Portal:Fascism

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The Fascism Portal

The flag of the National Fascist Party of Italy bearing the fasces, the namesake of fascism

Fascism is a political authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek to unify their nation based on commitment to an organic national community where its individuals are united together as one people through national identity. The unity of the nation is to be based upon suprapersonal connections of ancestry and culture through a totalitarian state that seeks the mass mobilization of the national community through discipline, physical training, and sometimes eugenics. Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature and views political violence, war and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. Frequently, fascism seeks to eradicate perceived foreign influences that are deemed to be causing degeneration of the nation or of not fitting into the national culture. The limiting of the spectrum of acceptable opinion includes the aggressive suppression of dissent.

Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism. Neo-fascism usually includes ultranationalism, populism, anti-immigration policies or, where relevant, nativism, anti-communism, anti-socialism, anti-Marxism, anti-anarchism and opposition to the parliamentary system and liberal democracy. Allegations that a group is neo-fascist may be hotly contested, especially if the term is used as a political epithet. Some post–World War II regimes have been described as neo-fascist due to their authoritarian nature, and sometimes due to their fascination with and sympathy towards fascist ideology and rituals.

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Mussolini biografia.jpg
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician, journalist and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943—constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship. Known as Il Duce ("The Leader"), Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism. In 1912, Mussolini was a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party's stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and later founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism and class conflict, instead advocating revolutionary nationalism transcending class lines. Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes, Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1943, but a few months later he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy – Mussolini held this post until his death in 1945.

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Benito Mussolini

Members of the Italian National Fascist Party (PNF) during the March on Rome in 1922. The man in the centre wearing the suit with his hands against his chest is Fascist Duce Benito Mussolini. Italian Fascist forces had seized control of several Italian cities and threatened to violently overthrow the government of Prime Minister Luigi Facta if Facta and his government did not immediately resign. The March resulted in the King of Italy accepting the Fascists demands by dismissing Facta and appointing Mussolini as Prime Minister of what was then a coalition government where only a small minority were Fascists. Within several years Mussolini vastly increased the power of the Fascists, by 1926 he dismissed the Italian parliament and became an effective dictator, ruling by decree under the official sanctioning of the King, and the Fascist Party became a state institution with Fascist symbolism being included in state symbols. By 1928 Italy officially became a single party state led by the Fascist Party.

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Benito Mussolini

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