is a North American
country consisting of ten provinces and three territories
. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean
in the east to the Pacific Ocean
in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean
. It is the world's second largest country by total area
. Canada's common border
with the United States
to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.
The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G7, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.
Selected article -
The Battle of Arras
was a British
offensive during World War I
. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British
, and Australian
troops attacked German trenches
near the French city of Arras
on the Western Front.
For much of the war, the opposing armies on the Western Front were at a stalemate, with a continuous line of trenches stretching from the Belgian coast to the Swiss border. In essence, the Allied objective from early 1915 was to break through the German defences into the open ground beyond and engage the numerically inferior German army in a war of movement. The Arras offensive was conceived as part of a plan to bring about this result. It was planned in conjunction with the French High Command, who were simultaneously embarking on a massive attack (the Nivelle Offensive) about eighty kilometres to the south. The stated aim of this combined operation was to end the war in forty-eight hours. At Arras, the British Empire's immediate objectives were more modest: (1) to draw German troops away from the ground chosen for the French attack and (2) to take the German-held high ground that dominated the plain of Douai.
Initial efforts centred on a relatively broad-based assault between Vimy in the northwest and Bullecourt in the southeast. After considerable bombardment, Canadian troops advancing in the north were able to capture the strategically significant Vimy Ridge, and British divisions in the centre were also able to make significant gains. Only in the south, where British and Australian forces were frustrated by the elastic defence, were the attackers held to minimal gains. Following these initial successes, British forces engaged in a series of small-scale operations to consolidate the newly won positions. Although these battles were generally successful in achieving limited aims, many of them resulted in relatively large numbers of casualties.
Selected biography -
(born May 6, 1972) is a professional ice hockey
goaltender who has played his entire National Hockey League
career with the New Jersey Devils
. In his 13-year tenure, he has led the team to three Stanley Cup championships and has taken them to the playoffs all but once. In addition to holding over thirty Devils franchise records, he is on pace to surpass Patrick Roy
's career records for wins, games played and minutes played, as well as Terry Sawchuk
's record for career shutouts, and Patrick Roy
's record for career playoff shutouts.
Brodeur has been among the NHL's most consistent goaltenders over the past decade, winning at least 35 games each of the last ten seasons as well as being the only goalie in NHL history with six 40-win seasons. He is a three-time Vezina Trophy winner, a four-time Jennings Trophy winner, a nine-time NHL All Star, and one of only two NHL goaltenders to have scored goals in the regular season and the playoffs. In the 2006-07 NHL season, Brodeur surpassed Sawchuk and still-active Ed Belfour on the all-time wins list and Glenn Hall on the all-time shutouts list to rank 2nd and 3rd in those categories, respectively. He also passed Bernie Parent's record of 47 single-season wins with his 48th win on April 5, 2007.
Selected picture -
Symbols of Canada -
Did you know... -
- ... that the forthcoming Canadian film Smash Cut will feature a cameo appearance by filmmaker Herschell Gordon Lewis who invented the splatter film genre?
- ...that one can live, work, and play in Fermont, Quebec without going outside, because the town is bordered on two sides by a long building containing living, shopping, work and recreational facilities all under one roof?
- ...that in the Calgary Flames' 1988-89 season, they became the only visiting team to defeat the Montreal Canadiens to win the Stanley Cup in the Montreal Forum?
- ... that in Saskatchewan, Oban was known for having the last Interlocking tower at the CNR and CPR level crossing, until it was closed in 1990?
- ...that the Kipawa River in Quebec, Canada, is being considered for hydroelectric development which would completely divert it?