Portrait of Varick by Henry Inman (ca. 1831)
|45th Mayor of New York City|
October 12, 1789 – December 31, 1801
|Preceded by||James Duane|
|Succeeded by||Edward Livingston|
|Governor||George Clinton (1789 - 1795)|
John Jay (1795 - 1801)
|2nd Attorney General of New York|
May 14, 1788 – September 29, 1789
|Preceded by||Egbert Benson|
|Succeeded by||Aaron Burr|
|6th Speaker of the New York State Assembly|
January 12, 1787 – December 10, 1788
|Preceded by||John Lansing Jr.|
|Succeeded by||John Lansing Jr.|
|15th Recorder of New York City|
February 20, 1784 – September 29, 1789
|Preceded by||John Watts|
|Succeeded by||Samuel Jones|
|Born||March 15, 1753|
Hackensack, Bergen County, Province of New Jersey
|Died||July 30, 1831 (aged 78)|
Jersey City, New Jersey
|Resting place||First Reformed Dutch Church Cemetery|
|Branch/service|| Continental Army|
New York State Militia
|Years of service||1775 - 1784 Continental Army|
1784 - 1801 New York State Militia
Richard Varick (March 15, 1753 – July 30, 1831) was an American lawyer, military officer, and politician. In 1789, Varick became the 45th Mayor of New York City and served eleven concurrent one year terms until 1801. During the Revolutionary War, he served as George Washington's aide-de-camp and private secretary.
Aside from his terms as mayor, Varick was major figure in the development of post-Independence New York City and State, serving as the 14th Recorder of New York City from 1784 to 1789 and concurrently as a member of the New York State Assembly from New York County from 1786 to 1788. During his term as a member of the New York State Assembly, he was 7th Speaker of the New York State Assembly during the sessions of 1787 and 1788. Varick was simultaneously appointed the 2nd Attorney General of New York from 1788 to 1789.
He was born on March 15, 1753, at Hackensack in Bergen County, New Jersey to John Varick and Jane (née Dey) Varick. His mother grew up in her father's house, the Dey Mansion, which would go on to play a pivotal role in the revolution.
Both Varick's parents ancestors had emigrated with the Dutch West India Company in the early to mid 17th century and remained in the greater New York City area. Amongst Varick's ancestors are Joris Jansen Rapelje, a member of the Council of Twelve Men which was the first democratic body in the history of the United States (1641).
Little is known about the specifics of Varick's education before university, though surviving letters indicate that he was educated by private tutors and studied Latin, French, and other subjects. He enrolled in King's College (the original name of Columbia University) in New York City in 1771 where he studied under John Morin Scott. Varick clerked for Scott during his education and after being admitted into the New York Bar in October 1774, Scott made him an offer to be a partner in his firm. Unusually, Varick had not yet graduated from King's College despite having passed the bar and never formally graduated. Later in his career, Varick would become a trustee of King's College for over thirty years.
American Revolutionary War
Service under General Schuyler & Northern Army
Eight months into his career in private practice, the American Revolutionary War began. At the influence of his employer, John Morin Scott, Varick suspended his studies and enlisted in the militia. On June 28, 1775, he was appointed captain of the 1st New York Regiment and after only three days as field officer, was appointed military secretary under General Philip Schuyler. It was thought that Scott, understanding the administrative and intellectual value of his young partner, secured the appointment. Varick departed New York City with Schuyler on July 4, 1775 to head north to Fort Ticonderoga and launch the campaign to drive the British out of Canada. En route, the traveling party stopped in Albany briefly where Varick would first meet General Benedict Arnold, who would become a good friend, also played a significant role in Varick's life until Arnold's treason in 1780.
By the summer of 1776, Schuyler had been felled by multiple illnesses, and was reeling from a series of losses on the battlefield. Varick, by this juncture, in part out of necessity, and in part by appointment, was performing three jobs at once: private secretary to Schuyler, quartermaster for all the northern forts held by the Continental Army, and the Northern Army's deputy muster master general. Laterally, actual battlefield commands had been outsourced to Arnold and General Horatio Gates. Schuyler, recognizing the burden Varick was carrying, promoted him to Lieutenant Colonel. Varick's almost total control of the administration for the Northern Army lead to an even closer friendship between Arnold and Varick.
That same summer, Arnold was planning his attack effort to stop the British advance down Lake Champlain in what would be one of the first battles in the history of the U.S. Navy. With a dearth of available ships, the armada was largely built from scratch by Varick who solved the crisis by contacting his wide network in New York City and the surrounding area to send materials and coastal men who were qualified for such work. While the Battle of Valcour Island ended in defeat for the navy, it succeeded in slowing the British advance for the winter as they retreaded to their Canadian bases.
