Red Lake shootings
|Red Lake shootings|
|Location||Red Lake, Minnesota, United States|
|Date||March 21, 2005 |
2:49–2:58 p.m. (UTC-6)
|Target||Red Lake Senior High School|
|School shooting, mass murder, shootout, murder–suicide|
|Weapons||Semi-automatic pistols (Glock 23 and Ruger MK II)|
Shotgun (Remington 870)
|Deaths||10 (including the perpetrator)|
|Motive||Bullying, personal and familial stress, depression|
The Red Lake shootings were a spree killing that occurred on March 21, 2005, in two places on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in Red Lake, Minnesota, United States. That morning, 16-year-old Jeffrey Weise killed his grandfather (a tribal police sergeant) and his grandfather's girlfriend at their home. After taking his grandfather's police weapons and bulletproof vest, Weise drove his grandfather's police vehicle to Red Lake Senior High School, where he had been a student some months before.
Weise shot and killed seven people at the school and wounded five others. The dead included an unarmed security guard at the entrance of the school, a teacher, and five students. After the police arrived, Weise exchanged gunfire with them. After being wounded, he shot and killed himself in a classroom. At the time, it was the deadliest school shooting in the United States since the Columbine High School massacre, and is currently the eighth-deadliest school shooting in U.S. history. It is also the fourth-deadliest high school shooting in the United States, behind Stoneman Douglas in 2018, Columbine in 1999 and Santa Fe in 2018.
By some accounts, at the time of the shooting Weise was living with his paternal grandfather, Daryl Lussier, Sr., a sergeant with the Red Lake Police Department, run by the Red Lake Ojibwe tribal government. The household included his grandfather's 32-year-old girlfriend, Michelle Leigh Sigana. His paternal aunts Shauna and Tammy Lussier said he had lived mostly with them for the past several years, and they helped him get treatment to deal with some of his behavioral issues and depression. In 1999, Jeff Weise's mother suffered severe brain damage in an alcohol-related car accident and since then lived and received care in a nursing home. Still a child, Weise was forced to move from Minneapolis to live with his father's family on the reservation. His father had died by suicide in 1997, so Weise was officially placed with his grandmother, Shelda (Gurneau) Lussier. His aunts Shauna and Tammy Lussier helped care for him, especially after the grandmother's death in 2003.
The reservation of the Red Lake Band of Ojibwe (aka Chippewa) is in northwest Minnesota and is one of two nationally that are "closed"; only Ojibwe tribal members may live there and own land. Its residents suffer high rates of unemployment, violence, and suicide. Housing is poor, and many students do not finish high school. Work opportunities are limited on the reservation, which has a population of more than 5,000. A study in 2004 found that a high proportion of students in high school had thought of suicide.
The day of the shootings, Weise retrieved a Ruger MK II .22 caliber pistol from his bedroom and fatally shot his grandfather as he was sleeping; he shot him two times in the head and ten times in the chest. According to Weise's friends, the teenager may have had the gun for as long as a year. He took Lussier's two police-issue weapons, a .40 caliber Glock 23 pistol and a Remington 870 12 gauge pump-action shotgun, a gunbelt and a bulletproof vest. He then fatally shot Sigana, his grandfather's girlfriend, two times in the head as she carried laundry up the stairs.
Weise drove his grandfather's squad car to Red Lake Senior High School, arriving at around 2:45 p.m. Central Standard Time. As he entered the school through the main entrance, he encountered two unarmed security guards manning a metal detector. Weise shot and killed security guard Derrick Brun, while the other security guard escaped without injury. Weise proceeded into the main corridor of the school.
He began shooting into an English classroom, killing three students and one teacher, and wounding three students. Student Ashley Lajeunesse said that Chase Lussier (no direct relation to Weise's father or grandfather) sheltered her, and was one of those shot and killed by Weise. Jeffrey May, a 16-year-old sophomore, tried to wrestle Weise inside the classroom, and stabbed him in the stomach with a pencil. His diversion allowed students to flee the classroom to safety, but Weise shot May two times in the neck and once in the jaw, leaving him seriously injured.
