Portal:Byzantine Empire

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The Byzantine Empire Portal

Animated map showing the territorial evolution of the Byzantine Empire (in green).

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. "Byzantine Empire" is a term created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileía Rhōmaíōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum), or Romania (Greek: Ῥωμανία, romanizedRhōmanía), and to themselves as Romans (Greek: Ῥωμαῖοι, romanizedRhōmaîoi). Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I (r. 324–337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital and legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. In the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin.

Although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity. (Full article...)

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November 2020

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447 Constantinople earthquake • Byzantine–Serbian War (1090–1095) • Despot of Epirus • King of Thessalonica • Louis II's campaign against Bari (866–871) • Sebukht

October 2020

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Anastasiopolis-Peritheorion • Athenogenes of Petra • Baths of Arcadius • Byzantine–Serbian wars • Palaeologan Renaissance • Red Church (Vourgareli) • Siege of Constantinople (1394–1402) • Synaxarion of Constantinople

September 2020

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Al-Ghazal • Anthony Kaldellis • Domitian of Melitene • George Palaiologos (megas hetaireiarches) • Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies in Venice • Hypatos ton philosophon • Vagenetia • Vitalien Laurent

August 2020

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Alice-Mary Talbot • Arietta Papaconstantinou • Gregory Antiochos • List of Byzantine composers • Sack of Aleppo (962) • Sophia Antoniadis • Theoktiste (740–802)

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Manuel Komnenos (son of Andronikos I)

July 2020

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Anthusa of Mantinea • Byzantine–Venetian treaty of 1277 • Council of Constantinople (536) • Council of Jerusalem (536) • Deno Geanakoplos • Didymoteicho Fortress • Diogenes of Phoenicia • Heliou Bomon monastery • Isaac Doukas Vatatzes • John Haldon • Kecharitomene Monastery • Kokkinobaphos Master • Marco Bembo • Monastery of Saint Mamas • Peter of Apamea • Riniasa Castle • Stephanus of Athens • Theotokos Euergetis Monastery • Theotokos Kosmosoteira

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Constantine Angelos Doukas • John Chortasmenos • Manuel Kamytzes

June 2020

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Andrea Barozzi • Andreas Palaiologos (son of Manuel) • Chronicle of 813 • Chronicle of 846 • Iacopo Barozzi • Iacopo II Barozzi • Jacopo Dondulo • Palaeologus-Montferrat • Rainerio of Travale • Seraglio Octateuch • Women in the Byzantine Empire

May 2020

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Anthusa of Constantinople • Glavinica (medieval town) • Gothograecia • Gregentios • Maritime Venice • Niketas David Paphlagon • Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite • Severianus of Damascus • Theodore of Raithu

April 2020

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Basilikos logos • Damsel of Cyprus • Diocese of Abydos • John Diakrinomenos • John Robert Martindale • John Xenos • Karykes • Laskaris Kananos • Meletios the Younger • Rhapsomates

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Theodore II Laskaris

March 2020

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Al-Walid ibn Hisham al-Mu'ayti • Column of Leo • Dorotheus (magister militum) • Frankish Table of Nations • Gaianites • Herodian (commander) • Maslama ibn Hisham • Nachoragan • Pegonites • Pretenders to the Byzantine throne • Timothy of Constantinople • Umar ibn al-Walid

February 2020

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Ahmad ibn Ziyadat Allah ibn Qurhub • Ayasuluk Hill • Al-Harith ibn Hisham • Khalil ibn Ishaq al-Tamimi • Roman people • Salim ibn Asad ibn Abi Rashid • Siege of Laodicea (636)

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Miriarcha • Theodore I Laskaris

January 2020

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George of Kiev • John W. Barker • Libadarios • Problem of two emperors

December 2019

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Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Kalbi • Byzantine Malta • Devastatio Constantinopolitana • George Synadenos Astras • Irene Komnene Palaiologina • Monastery of Panagia Molyvdoskepastos • Peter of Goulaion • Stephen du Perche (died 1205)

