Proto-Aslian language

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The Proto-Aslian language is the reconstructed proto-language of the Aslian languages of Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand. It has been reconstructed by Timothy Phillips (2012).[1]

Reconstructed forms[edit]

The 289 reconstructed Proto-Aslian forms below are from Phillips (2012:259-262).

  • *[bə]teew ‘water, river’
  • *[ca(n)]bɨŋ ‘spider’
  • *[d/g]arɯɯɲ ‘termite’
  • *[gə]liik ‘to swallow’
  • *[gə]rɛɛs ‘liver’
  • *[ɟa]lɯɯʔ ‘pig’
  • *[kə]soom ‘nest’
  • *[lə]bit ‘to close (eyes)’
  • *[m/n]uay ‘one’
  • *[pə]tam ‘to plant’
  • *[s/h]uəc ‘to whistle’
  • *[s]paay ‘new’
  • *[sa]tam ‘right (side)’
  • *[tam]pɯɯs ‘to sweep’
  • *[ʔa]tiɛʔ ‘earth’
  • *[ʔən]cɛɛn ‘cooked’
  • *{(–)l–} ‘(iterative)’
  • *{(-)m-} ‘(nominalizer agentive)’
  • *{(-)n-} ‘(nominalizer)’
  • *{pər-} ‘(causative)’
  • *{–ra–} ‘(plural/comparative)’
  • *baay ‘to dig’
  • *bakaʔ ‘descendant’
  • *baliiŋ ‘sky’
  • *baʔ ‘to carry on back’
  • *bəhɔ(ɔ)l ‘deer’
  • *bəhiiʔ ‘sated (of food)’
  • *bək ‘to tie’
  • *bəkaaw ‘flower’
  • *bəkah ‘to break’
  • *bəlaaw ‘blowgun’
  • *bəliiŋ ‘arm’
  • *bəlooʔ ‘thigh’
  • *bənɨ(ɨ)m ‘mountain’
  • *bərɔl ‘dart butt’
  • *bəriʔ ‘forest’
  • *bətees ‘mushroom’
  • *bəy[oo]k ‘white’
  • *bəʔaak ‘flood’
  • *bəʔet ‘good’
  • *bɨt ‘hot’
  • *bɯɯl ‘drunk’
  • *bɯɯʔ ‘to suck’
  • *boh ‘to put/place’
  • *bus ‘cane’
  • *buyaaʔ ‘alligator’
  • *ca(a)l ‘to say’
  • *caaʔ ‘to eat’
  • *cah ‘cah’
  • *cap ‘to catch’
  • *cɔk ‘to stab’
  • *cɛ(ɛ)s ‘to tear’
  • *cɛ(ɛ)ʔ ‘louse’
  • *cə(n)ruas ‘fingernail’
  • *cədaaw ‘rainbow’
  • *cədək ‘to hiccough’
  • *cɛɛm ‘bird’
  • *cɛɛn ‘to cook’
  • *cəgɛh ‘hard’
  • *cəkʔiɛk ‘gecko’
  • *cəloon ‘back’
  • *cəma(a)ʔ ‘sharp’
  • *cəntɯɯgŋ ‘drum’
  • *cəŋcɛ̃ɛ̃ŋ ‘eyebrow’
  • *cərəs ‘rib’
  • *cəruuʔ ‘winnow basket’
  • *ciip ‘to walk’
  • *cɨl ‘tattoo’
  • *coom ‘to burn’
  • *cuam ‘to dig’
  • *cuəh ‘to defecate’
  • *cuəʔ ‘dog’
  • *daŋ ‘to see’
  • *dɔŋ ‘t.o. monkey’
  • *deh ‘they (3P)’
  • *dəka(a)n ‘bamboo rat’
  • *dəlũũʔ ‘to push’
  • *dɯɯŋ ‘house’
  • *duuy ‘afternoon’
  • *gaal ‘waist’
  • *gaɲ ‘to bite’
  • *gɔl ‘to carry on back’
  • *gəcɛɛʔ ‘moon’
  • *gəhɛɛt ‘sweet’
  • *gəlisɛɛh ‘to whisper’
  • *gəluk ‘to laugh’
  • *gəriɛŋ ‘monitor lizard’
  • *gətɔh ‘to spit’
  • *gɨn ‘they (3P)’
  • *gɯɯm ‘to winnow’
  • *gulam ‘to carry on shoulder’
  • *guul ‘mortar’
