The Science Portal
Science is the methodical study of nature including testable explanations and predictions. From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now and, in fact, in the Western world, the term "natural philosophy" encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy, medicine, and physics. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the scientific method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. While the classification of the material world by the ancient Indians and Greeks into air, earth, fire and water was more philosophical, medieval Middle Easterns used practical, experimental observation to classify materials.
Today, the ever-evolving term "science" refers to the pursuit of knowledge, not the knowledge itself. It is often synonymous with "natural and physical science" and often restricted to those branches of study relating to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws. Although the term implies exclusion of pure mathematics, many university faculties include Mathematics Departments within their Faculty of Science. The dominant sense in ordinary use has a narrower use for the term "science." It developed as a part of science becoming a distinct enterprise of defining the "laws of nature"; early examples include Kepler's laws, Galileo's laws, and Newton's laws of motion. In this period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as "natural science." Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the disciplined study of the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science. For example, psychology evolved from philosophy, and has grown into an area of study.
Currently, there are both "hard" (e.g. biological psychology) and "soft" science (e.g. social psychology) fields within the discipline. As a result, and as is consistent with the unfolding of the study of knowledge and development of methods to establish facts, each area of psychology employs a scientific method. Reflecting the evolution of the development of knowledge and established facts and the use of the scientific method, Psychology Departments in universities are found within: Faculty of Arts and Science, Faculty of Arts, and a Faculty of Science. Similarly, several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of "science", such as formal science and applied science.
is a system that uses radio
waves to determine and map the location, direction, and/or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as aircraft
, motor vehicles, weather formations and terrain. A transmitter
emits radio waves, which are reflected by the target and detected by a receiver, typically in the same location as the transmitter. Although the radio signal returned is usually very weak, radio signals can easily be amplified, so radar can detect objects at ranges where other emissions, such as sound
or visible light
, would be too weak to detect. Radar is used in many contexts, including meteorological
detection of precipitation
, air traffic control
detection of speeding traffic
, and by the military.
The term RADAR was coined in 1941 as an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging. This acronym of American origin replaced the previously used British abbreviation RDF (Radio Direction Finding). The term has since entered the English language as a standard word, radar, losing the capitalization in the process.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
(May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist
, and Nobel laureate
, and is considered to be one of the founders of modern neuroscience
. His most famous studies were on the fine structure of the central nervous system
. Cajal used a histological staining
technique developed by his contemporary, Camillo Golgi
, allowing him to resolve, in detail, the structure of individual neurons
. This led him to conclude that nervous tissue was a continuous reticulum (or web) of interconnected cells
, much like those in the circulatory system
. Using Golgi's method
, Ramón y Cajal reached a very different conclusion; he postulated that the nervous system
is made up of billions of separate neurons
and that these cells are polarized
. Rather than forming a continuous web, Cajal suggested that neurons communicate with each other via specialized junctions
called "synapses". This hypothesis
became the basis of the neuron doctrine
, which states that the individual unit of the nervous system is a single neuron. Electron microscopy
later showed that a plasma membrane
completely enclosed each neuron, supporting Cajal's theory
, and weakening Golgi's reticular theory.
- ...that the Witch's hat is the common name of a colourful orange-red toadstool?
- ...that Derek Freeman was an anthropologist whose refutation of Margaret Mead's work "ignited controversy of a scale, visibility, and ferocity never before seen in anthropology"?