Witnesses said Weise smiled as he was shooting at people. One witness said that Weise asked a student if he believed in God. This is believed to have been a reference to a widely publicized exchange during the 1999 Columbine High School massacre between Dylan Klebold and Valeen Schnurr, a Columbine survivor.
At around 2:52 p.m., Weise returned to the main entrance, where he killed two students and wounded two others. The police had arrived quickly and engaged him in gunfire. FBI special agent Paul McCabe said the shootout lasted for about four minutes. None of the police officers were injured. After being hit in the abdomen and right arm by police gunfire, Weise retreated to a vacant classroom. He leaned against a wall, put the shotgun barrel to his chin, and fired, killing himself.
The shootings lasted nine minutes. Weise fired a total of 59 shots during the shooting spree; 14 at his grandfather's home and 45 at the school. He fired 37 rounds from his grandfather's Glock handgun, 14 from his Ruger handgun, and eight from the shotgun.
Fatalities and funerals
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Police said a total of ten people, including the perpetrator, had died in these events.
- Daryl Allen Lussier, Sr., age 58, Police Sergeant and Jeff Weise's paternal grandfather.
- Michelle Leigh Sigana, age 32, Lussier's girlfriend.
- Derrick Brian Brun, age 28, Security Guard.
- Neva Jane Wynkoop-Rogers, age 62, English teacher.
- Alicia Alberta White, age 14, student.
- Thurlene Marie Stillday, age 15, student.
- Chanelle Star Rosebear, age 15, student.
- Chase Albert Lussier, age 15, student.
- Dewayne Michael Lewis, age 15, student.
- Jeffrey James Weise, age 16, student/perpetrator.
The night after the shooting, many people of the community gathered at the high school gymnasium for a healing ceremony. They performed traditional Ojibwe ceremonies and prayed.
Within days, preparations started for funerals on the reservation. Tribal members drew from Ojibwe traditions as well as Catholic rites. They "collected bundles of sage, to be given as gifts and burned during funeral ceremonies." Families picked personal items to be placed in the caskets.
- Buck Jourdain, Chairman of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, said that the shootings were "one of the darkest and most painful occurrences in the history of our tribe."
- Louis Jourdain, the son of the Tribal Chairman Floyd "Buck" Jourdain Jr., was arrested in connection with the shootings on March 28, 2005 and charged with conspiracy to commit murder. He was charged based on several email messages which he exchanged with Weise related to plans for the Red Lake High School shooting. The government dropped the conspiracy charge; however, Jourdain pleaded guilty to transmitting threatening messages through the Internet.
- Derrick Brun, the killed security guard, was recognized for his bravery, with special recognition by President George W. Bush.
- Jeffrey May, a sophomore injured while trying to attack Weise, was highly praised. He was featured in Reader's Digest.
Aid to victims and families
Minnesota has a state fund that aids victims and their families. In addition, the Red Lake Band of Chippewa established a memorial fund; it reached $200,000 in donations from across the country by April 2005. Initially, the tribe made 15 grants of $5,000 each to victims and their families, including one to Weise's relatives. A tribal spokesman noted his family was not eligible for state compensation and said that they carried "a double burden." The grant was to help pay for Weise's funeral and burial.
On July 21, 2006, the Red Lake school district reached a settlement with the families of the massacre victims. The school district agreed to pay $1,000,000 total to 21 of the victims' families, the maximum amount allowed by Minnesota law. Of the settlement, $900,000 will immediately be granted to the families, and the remaining $100,000 will be set aside for future distribution.
Jeffrey Weise was labeled an outsider in the community and had recently been placed in "homebound" schooling for breaking school rules. He is remembered as a quiet kid that normally wore a black trench coat and gel in his hair.
