History is the discovery, collection, organization, analysis, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean a continuous, typically chronological record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of knowledge which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to objectively investigate the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular culture but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than as the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.
Amongst scholars, fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history"; the methods of Herodotus along with his contemporary Thucydides form the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence (along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world) has spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has developed over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields, including those that focus on certain regions and those that focus on certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. Often, history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
was an ancient civilization
of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River
in what is now the modern country of Egypt
. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3500 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology
) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
under the first pharaoh
. The history of ancient Egypt
occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms
, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods
: the Old Kingdom
of the Early Bronze Age
, the Middle Kingdom
of the Middle Bronze Age
and the New Kingdom
of the Late Bronze Age
. Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power during the New Kingdom, in the Ramesside period, after which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in this late period. In the aftermath of Alexander the Great
's death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter
, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Ptolemaic Dynasty
ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when it fell to the Roman Empire
and became a Roman province
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River Valley. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fueled social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a Pharaoh who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.
George Wilcken Romney
(July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was an American businessman
and Republican Party politician
. He was chairman and president of American Motors Corporation
from 1954 to 1962, the 43rd Governor of Michigan
from 1963 to 1969, and the United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
from 1969 to 1973. He was the father of former Governor of Massachusetts
and 2012 Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney
and the husband of former Michigan U.S. Senate candidate Lenore Romney
. Romney was born to American parents living in the Mormon colonies in Mexico
; events during the Mexican Revolution
forced his family to flee back to the United States when he was a child. The family lived in several states and ended up in Salt Lake City, Utah
, where they struggled during the Great Depression
. Romney worked in a number of jobs, served as a Mormon missionary
in the United Kingdom
, and attended several colleges in the U.S. but did not graduate from any. In 1939 he moved to Detroit
and joined the American Automobile Manufacturers Association
, where he served as the chief spokesman for the automobile industry during World War II
and headed a cooperative arrangement in which companies could share production improvements. He joined Nash-Kelvinator
in 1948, and became the chief executive of its successor, American Motors Corporation
, in 1954. There he turned around the struggling firm by focusing all efforts on the compact Rambler
car. Romney mocked the products of the "Big Three
" automakers as "gas-guzzling dinosaurs" and became one of the first high-profile, media-savvy business executives. Devoutly religious, he presided over the Detroit Stake
of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- ... that Giovanni de Ventura, a plague doctor who may have worn a beak doctor costume (pictured), was restricted by a covenant to treat only infectious patients? In the nose of the mask, there were types of plants that were used to filter the sickness from the wearer.
- ... that in some archaic Greek alphabets, an Ε could look like a Β, a Β like a C, a Γ like an Ι, an Ι like a Σ, or a Σ like an Μ?
- ... that the Chinese government has published a list of sixty-four important cultural relics that are forbidden to be exhibited outside of China?
- ... that the 1886 novel Albertine expedited the abolition of public prostitution in Norway?
- ... that Carl Sagan worked with the US Air Force on detonating a nuclear device on the Moon?
- ... that Olympic gold medals have been made out of silver, jade, and glass?
- ... that in 1945 a Japanese battalion was rearmed to serve alongside the British 5th Parachute Brigade in the Far East?
- ... that Solomon was accidentally castrated as an infant?
An attack on Beijing Castle during the Boxer Rebellion, September 1900. The Boxer Rebellion was a nationalist movement by "Righteous Harmony Society" against European and Christian influence; it failed, and China was forced to pay an incremental reprimand of 67 million pounds to the European countries that put it down.
What is the use of living, if it be not to strive for noble causes and to make this muddled world a better place for those who will live in it after we are gone?
"The ideas which now pass for brilliant innovations and advances are in fact mere revivals of ancient errors, and a further proof of the dictum that those who are ignorant of the past are condemned to repeat it."
— Henry Hazlitt