Polk County, Texas
|County of Polk|
Polk County Court House
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
|Founded||March 30, 1846|
|Named for||James K. Polk|
|• Total||1,110 sq mi (2,900 km2)|
|• Land||1,057 sq mi (2,740 km2)|
|• Water||53 sq mi (140 km2) 4.74%%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||46.5/sq mi (18.0/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (Central)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
75934, 75936, 75939, 75960, 77326, 77335, 77350, 77351, 77360, 77364
The Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation of the federally recognized tribe is in Polk County, where the people have been since the early 19th century, after having been forcibly evicted from the Southeast. The 2000 census reported a resident population of 480 persons within the reservation. The tribe reports 1100 enrolled members.
Polk County, named for James Knox Polk of Tennessee, President of the United States, was created by an act of the first Legislature of the State of Texas, approved on March 30, 1846, out of Liberty County, and embraced that portion from the part designated as the "Northern Division" of said county. It was one of the first of a series of 23 counties, formulated, constituted, and established by the State of Texas, after annexation to the United States.
|County Judge||Sydney Murphy||Republican|
|Commissioner, Precinct 1||Robert C. "Bob" Willis||Republican|
|Commissioner, Precinct 2||Ronnie Vincent||Republican|
|Commissioner, Precinct 3||Milton Purvis||Republican|
|Commissioner, Precinct 4||C.T. "Tommy" Overstreet||Republican|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
1850–2010 2010–2014 2017
As of the census of 2000, 41,133 people, 15,119 households, and 10,915 families were residing in the county. The population density was 39 inhabitants per square mile (15/km2). The 21,177 housing units averaged 20 per square mile (8/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 79.64% White, 13.17% African American, 1.74% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 3.75% from other races, and 1.32% from two or more races. About 9.39% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 15,119 households, 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.80% were not families. About 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50, and the average family size was 2.95.
In the county, the population was distributed as 22.90% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, and 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 108.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $30,495, and for a family was $35,957. Males had a median income of $30,823 versus $21,065 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,834. About 13.30% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.10% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,110 square miles (2,900 km2), of which 1,057 square miles (2,740 km2) are land and 53 square miles (140 km2) (4.7%) are covered by water.
- Angelina County (north)
- Tyler County (east)
- Hardin County (southeast)
- Liberty County (south)
- San Jacinto County (southwest)
- Trinity County (northwest)
National protected area
Polk County College / Commerce Center was completed in 2013 and is located on the U.S. Highway 59 Bypass. Angelina College offers advanced curriculum study and technical training at this location. The facility provides public auditorium space and may be used as a mass shelter in a disaster event .
- U.S. Highway 59
- Interstate 69 is currently under construction and will eventually follow the current route of U.S. 59 throughout most of Polk County.
- U.S. Highway 190
- U.S. Highway 287
- State Highway 146
- Farm to Market Road 350
- Farm to Market Road 356
- Farm to Market Road 357
- Farm to Market Road 942
- Farm to Market Road 943
- Farm to Market Road 1745
- Big Thicket Lake Estates (partly in Liberty County)
- Cedar Point
- Indian Springs
- Pleasant Hill
- West Livingston
- Percy Foreman: notable criminal defense attorney
- John Wesley Hardin: Old West gunslinger
- William P. Hobby: Governor of Texas, publisher of Houston Post
- Sam Houston: general of the revolution to achieve independence and President of the Republic of Texas, spent much time in Polk County, including making peace treaties with the Alabama-Coushata Indians.
- Margo Jones: stage director who launched the careers of Tennessee Williams and Ray Walston and directed Williams' The Glass Menagerie on Broadway
- René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle: noted French explorer of the 17th century; was likely killed in Polk County 
- Sally Mayes: Broadway actress and singer. Livingston named a street in her honor.
- Mark Moseley: professional football player; won Super Bowl XVII and was awarded 1982 MVP as a placekicker
- Moon Mullican: musician, "King of the Hillbilly Piano Players".
- Captain (Ike) Isaac Newton Moreland Turner: Confederate captain who joined the Civil War from Polk County, with units called the "Texas Brigade"; his remains were returned here from Georgia and were reinterred in his family cemetery on April 15, 1995
- Annette Gordon-Reed (born November 19, 1958 in Livingston, Texas) is an American historian, Pulitzer Prize winning author, and law professor noted for changing scholarship on Thomas Jefferson regarding his relationship with Sally Hemings and her children.
United States Congress
|Senate Class 1||John Cornyn||Republican||1993||Senior Senator|
|Senate Class 2||Ted Cruz||Republican||2012||Junior Senator|
|Representatives||Name||Party||First Elected||Area(s) of Polk County Represented|
|District 36||Brian Babin||Republican||New district created with 2010 census. First elected 2014.||Entire county|
- List of counties in Texas
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Texas
- Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Polk County
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Howard N. Martin, "ALABAMA-COUSHATTA INDIANS", Handbook of Texas Online, uploaded 9 June 2010, accessed 18 November 2014
- Ike Turner Camp, U. C. V. (1901). Historical Polk County, Texas: Companies and Soldiers Organized in and Enrolled From Said County in Confederate States Army and Navy—1861–1865, Organization Ike Turner Camp, U. C. V., Unveiling, Etc. Livingston, Texas: Polk County Enterprise, Printers. pp. 3–4. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "West Livingston CDP, Texas Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
- "Polunsky Unit Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 7, 2010.
- "Death Row Facts" Archived 2009-08-06 at the Wayback Machine, Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 7, 2010.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
- "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
- "QuickFacts. Polk County, Texas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
- , Polk County College Archived February 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- ""Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2012-07-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on July 29, 2012. NOTE: The information for Livingston appears as a pop-up window.
- "Municipal Airport Archived 2010-05-06 at the Wayback Machine." City of Livingston. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
- "Tribal History", Alabama-Coushatta website
- "Margaret Virginia Margo Jones", Texas Escapes website
- "René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle", Handbook of Texas Online, accessed 18 November 2014
- Randy Hill, "A Southern Homecoming" Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, n.d., USA Deep South website
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
Media related to Polk County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons