Melbourne () is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The name "Melbourne" refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2 (3,800 sq mi) which comprises the broader metropolitan area, as well as being the common name for its city centre.
The metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. Melbourne consists of 31 municipalities. It has a population of 4,529,500 as of 2015 , and its inhabitants are called Melburnians.
Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemen's Land on 30 August 1835, in what was then the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named "Melbourne" by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, whom Lord Melbourne was close to, in 1847, after which it became the capital of the newly founded colony of Victoria in 1851. During the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the world's largest and wealthiest cities. After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the nation's interim seat of government until 1927.
Melbourne rates highly in education, entertainment, health care, research and development, tourism and sport, making it the world's most liveable city—for the sixth year in a row in 2016, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. It is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region, and ranks among the top 30 cities in the world in the Global Financial Centres Index. Referred to as Australia's "cultural capital", it is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries, and Australian contemporary dance. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a major centre for street art, music and theatre. It is home to many of Australia's largest and oldest cultural institutions such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria, the State Library of Victoria and the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics.
The Shrine of Remembrance
, located in Kings Domain
on St Kilda Road
, was built as a memorial to the men and women of Victoria
who served in World War I
and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war. It is a site of annual observances of ANZAC Day
(25 April) and Remembrance Day
(11 November) and is one of the largest war memorials
Designed by architects Phillip Hudson and James Wardrop who were both World War I veterans, the Shrine is in a classical style, being based on the Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus and the Parthenon in Athens. Built from Tynong granite, the Shrine originally consisted only of the central sanctuary surrounded by the ambulatory. The sanctuary contains the marble Stone of Remembrance, upon which is engraved the words "Greater love hath no man". Once a year, on 11 November at 11 a.m. (Remembrance Day), a ray of sunlight shines through an aperture in the roof to light up the word "Love" in the inscription. Beneath the sanctuary lies the crypt, which contains a bronze statue of a soldier father and son, and panels listing every unit of the First Australian Imperial Force.
In 2002-2003 a Visitor Centre was built within the foundations of the Shrine. The visitor centre designed by Ashton Raggatt McDougall incorporates an education centre, an audio-visual centre, gallery space, a retail shop and an administration office, as well the Hall of Columns, Gallery of Medals, entry courtyard and Remembrance Garden. The walls of both the entry courtyard and Remembrance Garden have been built to complement the Ray of Light ceremony that takes place on 11 November of every year.
Australian fashion designer Peter Alexander is the founder of his namesake sleepwear brand. He was born in 1965, in South Africa. Soon after his birth, the Alexander family relocated to Melbourne in search of a fresh start. During the early days of the Peter Alexander brand, Alexander worked from his mother's dining room table. He initially sold directly to department stores. When a store cancelled an order for 2,000 pairs of pyjamas in 1990, in desperation, he took out a mail order advertisement in Cleo magazine, and received 6,000 orders from that one advertisement alone. Alexander's first stand-alone store was opened in Melbourne Central Shopping Centre, shortly followed by Chadstone. He has since expanded his stores into every state of Australia.
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