  • *hã(ã)n ‘where’
  • *haar ‘we two (1D.IN)’
  • *halap ‘to raft’
  • *hawa(a)r ‘mucus’
  • *heeʔ ‘you (2S)’
  • *hə̃m ‘to breathe’
  • *hiiʔ ‘we (1P.IN)’
  • *hiŋkaaʔ ‘to play’
  • *ɟaam / *ʔiɟaam ‘to cry’
  • *ɟak ‘to step on’
  • *ɟaŋka(a)ʔ ‘chin/jaw’
  • *ɟarlaaʔ ‘thorn’
  • *ɟɔ̃ɔ̃t ‘to suck’
  • *ɟeeʔ ‘we (1P.EX)’
  • *ɟəhuuʔ ‘tree’
  • *ɟəl ‘to bark’
  • *ɟəʔaaŋ ‘bone’
  • *ɟɨk ‘to breathe’
  • *ɟɯɯk ‘to move’
  • *ɟuŋ ‘foot/leg’
  • *k[a]niɛʔ ‘mouse’
  • *k[a]ʔiɛp ‘centipede’
  • *kaac ‘to scratch’
  • *kaaʔ ‘fish’
  • *kamiɛk ‘to carry under arm’
  • *kaɲɔŋ ‘elbow’
  • *kanɛ(ɛ)t ‘small’
  • *kap ‘to bite’
  • *karɛɛy ‘thunder’
  • *karəŋ ‘tree trunk’
  • *kawããp ‘bear’
  • *kayoot ‘pregnant’
  • *kɔɔɲ ‘male’
  • *ke ‘he/she (3S)’
  • *ke(e)ŋ ‘to pull’
  • *kə(n)siir ‘husband’
  • *kəbəc ‘to fish’
  • *kəbɛɛc ‘to spit’
  • *kəbɨɨʔ ‘fruit’
  • *kəbɨs ‘to die’
  • *kəboʔ ‘mosquito’
  • *kədɛk ‘bitter’
  • *kɛɛʔ ‘to seek’
  • *kəhuəy ‘to gape’
  • *kəl ‘to fall’
  • *kəlaaŋ ‘eagle’
  • *kəlapuəh ‘shoulder’
  • *kəlɨɨt ‘firefly’
  • *kəluəŋ ‘inside’
  • *kəm ‘to obtain’
  • *kəmbaar ‘twin’
  • *kəmeet ‘mosquito’
  • *kəmooc ‘ghost’
  • *kəmuar ‘worm, caterpillar’
  • *kəmuən ‘nephew’
  • *kəɲaaŋ ‘quick’
  • *kəndah ‘wife’
  • *kəpiil ‘turtle’
  • *kərɔʔ ‘back’
  • *kərɟɛr ‘to dance’
  • *kəroom ‘under’
  • *kərual ‘knee’
  • *kəteŋ ‘calf (leg)’
  • *kətɯɯʔ ‘skin, bark’
  • *kəyɔŋ ‘to hear’
  • *kiɛt ‘anus’
  • *kipaaŋ ‘top’
  • *kɯɯʔ ‘to vomit’
  • *kooɲ ‘male’
  • *krkbaak ‘butterfly’
  • *kuəm ‘to hold, grasp’
  • *kuən ‘child’
  • *kuuy ‘head’
  • *lakuəm ‘brain’
  • *las ‘ant’
  • *lɛc ‘wrong/miss’
  • *ləda(a)ʔ ‘armpit’
  • *leew ‘bamboo’
  • *ləhiɛŋ ‘saliva’
  • *lək ‘quiver’
  • *ləmooɲ ‘tooth’
  • *ləɲsiɲ ‘gums’
  • *ləntaak ‘tongue’
  • *ləŋɛ(ɛ)ʔ ‘neck’
  • *ləsəm ‘rain’
  • *ləwɛɛy ‘bee’
  • *liɛp ‘to plait (leaves)’
  • *m(??)h ‘you (2S)’
  • *mahaam ‘blood’
  • *man ‘to play’
  • *mat ‘eye’
  • *mɔɔh ‘nose’
  • *məriɛm ‘how many?’
  • *miɛŋ ‘cheek’
  • *mro(o)ɲ ‘louse’
  • *muuh ‘to bathe’
  • *napak ‘boar’
  • *nɔɔm ‘to urinate’
  • *nɛŋ ‘before’
  • *niis ‘mat’
  • *nooŋ ‘road’
  • *ɲooʔ ‘to suck’
  • *padaw ‘bee’
  • *pak ‘to chop’
  • *paraaʔ ‘shelf’
  • *pareeʔ ‘monitor lizard’
  • *pəhɨɨm ‘to break wind’
  • *pəlɛ(ɛ)ʔ ‘astonished’
  • *pəleek ‘bat’
  • *pəlɛɛʔ ‘fruit’
  • *pələm ‘leech’
  • *pəluaŋ ‘roof’
  • *pənlɯɯŋ ‘egg’
  • *pərəc ‘wing’
  • *pəʔaas ‘turtle’
  • *pɨɨt ‘to extinguish’
  • *pɨt ‘to blow’