Varick also faced run-ins with fellow officers who were not part of Schuyler's faction. General Anthony Walton White, who had briefly served at Washington's aide-de-camp, was accused by Schuyler of looting a private home on the frontier. After denying the charges, White barged into Varick's offices and challenged him to a duel, under the impression that Varick had spoken negatively to his character. Varick, unarmed, narrowly escaped White's attempt to murder him after Varick declined the challenge.
After the disastrous Battle of Saratoga, Schuyler was removed from duty by the Continental Congress in August 1777 and replaced by General Gates. With factionalism rife within the Northern Army, Varick was aligned with Arnold which pitted him against Gates, whom he disliked regardless. Their circle of friendship had also grown to include Henry Brockholst Livingston and Matthew Clarkson. Their camaraderie was rudely defined as "the New York gang" by James Wilkinson, a partisan of General Gates'.
Varick would quietly and capably continue in his role as the Northern Army's deputy muster master general, though not as Gates' aide-de-camp or private secretary, until January 12, 1780 when the department was abolished by the Continental Congress in a larger reorganization.
Service under General Arnold
Varick briefly resumed his law in private practice, which proved challenging in his politically volatile hometown of New York City—which was under occupation by the enemy. In August 1780, Benedict Arnold approached Varick about joining his staff at his newly appointed position as commanding officer of West Point (then an active military instillation) as his aide-de-camp and inspector-general.
Within three months, Arnold's treason was discovered and he fled to British territory. Varick, along with David Franks, were arrested. Varick had been ill in bed when informed both of Arnold's treason and his own arrest. Contemporary reports described Varick as spending several days on the edge of madness about Arnold's defection. Despite Arnold writing to Washington personally to say that his aides were not complicit, both Varick and Franks were detained by Washington as a precautionary measure. After a court of inquiry completed its investigation, they found Varick not guilty, and delivered the following:
“That Lieutenant Colonel Varick’s conduct with respect to the base Peculations and Treasonable Practices of the late General Arnold is not only unimpeachable but think him entitled (throughout every part of his conduct) to a degree of Merit that does him great honor as an Officer and particularly distinguishes him as a sincere Friend to his Country…”
Service under General Washington
A by-product of the above was the introduction of Varick to George Washington, which would lead to the two working together for the rest of their careers, and lives. This relationship began in 1781 when Washington petitioned the Continental Congress to establish team of writers to record and preserve all of his, and the army's, papers, planning, and correspondence for use by future generations. This would be under the supervision “of a Man of character in whom entire confidence can be placed”. Washington appointed Varick in this role, which made use of his highly respected administrative skills, and would fully rehabilitate his name after the Arnold scandal. Establishing his office at Poughkeepsie, Varick and his assistants spent more than two years in compiling the forty-four folio volumes known as the Varick Transcripts. Varick served under Washington solely until Washington retired his commission in 1783.
Upon completing the assigned duties after years or work, General Washington wrote:
“I take this first opportunity of signifying my entire approbation of the manner in which you have executed the important duties of recording secretary; and the satisfaction I feel in having my papers so properly arranged, and so correctly recorded; and beg you will accept my thanks for the care and attention which you have given to this business and beg you be persuaded, that I shall take pleasure in asserting on every occasion, the sense of entertainment of the fidelity, skill and indefatigable industry manifested by you in the performance of your public duties."
The Varick Transcripts
The Varick Transcripts are deposited in the Library of Congress. The value of these documents has been noted throughout their lifetime as invaluable to the understanding of the formation of the United States.
As originally provisioned by Congress, the stated duties by General Washington to Colonel Varick as Recording Secretary would include categorizing, transcribing, and assembling:
- 1. all letters to Congress.
- 2. all letters and instructions to officers of the line,
- 3. all letters to Governors, Presidents, and other executives of States,
- 4. letters to Foreign Ministers, foreign officers,
- 5. letters to officers in service to the enemy.
Varick was the Recorder of New York City from 1784 to 1789. An office that no longer exists, it is equatable to 'Chief Legal Officer'. In this office, along with Samuel Jones, he codified New York State's first statutes after Revolution in the Laws of New York (2 vols., 1789). This body of work laid the whole foundation for the Law of New York, the New York City Administrative Code, and the Rules of New York City.