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Banu Judham • Gordoservon • Sack of Thessalonica (904)

November 2019

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Constantine the Jew • John Tzibus • Longinus (missionary) • Siege of Ravenna (539–540) • Siege of Urbinus • Siege of Urviventus

October 2019

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461 Apahunik' earthquake • 602 Surb Karapet Monastery earthquake • Constantine Komnenos Arianites • Enaton • Ferdinand Palaiologos • Julian (Chalcedonian patriarch of Antioch) • Nikon of the Black Mountain • Theodore Palaiologos (16th century)

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Andreas Palaiologos

September 2019

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499 Nicopolis earthquake • 542 Sea of Marmara earthquake • 551 Malian Gulf earthquake • 554 Anatolia earthquake • Ammatus • Bathys Rhyax • Florentius of Constantinople • List of Byzantine emperors of Armenian origin • Siege of Onoguris • Synthronon

August 2019

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Abd Allah ibn Mas'ada al-Fazari • Basilakes • Battle of Nisibis (541) • Battle of Scardon • Gardiki Castle, Arcadia • Hellenization in the Byzantine Empire • Heraclian revolt • Losorion • Manuel Bochalis • Matzouka • Paul of Edessa (translator) • Phoulkon • Prohor of Pčinja • Siege of Ariminum (538) • Siege of Auximus • Sufyan ibn Awf

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Amr ibn Hind

July 2019

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Hagiotheodorites • Makrinitissa Monastery • Martinus (son of Heraclius) • Tiberius (son of Heraclius)

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Battle of Settepozzi


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A simple cross, an example of iconoclast art from the Hagia Irene.

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Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (806)  • Andreas Palaiologos  • Basiliscus  • Battle of Azaz (1030)  • Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081)  • Battle of Kalavrye  • Battle of Settepozzi  • Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347  • Byzantine Empire  • Byzantine navy  • Chariot racing  • Greece runestones  • Gregory of Nazianzus  • Istanbul  • Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria  • Manuel I Komnenos  • Marcian  • Maximus the Confessor  • Paul Palaiologos Tagaris  • Roman–Persian Wars  • Sack of Amorium  • Siege of Constantinople (674–678)  • Siege of Constantinople (717–718)  • Siege of Thessalonica (1422–1430)  • Simeon I of Bulgaria  • Theodore Komnenos Doukas  • Thomas the Slav  • Treaty of Devol  • Jovan Vladimir