Weise had grown up with a difficult and disrupted family life; his parents were a young unmarried couple who separated before he was born. His mother Joanne Weise was 17 years old at the time of his birth. Joanne's family insisted that she give up her son to the father, Daryl Lussier, Jr., who was a few years older than her. Jeff Weise did not live with his mother again until after he was two years old, when she reclaimed him and took him to live in Minneapolis. In later Internet postings, Weise wrote that his mother had become an alcoholic who was sometimes physically and emotionally abusive. In 1992, she started dating Timothy "Troy" DesJarlait, and they married in 1998 after having had two children together. Jeff moved around often because of his mother, and attended several different schools during his adolescence.
In 1997, when Weise was eight years old, his father Daryl Lussier, Jr. died by suicide at age 32, shooting himself after a days-long standoff with Red Lake tribal police. Lussier's own father, Daryl Lussier, Sr., was a sergeant with the tribal police and was involved in the standoff.
In 1999, when Weise was ten, his mother was in an alcohol-related car accident and suffered severe brain damage. She had to be committed to a nursing home for rehabilitation. After separating from her in 2000, Timothy DesJarlait divorced Weise's mother in May 2004. DesJarlait took custody of the two children he'd had with Weise's mother, but did not opt to take custody of Jeff.
Jeff was placed in the custody of his paternal grandmother Shelda (Gurneau) Lussier, who lived on the Red Lake Reservation. He had to leave Minneapolis, where he had lived most of his life, to live with her and other paternal relatives in Red Lake. His maternal grandmother Rita Weise also lived on the Red Lake Reservation.
Police investigators began searching for a motive behind the shootings. According to their findings and media reports, Weise was often bullied or teased in school by classmates. A tall youth weighing 250 pounds (115 kg), he was known to wear dark eyeliner, as well as a long black trench coat and other black clothing to school year round. He was referred to as a "goth kid" by many of his classmates. He did not usually respond to taunts. Some fellow students thought of him as a loner, but he had his own circle of friends.
Jeff Weise expressed frustration about living in Red Lake, and felt his life was beyond his control. During these years, he got close to his grandfather, Daryl Lussier, Sr., who gave him a bedroom of his own. Lussier, Sr. lived with his companion Michele Sigana. Weise was said to have a good relationship with his grandfather.
Although Jeff had been separated from his mother and stepfather for years by the time of their divorce in May 2004, he attempted suicide soon after, and again in June 2004. At that time, his aunts and the Red Lake Medical Center arranged for Weise to be taken to a hospital for psychiatric treatment, where he stayed for three days.
The teen was prescribed Prozac as an anti-depressant, to be continued as treatment together with counseling. His doctor had increased his dosage a week before the shooting, to 60 mg a day of Prozac. His aunts Shauna and Tammy Lussier, with whom Weise lived much of the time at Red Lake, said they had arranged for his medical care and were concerned about the increase in his dosage. Weise's actions reopened the debate about Prozac use among children and adolescents. In October 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had issued a warning about its use, but it is still the only anti-depressant that is FDA-approved for children.
Lorene Gurneau, a relative of Weise's paternal grandmother, said she and other family members thought Jeff had never gotten over his father's suicide in 1997. In addition, his mother's car accident in 1999 had left her brain damaged and in a nursing home, which meant that Jeff had effectively lost both parents by the age of ten. When his mother's ex-husband refused to take custody of him, he felt like he didn't belong.
Weise was discovered to have been quite active on the Internet. According to The Smoking Gun, Weise created two violent Flash animations for the flash website Newgrounds, using the alias "Regret." One animation entitled Target Practice features a character who murders three people with a rifle, blows up a police car with a grenade, and kills a Klansman. The 30-second animation ends with the shooter putting the gun in his mouth and pulling the trigger. Weise had created another Flash animation entitled Clown in which a clown kills a man by eating his head.
A LiveJournal account, apparently created by Weise, contained three entries posted between December 2004 and January 2005. The weblog was customized to be rendered in black and white. In his posts, Weise expressed his desire for change and salvation in his life.
