Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language

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Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
PMP
Reconstruction ofMalayo-Polynesian
RegionLuzon Strait?
Reconstructed
ancestor
Lower-order reconstructions

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (PMP) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is by far the largest branch (by current speakers) of the Austronesian language family. Proto-Malayo-Polynesian is ancestral to all Austronesian languages spoken outside Taiwan, as well as the Yami language on Taiwan's Orchid Island. The first systematic reconstruction of Proto-Austronesian ("Uraustronesisch") by Otto Dempwolff was based on evidence from languages outside of Taiwan, and was therefore actually the first reconstruction of what is now known as Proto-Malayo-Polynesian.[1]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

The following consonants can be reconstructed for Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (Blust 2009):[2]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Palatalized
velar
Velar Uvular Glottal
Voiceless obstruent *p *t *c /c͡ç/ *k *q
Voiced obstruent *b *d *z /ɟ͡ʝ/ *D /ɖ/ *j /ɡʲ/ *g
Nasal *m *n *ñ /ɲ/
Fricative *s *h
Lateral *l
Tap or trill *r *R /ʀ/
Approximant *w *y /j/

The phonetic value of the reconstructed sounds *p, *b, *w, *m, *t, *d, *n, *s, *l, *r, *k, *g, *ŋ, *q, *h was as indicated by the spelling. The symbols *ñ, *y, *z, *D, *j, *R are orthographic conventions first introduced by Dyen (1947).[3] The assumed phonetic values are given in the table.

This consonant system is quite similar to the ancestral Proto-Austronesian (PAN) system, but is characterized by three mergers:

  • PAN *t/*C > PMP *t
  • PAN *l/*N > PMP *l
  • PAN *h/*S > PMP *h

Vowels[edit]

The Proto-Austronesian vowels *a, *i, *u, *e (/ə/) and final diphthongs *ay, *aw, *uy, *iw remained unchanged.[2]

Alternative views[edit]

In a recent study, Roger Blench (2016)[4] has raised doubts that there was actually a single unitary Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language. Rather, Malayo-Polynesian expansion across the Luzon Strait consisted of multi-ethnic crews rapidly settling across various locations in maritime Southeast Asia, as suggested by both archaeological and linguistic evidence. There was also a Malayo-Polynesian migration to Hainan; Blench (2016) notes that both Hlai and Austronesian peoples use the foot-braced backstrap loom as well.

Lexicon[edit]

Below are selected animal and plant names in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian from the Austronesian Comparative Dictionary.[5]

Animal names[edit]

Fish names
No. Reconstruction levels Common name Scientific name Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
2201 PMP a fish Scomberoides sp. *daRi
9215 PMP a fish, the fusilier Caesionidae sp. *sulig
8519 PMP a fish, the sea perch, giant rockcod, giant grouper Epinephelus spp. *kuRapu
4366 PMP a fish: the big-eyed scad Trachiurops crumenophthalmus *qatulay
251 PMP a fruit-bearing plant Pisonia umbellifera *añuliŋ
1532 PMP a white fish, the tarpon Megalops cyprinoides *bulan-bulan₁
1636 PMP batfish Platax spp. *buna
1635 PMP batfish Platax spp. *bunaR
4379 PMP fish sp.: mullet sp. Neomyxus chaptalli *qawas
4380 PMP fish sp.: the milkfish Chanos chanos *qawa₁
4378 PMP fish sp.: the milkfish Chanos chanos *qawan
2095 PMP goatfish Mullidae *tiqaw₂
9513 PMP green jobfish Aprion virescens *qutun
3187 PMP kind of striped or spotted marine fish, grouper Epinephelus spp. *keRteŋ
9509 PMP needlefish Istiophorus spp. *saku₂
5519 PMP porcupine fish, puffer fish Diodon sp. *taRutuŋ
9141 PMP Spanish mackerel, kingfish Scomberomorini spp. *taŋiRi
5516 PMP squirrelfish Holocentrus spp. *taRaqan
3168 PMP suckerfish, remora; hold on by biting Echeneis naucrates *kemi
2492 PMP suckerfish, remora; hold on by biting Echeneis naucrates *gemi
11354 PMP surgeonfish Acanthurus spp. *qapaliR
11354 PMP surgeonfish Acanthurus spp. *qapaliR
10662 PMP unicorn fish Acanthurus unicornis *taRaq₂
4703 PMP unicorn fish Naso spp. *qumi
4699 PMP unicorn fish Naso spp. *qumay
Other animal names
No. Reconstruction levels Common name Scientific name Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
7001 PMP the green turtle Chelonia mydas *peñu
9539 PMP kingfisher Halcyon spp. *sikek
6845 PAN, PMP, PWMP the Formosan rock monkey Macaca cyclopis *luCuŋ
3809 PMP fruit bat, flying fox Pteropus spp. *paniki
9052 PMP civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae Viverridae *musaŋ
7811 PMP giant clam Tridacna gigas *kima
4842 PMP the spider conch Lambis lambis *Raŋa
8637 PMP the spider conch Lambis lambis *Raŋak
8638 PMP the spider conch Lambis lambis *RaŋaR
4390 PMP coconut crab Birgus latro *qayuyu
4224 PMP a small bee Apis indica *qani-Ruan
4283 PMP a small bee Apis indica *qari-ñuan
6861 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP jungle leech Haemadipsa spp. *-matek
6864 PMP jungle leech Haemadipsa spp. *qala-matek
1726 PMP ringworm Tinea imbricata *buqeni
3800 PMP fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin Tinea flava or Pityriasis *panaw₁