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Aaron (son of Ivan Vladislav)  • Abdallah al-Battal  • Abu Taghlib  • Adrianos Komnenos  • Alexios Apokaukos  • Alexios Komnenos (governor of Dyrrhachium)  • Alexios Komnenos (protosebastos)  • Alexios Philanthropenos  • Alexios Strategopoulos  • Alexios V Doukas  • Amr ibn al-As  • Andronikos Doukas Angelos  • Andronikos Komnenos (son of Alexios I)  • Artabanes (general)  • Avar–Byzantine wars  • Bardas  • Basil II  • Baths of Zeuxippus  • Battle of Akroinon  • Battle of Alexandretta  • Battle of Anzen  • Battle of Apamea  • Battle of Arcadiopolis (970)  • Battle of Bathys Ryax  • Battle of Constantinople (922)  • Battle of Kleidion  • Battle of Kopidnadon  • Battle of Krasos  • Battle of Manzikert  • Battle of Mauropotamos  • Battle of Saint George  • Battle of the Gates of Trajan  • Battle of the Olive Grove of Koundouros  • Battle of Yarmouk  • Boniface of Verona  • Busr ibn Abi Artat  • Byzantine–Arab Wars  • Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 894–896  • Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty  • Byzantine Greeks  • Byzantine–Venetian treaty of 1268  • Chalke  • Chlemoutsi  • Church of St. Polyeuctus  • Codex Sinaiticus  • Constantine V  • Constantine (son of Leo V)  • Constantine Angelos  • Constantine Angelos Doukas  • Constantine Dalassenos (duke of Antioch)  • Constantine Diogenes  • Constantine Doukas (usurper)  • Constantine Komnenos Angelos  • Constantine Lekapenos  • Constantine the Great  • Cutzinas  • David (son of Heraclius)  • David III of Tao  • Domestic of the Schools  • Droungarios of the Fleet  • Droungarios of the Watch  • Emirate of Crete  • Eustathios Argyros (general under Leo VI)  • Eustathios Daphnomeles  • Eutharic  • Euthymius I of Constantinople  • Gabras  • Genoese occupation of Rhodes  • Geoffrey of Briel  • George Mouzalon  • Germanus (cousin of Justinian I)  • Glarentza  • Gothic War (535–554)  • Gubazes II of Lazica  • Guy Pallavicini  • Harald Hardrada  • Heraclius  • Heraclius (son of Constans II)  • Heraclius the Elder  • Isaac I Komnenos  • Isaac Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)  • Isaac Komnenos (son of Alexios I)  • Isaac Komnenos (son of John II)  • John Doukas (megas doux)  • John Doukas (sebastokrator)  • John I Doukas of Thessaly  • John II Komnenos  • John IV of Ohrid  • John Komnenos (Domestic of the Schools)  • John Komnenos (governor of Dyrrhachium)  • John Komnenos Asen  • John Komnenos the Fat  • John of Brienne  • John Palaiologos (brother of Michael VIII)  • John Tzelepes Komnenos  • Justin (consul 540)  • Justinian I  • Khalid ibn al-Walid  • Konstantios Doukas  • Law School of Beirut  • Leo II (emperor)  • Leo Tornikios  • Licario  • Mansur ibn Lu'lu'  • Manuel Erotikos Komnenos  • Manuel Kamytzes  • Manuel Komnenos (kouropalates)  • Manuel Komnenos (son of Andronikos I)  • Manuel Palaiologos  • Manuel the Armenian  • Marianos Argyros  • Martino Zaccaria  • Martinus (son of Heraclius)  • Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik  • Maurice (emperor)  • Mauro-Roman Kingdom  • Megas logothetes  • Michael I Komnenos Doukas  • Michael IV the Paphlagonian  • Michael VIII Palaiologos  • Michael Bourtzes  • Michael Dokeianos  • Michael Lachanodrakon  • Momchil  • al-Muktafi  • Muslim conquest of Sicily  • Nikephoros (Caesar)  • Nikephoros Diogenes  • Nikephoros Komnenos  • Nikephoros Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)  • Nikephoros Melissenos  • Nikephoros Phokas Barytrachelos  • Nikephoros Phokas the Elder  • Nikephoros Xiphias  • Orphanotrophos  • Ottoman conquest of Lesbos  • Peter the Patrician  • Problem of two emperors  • Protostrator  • Sack of Damietta (853)  • Sa'd al-Dawla  • Salih ibn Mirdas  • Sayf al-Dawla  • Shahrbaraz  • Siege of Berat (1280–1281)  • Siege of Constantinople (860)  • Siege of Damascus (634)  • Siege of Jerusalem (637)  • Siege of Kamacha (766)  • Siege of Nicaea (727)  • Siege of Patras (805 or 807)  • Siege of Shaizar  • Siege of Syracuse (877–878)  • Siege of Tyana  • Solomon (magister militum)  • Staurakios (eunuch)  • Stephen Lekapenos  • Stratopedarches  • Stylianos Zaoutzes  • Syrgiannes Palaiologos  • Theodore I Laskaris  • Theodore II Laskaris  • Theodore Synadenos  • Theodosius (son of Maurice)  • Theophylact (son of Michael I)  • Theoktistos  • Treaty of Gallipoli  • Turahan Bey  • Type of Constans  • Tzachas  • Umar al-Aqta  • Uprising of Ivaylo  • Vandalic War  • Walls of Constantinople  • Yazdegerd II

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