  • *puk ‘chicken’
  • *rəmpiɛt ‘to thresh’
  • *rəwaay ‘soul’
  • *riɛt ‘to wring’
  • *rudɔŋ ‘friend’
  • *ruəp ‘friend’
  • *ruəy ‘fly’
  • *ruuy ‘to sow’
  • *rʔiɛs / ʔriɛs ‘root’
  • *sa(a)r ‘to descend’
  • *sɔɔk ‘hair, feather’
  • *sɛ(ɛ)ɲ ‘end’
  • *sə[n]taaʔ ‘tail’
  • *sɛc ‘flesh’
  • *sɛɛh ‘to pound’
  • *sɛɛl ‘shy’
  • *səgu(u)ʔ ‘to ask, request’
  • *səlaay ‘field’
  • *səlaaʔ ‘leaf’
  • *səlɨʔdeʔ ‘cockroach’
  • *səluuh ‘to blowpipe’
  • *səmaaɲ ‘to ask’
  • *səmaaʔ ‘human being’
  • *səŋɛc ‘cold’
  • *səŋəp ‘darkness’
  • *siɛc ‘to steal’
  • *siɛm ‘to forget’
  • *sisɛʔ ‘to dance’
  • *siyãʔ ‘house’
  • *sɯɯc ‘to sting’
  • *suək ‘navel’
  • *suəm ‘marrow’
  • *suuc ‘to wash’
  • *suup ‘lung’
  • *taaɲ ‘to plait, weave’
  • *tabooʔ ‘thumb’
  • *taɟaak ‘to carry in hand’
  • *taɟuuʔ ‘snake’
  • *talun ‘python’
  • *tawɔɔh ‘t.o. gibbon’
  • *tawiiŋ ‘spider’
  • *tɔɔt ‘to burn’
  • *təbiŋ ‘full’
  • *təhop ‘turtle’
  • *təhuəl ‘to blow’
  • *təkɔɔʔ ‘pus’
  • *təmɔʔ ‘stone’
  • *təmkal ‘male’
  • *təniit ‘lip’
  • *təŋ(k)əm ‘molar’
  • *tiɛk ‘to sleep’
  • *tiɛl ‘footprint’
  • *tiil ‘to dry’
  • *tool ‘to carry on head’
  • *tuəs ‘to pull out’
  • *wɔɔk ‘to wake up’
  • *we(e)n ‘to throw out’
  • *weeh ‘they two (3D)’
  • *weel ‘again’
  • *wɛ̃ɛ̃n ‘to squeeze’
  • *wiɛl ‘left (side)’
  • *yɛɛʔ ‘I (1S)’
  • *ʔaap ‘tiger’
  • *ʔaat ‘stick/spear’
  • *ʔas ‘to swell’
  • *ʔawak ‘ladle’
  • *ʔɔ̃ɔ̃ɲ ‘to smell’
  • *ʔɔɔs ‘fire’
  • *ʔə[k]ʔaak ‘crow’
  • *ʔɛc ‘belly, excrement’
  • *ʔəmpuaʔ ‘to dream’
  • *ʔəndɯɯm ‘ripe’
  • *ʔəɲiiʔ ‘before’
  • *ʔəntaŋ ‘ear’
  • *ʔəntap ‘testicle’
  • *ʔiiɲ ‘I (1S)’
  • *ʔoo[k/ŋ] ‘wasp’
  • *ʔoor ‘to command’
  • *ʔuək ‘to give’
  • *ʔuuy ‘to do’

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phillips, Timothy C. 2012. Proto-Aslian: towards an understanding of its historical linguistic systems, principles and processes. Ph.D. thesis, Institut Alam Dan Tamadun Melayu Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi.
  • Phillips, Timothy C. 2012. Proto-Aslian: towards an understanding of its historical linguistic systems, principles and processes. Ph.D. thesis, Institut Alam Dan Tamadun Melayu Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi.
  • Sidwell, Paul and Felix Rau (2015). "Austroasiatic Comparative-Historical Reconstruction: An Overview." In Jenny, Mathias and Paul Sidwell, eds (2015). The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill.