Resident Commissioner of the Philippines

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Resident Commissioner of the Philippines
Seal of the United States House of Representatives.svg
Inaugural holderBenito Legarda
Pablo Ocampo
FormationNovember 22, 1907
Final holderCarlos P. Romulo
AbolishedJuly 4, 1946

The Resident Commissioner of the Philippines was a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives sent by the Philippines from 1907 until its internationally recognized independence in 1946. It was similar to current non-voting members of Congress such as the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico and delegates from Washington, D.C., Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and other United States territories.

Like current non-voting members, Resident Commissioners could speak and otherwise participate in the business of the House, but did not have full voting rights. Two were sent until 1937 when after the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the number was changed to one.[1]

History[edit]

Philippine Commissioner J.M. Elizalde with future Philippine president Sergio Osmena and John W. Hausermann, (a Republican Party leader and goldmine owner in the Philippines), in 1938 or 1939, Library of Congress

The Philippines was a United States territory from 13 August 1898 until Philippine independence was internationally recognized on 4 July 1946.

The office was first created by the Philippine Organic Act (1902) section 8 and re-authorized on its subsequent replacements—the Jones Law of 1916 (known as the Philippine Autonomy Act) section 20, and the Tydings–McDuffie Act of 1934 (known as the Philippine Independence Act) section 7(5).

The procedures for appointment of the Resident Commissioners were ambiguous and a source of friction.[2] Under the Insular Government, they were appointed by the American government-appointed Philippine Commission with agreement of the fully elected, fully Filipino Philippine Assembly. This conflict ended when the Tydings-McDuffle Act dissolved the Commission and replaced it with the Philippine Senate, the upper house of the new Philippine Commonwealth legislature.

List of Resident Commissioners[edit]

Territorial era: 1907–1936[edit]

Cong
ress
Years Seat A Seat B
Resident commissioner Party Electoral history Resident commissioner Party Electoral history
60th November 22, 1907 –
March 3, 1909
Res. Comm. Legarda
Benito Legarda
Federalist
(Republican)
Retired. Res. Comm. Ocampo
Pablo Ocampo
Democratic Retired.
61st March 4, 1909 –
November 22, 1909
November 23, 1909 –
March 3, 1911
Res. Comm. Quezón
Manuel L. Quezón
Nacionalista Retired.
62nd March 4, 1911 –
March 3, 1913
63rd March 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1915
Res. Comm. Earnshaw
Manuel Earnshaw
Nonpartisan Retired.
64th March 4, 1915 –
October 15, 1916
October 16, 1916 –
March 3, 1917
Vacant
65th March 4, 1917 –
March 3, 1919
Res. Comm. de Veyra
Jaime C. de Veyra
Nacionalista Retired. Res. Comm. Yangco
Teodoro R. Yangco
Nonpartisan Retired.
66th March 4, 1919 –
March 3, 1920
March 4, 1920 –
March 3, 1921
Res. Comm. Gabaldón
Isauro Gabaldón
Nacionalista Resigned.
67th March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1923
68th March 4, 1923 –
March 3, 1925
Res. Comm. Guevara
Pedro Guevara
Nacionalista Retired.
69th March 4, 1925 –
March 3, 1927
70th March 4, 1927 –
July 16, 1928
July 16, 1928 –
March 3, 1929
Vacant
71st March 4, 1929 –
March 3, 1931
Res. Comm. Osias
Camilo Osías
Nacionalista Retired.
72nd March 4, 1931 –
March 3, 1933
73rd March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1935
74th January 3, 1935 –
February 14, 1936
Res. Comm. Delgado
Francisco Afan Delgado
Nacionalista Retired.

Commonwealth era: 1936–1946[edit]

Resident commissioner Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history
Res. Comm. Paredes
Quintín Paredes
Nacionalista February 14, 1936
September 29, 1938
74th
75th
Resigned
Res. Comm. Elizalde
Joaquín Miguel Elizalde
Nonpartisan September 29, 1938
August 9, 1944
76th
77th
78th
Resigned
Res. Comm. Romulo
Carlos P. Romulo
Liberal August 10, 1944
July 4, 1946
78th
79th
Resigned; final Philippine representative

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dorothy B. Fujita-Rony (2003). American Workers, Colonial Power. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23095-7.
  2. ^ Kramer, Paul Alexander (2006). The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, & the Philippines. University of North Carolina Press. p. 325. ISBN 9780807856536.

External links[edit]