Concurrently to the above, he was a member of the New York State Assembly from New York County from 1786 to 1788. During his term as a member of the New York State Assembly, he was Speaker during the sessions of 1787 and 1788. Varick was appointed the New York State Attorney General from 1788 to 1789.
Remarkably, due to the elitist nature of the New York State Constitution of 1777, almost all government positions in the city and state of New York were appointed by the Council of Appointment. Few, if any, general elections or other democratic functions would exist until 1802. Thus, in the year 1788, Varick was simultaneously the Recorder of New York City, a State Assemblyman representing New York City, the Speaker of the House of the State of New York, and the Attorney General of the State of New York. Varick is on record protesting the egregious nature of his occupying multiple offices. Though, it was rationalized at the time that as both an expert administrator and lawyer, he was an ideal choice for these myriad offices to swiftly build out all the mechanisms of government. And, that the subsequent laws were codified quickly in the nascent days of an independent New York City and State to ensure the function, and growth, of both entities.
Mayor of New York City
Most notably, Varick was the Mayor of New York City for twelve years during the formative post-Independence era from 1789 to 1801. While Mayor, he focused on the yellow fever epidemics which struck repeatedly.
Foundations & Societies
American Bible Society
Society of the Cincinnati
He was an original member of the Society of the Cincinnati beginning in 1783, and president of the New York chapter until his death. As such, he was responsible for maintaining the legacy of George Washington. From 1790 to 1836, celebrations of Washington's birthday in the City included Tammany Hall dinners, Washington Benevolent Society parades and an intimate open house held each February 22 by Mary Simpson (c. 1752-March 18, 1836), at her John Street grocery. Varick was a member of, and generous contributor to, many charitable organizations in New York City.
Personal life & family
He and his wife Maria Roosevelt, daughter of Isaac Roosevelt, were married on May 8, 1786 in New York City and resided at 52 Wall Street initially then moved to a larger home on lower Broadway. His father-in-law was the patrilineal great-great-grandfather of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Varick was one of seven children, his siblings being: Abraham Varick (the great-grandfather of Anna Maria Romeyn Varick, who married George Lauder of the Lauder Greenway Family.); Dr. John Varick Jr.; Anne Elting; Sarah Froeligh; Jane De Witt (wife of Simeon De Witt); and Maria Gilbert.
Death & burial
- "Guide to the Papers of Richard Varick 1743-1871 (Bulk 1775-1830) MS 655". dlib.nyu.edu. New-York Historical Society. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Cushman, Paul (2010). Richard Varick : A Forgotten Founding Father : revolutionary war soldier, Federalist politician, mayor of New York. Amherst, MA: Modern Memoirs. ISBN 978-0-9772337-6-2.
- Lefkowitz, Arthur (2003). George Washington's Indispensable Men. Stackpole Books. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- Jameson, J. F.; Buel, J. W. (1900). American Reference Library: Encyclopedic dictionary of American Reference. American Society. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Colonel Richard Varick (1753-1831)". www.albanyinstitute.org. Albany Institute of History and Art. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Relates to General Richard Montgomery | Letter from Richard Varick to DeWitt Clinton, Governor of New York, requesting repayment of cash he has advanced for expenditures relating to the Internment of the Remains of the late General Montgomery | The Met". metmuseum.org. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Writings of Washington". www.archive.org. New York Free Press. pp. 113–114. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "Richard Varick". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
- Marcus, Maeva; Perry, James R. (1985). The Documentary History of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1789-1800: Suits against states. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231088725. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Richard Varick: A Forgotten Founding Father". www.sunypress.edu. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Wosh, Peter J. (1994). Spreading the Word: The Bible Business in Nineteenth-century America. Cornell University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0801429285. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Whittelsey, Charles Barney (1902). The Roosevelt Genealogy, 1649-1902. Press of J.B. Burr & Company. p. 33. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- NorthJersey.com. Accessed November 22, 2017.
- Downtown Street Names and the Stories They Tell Archived August 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, LowerManhattan.info. Accessed August 22, 2007. "An extension of Seventh Avenue leading south from Clarkson Street, Varick Street got its name from Richard Varick, who served as the mayor of the city from 1791 to 1801."
- Longoria, Patricia (25 May 2017). "The Dutch roots of Ithaca's Dey Street". The Poughkeepsie Journal. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Richard Varick Papers,1743-1871 New-York Historical Society
- Photographs of gravesite
- Political Graveyard
John Lansing, Jr.
| Speaker of the New York State Assembly
John Lansing, Jr.
| Mayor of New York City
| Recorder of New York City
| New York State Attorney General