Oregon ( ( listen) OR-i-gən) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary along Washington state, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary along Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada. Oregon is one of only three states of the contiguous United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean.
Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers, and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles (250,000 km2), Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U.S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 164,549 residents. Portland, with 632,309 residents, is the most populous and ranks as the 26th most populous city in the United States. The Portland metropolitan area, which also includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 23rd largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,389,228.
(February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist
. Pauling is regarded by many as the premier chemist of the twentieth century, especially for the versatility of his contributions. He pioneered the application of quantum mechanics
to chemistry, and in 1954 was awarded the Nobel Prize
in chemistry for his work describing the nature of chemical bonds
. Pauling received the Nobel Peace Prize
in 1962 for his campaign against above-ground nuclear testing
. Later in life, he became an advocate for greatly increased consumption of vitamin C
and other nutrients. Pauling was born in Oswego, Oregon
. In the 1930s he began publishing papers on the nature of the chemical bond, leading to his famous textbook on the subject published in 1939. It is based primarily on his work in this area that he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1954. In 1958, Pauling and his wife presented the United Nations
with a petition signed by more than 11,000 scientists calling for an end to nuclear-weapon testing
. Public pressure subsequently led to a moratorium on above-ground nuclear weapons testing, followed by the Partial Test Ban Treaty
, signed in 1963 by John F. Kennedy
and Nikita Khrushchev
. On the day that the treaty went into force, the Nobel Prize Committee awarded Pauling the Nobel Peace Prize
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In this month
- October 1, 1938, the current Oregon State Capitol building is dedicated with speeches by dignitaries including Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- October 2, 1867, Willamette University opens Waller Hall, the oldest college building in the state still in use.
- October 4, 2002, the FBI arrests four of the Portland Seven on conspiracy charges for attempting to join Al-Qaeda.
- October 4, 1963, All-American at Oregon State and NBA All-Star A. C. Green is born in Portland.
- October 5, 1877, Chief Joseph surrenders to General Nelson Appleton Miles after leading the Nez Perce on a strategic retreat out of the Wallowa Valley.
- October 12, 1962, the Columbus Day Storm does extensive damage in Western Oregon.
- October 25, 1906, the vessel Peter Iredale shipwrecks on the Clatsop Spit where it still rests in what is now a state park.
- October 28, 1947, Governor Earl Snell, Oregon Secretary of State Robert S. Farrell, Jr., and State Senate President Marshall E. Cornett all die in a small plane crash in Southern Oregon.
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The Snake River is a major tributary of the Columbia River in the U.S. states of Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The river's length is 1,040 miles (1,674 km), its watershed drains 108,000 square miles (280,000 km2), and the average discharge at its mouth is 56,900 cubic feet per second (1,610 m³/s). The river flows from its source in Yellowstone National Park through a series of mountain ranges, canyons, and plains.
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Coordinates: 44°00′N 120°30′W / 44°N 120.5°W