Plant names[edit]

Selected plant names
No. Reconstruction levels Common name Scientific name Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
8724 PMP a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job's tears Coix lachryma-jobi *zelay
4343 PMP a climbing plant Wedelia biflora *qatay qatay₁
11282 PMP a cycad Cycas rumphii *patuRu
710 PMP a dove Ducula spp.? *baluj
3686 PMP a fern Lygodium spp. *nituq
7071 PMP a hairy vine Pueraria hirsuta *bahay
4562 PMP a hardwood tree Intsia bijuga, Afzelia bijuga *qipil
484 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP a lily-like plant Crinum asiaticum *bakuŋ₁
4206 PMP a palm Oncosperma sp.? *qanibuŋ
8448 PMP a plant Leea spp. *mali
3566 PMP a plant Leea spp. *mali-mali
7082 PAN, PMP, PWMP a plant Phragmites spp. *qaReNu
71 PMP a plant Pipturus argenteus *adamay
11885 PMP a plant Solanum nigrum *hameti
4039 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP a plant Urena lobata *puluC
11265 PMP a plant used to stun fish Derris elliptica *bunat
8455 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP, PEMP, POC a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish Derris elliptica *tuba
590 PMP a plant yielding useful fibers Thespesia populnea *balu₁
1832 PMP a shore tree Barringtonia spp. *butun
1275 PMP a shore tree Calophyllum inophyllum *bitaquR
301 PMP a shore tree Casuarina equisetifolia *aRuhu
4290 PMP a shore tree Casuarina equisetifolia *qaRuhu
10441 PMP a shore tree with edible nuts Terminalia catappa *talisay
5317 PMP a shrub Cordyline, Dracaena *siRi
717 PMP a small shore tree Hibiscus tiliaceus *baRu
12684 PMP a small tree bearing round, green fruit Ehretia spp. *kanawah
8398 PMP a swamp palm Nipa fruticans *nipaq
10824 PMP a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor Sterculia foetida *bubuR₃
5189 PMP a thorny tree Caesalpinia spp. *sepaŋ
612 PMP a thorny vine Smilax spp. *banaR₁
620 PMP a thorny vine Smilax spp. *banaw
2257 PMP a tree Alstonia scholaris *ditaq
3274 PMP a tree Artocarpus sp. *kulu₁
12727 PMP a tree Bischofia javanica *tuquR₂
2574 PMP a tree Cordia dichotoma *hanunaŋ
4243 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP a tree Cordia dichotoma *qaNuNaŋ
3103 PMP a tree Cordia spp. *kanawa
10144 PMP a tree Cordia spp. *kendal
6886 PMP a tree Cynometra spp. *namut-namut
5661 PMP a tree Dolichandrone spathacea *tui₁
2198 PMP a tree Dracontomelon edule *daqu₁
2218 PMP a tree Erythrina spp. *dedap
4279 PMP a tree Ficus spp. *qaRa₁
5384 PMP a tree Gnetum gnemon *suka₁
4220 PMP a tree Grewia spp. *qanilaw
8451 PMP a tree Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis *gayam
3097 PMP a tree Murraya sp. *kamuniŋ
782 PMP a tree Nauclea sp. *baŋkal
3884 PMP a tree Ochrosia oppositifolia *pauq
3649 PMP a tree Pterocarpus indica *nara
3648 PMP a tree Pterocarpus indica *naRah
738 PMP a tree Pterospermum sp. *bayuR
3126 PMP a tree Schleichera trijuga *kasambiʔ
3086 PMP a tree Sterculia foetida *kalumpaŋ
2239 PMP a tree Trema orientalis *deRuŋ₂
3903 PMP a tree Vitex pubescens *pa(m)pa
7098 PMP a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree Erythrina indica *dapdap₁
9114 PMP a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses Buchanania arborescens? *balunuR
3104 PMP a tree with fragrant flowers Cananga odorata *kanaŋa
12774 PMP a tree, the Chinese mahogany or Philippine mahogany Shorea albus *bulah
2719 PMP a vine Flagellaria indica *huaR
11109 PMP an evergreen tree with decorative flowers Cynometra ramiflora *namut
1046 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP, PEMP, POC bamboo of very large diameter Dendrocalamus sp.? *betuŋ₁
9776 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP bamboo spp. Bambusa spinosa? *kawayan
11263 PMP betel pepper Piper betle *bu-bulu
8466 PMP bracket fungus Polyporus spp. *kulat₂
1146 PMP calabash tree Crescentia spp. *bila₁