Weise was a fan of the music genre known as horrorcore, and was particular a fan of rappers such as Mars, Jimmy Donn and Prozak. Weise was known to frequent the Mars website. Jimmy Donn's song "Game Over" (which is a song about a school shooting) was said to be one of Weise's favorite songs, and Weise owned Jimmy Donn's album The Darker Side.
Legacy and memorials
- List of massacres in Minnesota
- Gun violence in the United States
- Mass shootings in the United States
- List of rampage killers
- Helms, Marisa (March 25, 2005). "Shooting fuels debate over safety of Prozac for teens". Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Huffstutter, P.J. (March 24, 2005). "Red Lake Reservation Readies Burial Rituals". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Maag, Chris (March 27, 2005). "The Devil in Red Lake". Time. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Sevcik, Kimberly (August 8, 2005). "Reservation for Death". Salon. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014.
- Lennard, Jeremy. "Ten dead in US school shooting". Archived from the original on September 19, 2005. Retrieved November 15, 2005.
- "Tales Of School Shooting Bravery, Slain Security Guard, Wounded Student Saved Others From Teen Gunman". CBS News. March 24, 2005. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "E-Mail Describes Bloody Scene Inside Red Lake High School". KARE 11 News. March 31, 2005. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012.
- Feds: Assault at Red Lake over in nine minutes
- "MPR: Victims of the Red Lake shooting". Minnesota Public Radio. March 22, 2005. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- "17-year-old charged with triple homicide". Red Lake Net News. March 2005. Archived from the original on October 18, 2005.
- "Red Lake Shooting Conspiracy?". CBS News. March 30, 2005. Archived from the original on July 16, 2007.
- "'Reader's Digest' Readers Pick Hero From Red Lake". WCCO-TV. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Rosengren, John (September 2005). "Everyday Hero: Jeff May". Reader's Digest. Archived from the original on November 28, 2007.
- "Tribe Gives Victims Aid to Shooter's Family, Citing a 'Double Burden'". Los Angeles Times. April 15, 2005. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Miron, Molly. "Judge signs $1 million order for Red Lake school shooting victims' families". Rodgers Law Office. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Enger, John. "The shooting at Red Lake: The victims". Archived from the original on July 3, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- "A Bloody Day on the Rez". Newsweek. April 3, 2005. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012.
- Davey, Monica (March 27, 2005). "Tribe Buries 3 on a Long Road to Healing". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
- Langman, Peter (January 15, 2015). School Shooters: Understanding High School, College, and Adult Perpetrators. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 73. ISBN 978-1442233560.
- Davey, Monica (March 24, 2005). "Signs of Danger Were Missed in Troubled Teenager's Life". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
- Rave, Jodi (July 11, 2005). "Family still struggling to understand teenager's rampage in Minnesota". Missoulian. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
- "Troubled Life Of Minnesota Shooter". CBS News. March 22, 2005.
- Haga, Chuck (March 25, 2005). "Family: Teen had 'a good relationship' with the grandfather he killed". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "School Killer's Animated Terror". The Smoking Gun. March 23, 2005. Archived from the original on March 24, 2005.
- Herendeen, Susan (July 4, 2009). "Juggalos take issue with label as a gang". The Modesto Bee. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
- Plaza, Valrie (March 2, 2015). American Mass Murderers. Lulu.com. p. 568. ISBN 978-1312961401.
- Bowen, Joseph T. (March 14, 2018). "At Red Lake, site of 2005 school shooting, walkout carries deep significance". The Bemidji Pioneer. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Red Lake Schools website
- Red Lake Net News
- Sota Iya Ye Yapi On-Line, Earth Sky Web
- Jeff Weise, "Target Practice" (animation), NewGrounds
- "Ten killed in US school shooting", BBC News, March 22, 2005.
- Karnowski, Steve. "Shooting suspect apparently posted messages on neo-Nazi site," Duluth News Tribune, March 22, 2005
- "The Depressive and the Psychopath", Slate'
- "Native Americans Criticize Bush's Silence", The Washington Post, 25 March 2005
- "Tribal leader's son charged with conspiracy", Star Tribune, 29 March 2005