ĩkĩjã ɨ-ɲɨkɨnɨː
53 liver ɾɨ-ʃuɓa ɨ-kɨɓaː
54 drink kuɾa-sɨ ɨ-tɨʐa-n
55 eat ɾ-ĩka ɨ-nɨka-n
56 bite awʧa-sɨ ɨ-aɾuta-n
57 see ɾɨ-ʧika-sɨ ɨ-tɨka-pa-n
58 hear ɾɨ-kɨmɨd-e-sɨ ɨ-abata-n
59 know ɾɨ-ɾud-e-sɨ ɨ-aitapa-n
60 sleep a-tũwa ɨ-daʔawɨ-n
61 die mawɗa ɨ-mau-ka-n
62 kill ɾu-kuɗa ɨ-ʐuwia-n
63 swim ʧokwa-sɨ ɨ-nɨota-n
64 fly maɾ-e-sɨ ɨ-ʐɨʔɨta-n
65 walk ɾu-suka ɨ-ʧiʔika-n
66 come jaɗ-e ɨ-waʔati-n
67 lie ʧukuɗ-e-sɨ ɨ-waʃatina-n
68 sit itaɗ-e-sɨ ɨ-sakanata-n
69 stand kaʧɨmɨʧ-e-sɨ ɨ-kadiʃita-n
70 give rɨ-ʧ-e-sɨ ɨ-taː-n
71 say ɾɨ-m-e ɨ-kia-n
72 sun kamu kamuː
73 moon kɨsɨ kaɨʐɨ
74 star siwaɾu wiʐi
75 water u(ː)nɨ wɨnɨ
76 rain u(ː)nɨ wɨnɨ
77 stone kɨɓa kɨɓa
78 sand kaʧɨ kaːtɨ
79 earth ʃimaɾi imiʔi
80 cloud ekaɾi ɾita-ɾe iʃaʔɨʐi
81 smoke isesɨ tikaʐi ʃan
82 fire ʃikaɾi tikaʐi
83 ash ʃikaɾuɓa paɾitiɓi
84 burn (intr.) kaw-e ɨ-kaʔawa-n
85 path ɗɨnu ɗɨnapu
86 mountain ɾɨnɨ miɗɨkɨu
87 red usa-sɨ wɨʐa-ʔu
88 green ʧɨha-ɾe kuʔuɾi-ʔu
89 yellow ʧɨha-ɾe upaɾita-ʔu
90 white kɨse-ɾe ɓaɾaka-ʔu
91 black uɗɨ-ɾe puɗɨ-ʔu
92 night tɨɓokoʔa aiwakaʔan
93 hot ɗʲiʧa-sɨ wi(ː)ʧa-ʔu
94 cold ɾika-ɾe waɗiɗi-ʔu
95 full etaɗa paida-n
96 new wiʧakaɾi paʔina-ʔu
97 good wĩja-ɾe kaiman
98 round ajɓɨɓɨ-ɾe kaɗaʐaɗa-ʔu
99 dry maɾaɓa-sɨ maːɾa-n
100 name ɾɨ-ɾenka ɨʔ-ɨː

Bibliography[edit]

  • Melville, C.; Tracy, F. V.; Williams, O. Wapishana. Intercontinental Dictionary Series. 2007. Accessed on Oct. 30, 2007.
  • SB (Surinaams Bijbelgenootschap / Suriname Bible Society). Kaimana’o Tominkaru Paradan (The New Testament). Paramaribo, Georgetown: Suriname Bible Society and Guyana Bible Society, 2012.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ramirez, Henri (2019). Enciclopédia das línguas arawak: acrescida de seis novas línguas e dois bancos de dados. (in press)
  2. ^ a b c d e Meira, Sérgio. 2019. A Study of the Genetic Relation between Mawayana and Wapishana (Arawakan Family). Revista Brasileira de Línguas Indígenas (RBLI), vol. 2, no. 1 (Jan.-Jun. 2019), pp. 70-104.
  3. ^ Nikulin, Andrey; Fernando O. de Carvalho. 2019. Estudos diacrônicos de línguas indígenas brasileiras: um panorama. Macabéa – Revista Eletrônica do Netlli, v. 8, n. 2 (2019), p. 255-305. (PDF)
  4. ^ Howard, C. V. Formulário dos vocabulários padrões: Questionário do Museu Nacional. 2nd ed. (1960), manuscript. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Filled in for Mawayana), 1985-1986.
  5. ^ Carlin, E. Feeling the need: the borrowing of Cariban functional categories into Mawayana (Arawak). In Aikhenvald, A. Y.; Dixon, R. M. W. (eds.). Grammars in contact: A cross-linguistic typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. p.313–332.
  6. ^ Carlin, E. Karahpaɗa. Arahka iwehtoponpë, Japoma inponopïhpë. [A short text, “Story of curassow sp.”, in Mawayana, Tiriyó, English, and Dutch], no date.
  7. ^ WLP (Wapishana Language Project). Tominpainao Ati’o Wapichan Paradan Paradakaru na’iki Paradauzo-karu kaduzu / Scholar’s Dictionary and Grammar of the Wapishana Language. Lethem: Wapishana Language Project, Rupununi, Region 9, Guyana. Porto Velho: SIL International, 2000.
  8. ^ Silva, B.; Silva, N. de S.; Oliveira, O. Paradakary Urudnaa: Dicionário Wapichana/Português Português/Wapichana. Boa Vista: EdUFRR, 2013.
  9. ^ WLP (Wapishana Language Project). Wapishana Primer. Lethem: Wapishana Language Project, Rupununi, Region 9, Guyana. Porto Velho: SIL International, 2001 (1986).