1223 PAN, PMP, PWMP cane grass Miscanthus sp. *biRaSu
10249 PAN, PMP, PWMP castor bean Ricinus communis *katawa
1582 PMP cowrie shell Cypraea mauritiana *buliq₁
4358 PMP cucumber Cucumis sativus *qatimun
10768 PMP elephant grass, miscanthus grass Themeda gigantea *taŋelaj
1255 PMP fan palm Licuala rumphii *biRu
7972 PMP hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber Palaquium spp. *ñatuq
7996 PMP indigo plant and dye Indigofera suffruticosa and Indigofera tinctoria *taRum
7083 PMP kind of fruit tree Pometia pinnata *tawan
6542 PMP kind of mangrove, with bark used for dyeing Ceriops spp. *teŋeR
11007 PMP mango tree and its fruit Mangifera altissima? *pahuq₁
8750 PAN, PMP, PWMP millet sp. Setaria italica (?) *zawa₂
1033 PMP millet sp., probably foxtail millet Setaria italica *betem
812 PMP millet sp., probably foxtail millet Setaria italica *beteŋ₁
7254 PAN, PMP, PWMP mulberry tree and fruit Morus formosensis *taNiud
11844 PMP new shoots of cogon grass Imperata cylindrica *mimis₁
1763 PMP palm sp. Corypha elata *buri₁
3089 PAN, PMP, PWMP plant sp. Diospyros discolor *kamaya
3671 PMP plant sp. Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets *niniq₁
4614 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP, PEMP, PSHWNG, POC rattan Calamus sp. *quay
7169 PMP stinging nettle Laportea spp. *la-lateŋ
7167 PMP stinging nettle Laportea spp. *lateŋ
7183 PMP stinging nettle Laportea spp. *zalateŋ
7185 PMP stinging nettle Laportea spp. *zilateŋ
4204 PMP sugar palm Arenga spp. *qanahaw
7953 PMP sugarcane Saccharum officinarum *tebuh₁
2055 PMP sugarcane Saccharum officinarum *tebuh₂
2399 PMP sword grass Imperata cylindrica *eRiq
10161 PMP sword grass Imperata cylindrica *guRun
12663 PMP sword grass Imperata cylindrica *keRiq
4900 PAN, PMP, PWMP sword grass Imperata cylindrica *Riaq
7486 PMP taro Colocasia esculenta *tales
9775 PMP the candlenut tree Aleurites moluccanus *kamiri
9775 PMP the candlenut tree Aleurites moluccanus *kamiri
12248 PMP the Indian cork tree Millingtonia hortensis *taŋga₂
11262 PMP the Indian tulip tree Thespesia populnea *banaRu
3066 PMP the kapok tree Ceiba pentandra *kabu-kabu
3263 PMP tree sp. Schoutenia ovata *kukun
5653 PMP tree sp. Sesbania grandiflora *tudiq
8882 PMP tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree Erythrina indica *depdep
9942 PMP tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond Canarium commune *kanari
4260 PMP tree with leaves like sandpaper Ficus spp. *qa(m)pelas
3332 PMP tree with poisonous sap Antiaris toxicaria? *laji₁
4722 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP tree with sticky fruits Cordia spp. *quNuNaŋ
10888 PMP tree spp. Barringtonia spp. *putat
7652 PMP turmeric Curcuma longa *kunij
1601 PAN, PMP, PWMP, PCEMP, PCMP, PEMP, PSHWNG, POC type of slender bamboo Schizostachyum spp. *buluq₂
1219 PMP wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro; sexual itch Alocasia spp. *biRaq₁
1219 PMP wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro; sexual itch Alocasia spp. *biRaq₁
4625 PMP yam Dioscorea alata *qubi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dempwolff, Otto (1934-37). Vergleichende Lautlehre des austronesischen Wortschatzes. (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 15;17;19). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. (3 vols.)
  2. ^ a b Blust, Robert (2009). The Austronesian languages. Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University. ISBN 978-0-85883-602-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  3. ^ Dyen, Isidore. (1951). Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *Z. Language, 27(4), 534-540.
  4. ^ Blench, Roger. 2016. The boiling pot: 4000 years ago in the Luzon straits.
  5. ^ Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (April 25, 2020). "Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition". Retrieved May 1, 2020.

External links[edit]