Republic of New Granada
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|Republic of New Granada|
|República de la Nueva Granada (Spanish)|
Libertad y Orden
(English: Liberty and Order)
Republic of the New Granada
|Capital||Santa Fé de Bogotá|
|•||Established||20 October 1831|
|•||Bill of rights¹||1853|
|•||Constitutional Change||11 April 1858|
|Today part of|| Brazil
|¹ Abolition of slavery, and suffrage to all males over 21.|
The Republic of New Granada was a centralist republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil. It was created after the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia, with the secession of Ecuador (Quito, Guayaquil and Azuay) and Venezuela (with Orinoco, Apure and Zulia) and was formed by the departments of Boyaca, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, and Istmo, all parts of the present Republic of Colombia. except Istmo, which is part of present-day Panama). In November 1831, those departments created the Republic of New Granada, but nothing was established about a flag. Old flags were confirmed provisional by the National Convention of 17 December 1831. However, it is not clear what flag it was: Restrepo believes that it is the flag with two cornucopias of Gran Colombia. While new flags were discussed, some proposals were issued. On 9 May 1834, the national flag was adopted and was used until 26 November 1861, with the Gran Colombian colors in Veles' arrangement. The merchant ensign had the eight-pointed star in white.
In 1851, a new civil war broke out when conservative and pro-slavery groups from Cauca and Antioquia, led by Manuel Ibánez, Julio Arboleda, and Eusebio Borrero, revolted against liberal president José Hilario López, trying to stop the process of freeing the slaves, in addition to a number of religious issues.
Colombian constitution of 1832
One of the prime features of the political climate of the republic was the position of the Roman Catholic Church and the level of autonomy for the federal states. In 1839, a dispute arose over the shutting down of monasteries by the Congress of New Granada. This soon escalated into the War of the Supremes, which raged for the next two years and transformed into a conflict about regional autonomy.
New Granada was transformed in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation as an answer to demands for a decentralized country.
The territory of the republic was divided into provinces. Each province was composed of one or more cantons, each canton was divided into several districts.
The republic also included some territories in the peripheries of the country.