Page semi-protected

Romania

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25

Romania

România  (Romanian)
Anthem: "Deșteaptă-te, române!"
(English: "Awaken thee, Romanian!")
EU-Romania (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Romania.svg
Location of Romania (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Bucharest
44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100
Official languagesRomanian[1]
Recognised minority
languages[2]
Ethnic groups
(2011[3])
Demonym(s)Romanian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential
republic
• President
Klaus Iohannis
Viorica Dăncilă
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment history
• First Romanian polities
10th century – 1330
1330
1346
1570
• First common rule under Michael the Brave
1600
24 January 1859
9 May 1877 / 1878b
14 March 1881
1918 / 1920d
Area
• Total
238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi) (81st)
• Water (%)
3
Population
• 2019 estimate
Decrease 19,518,117[4] (59th)
• 2011 census
20,121,641[3] (58th)
• Density
84.4/km2 (218.6/sq mi) (117th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$543.169 billion[5] (41st)
• Per capita
$27,653[5] ( 57th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$248.838 billion[5] (48th)
• Per capita
$12,668[5] ( 62nd)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 35.9[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.811[7]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRomanian Leu (RON)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+40
Patron saintSaint Andrew
ISO 3166 codeRO
Internet TLD.roe
  1. The double election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Moldavia and Wallachia (respectively, 5 and 24 January 1859).
  2. Independence proclaimed on 9 May 1877, internationally recognized in 1878.
  3. Romania in the interwar period, following the proclamation of the union in 1918 inlcuding Bessarabia, Bukovina, Transylvania, parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș, established after the Paris Peace Conference closing World War I in 1920.
  4. Monarchy was abolished on 30 December 1947 upon the proclamation of the People's Republic and was changed with the new constitution upon its adoption on 21 August 1965 as the Socialist Republic. The Communist regime fell on 22 December 1989, the new democratic government was installed on 20 May 1990 and the new post-communist constitution was adopted on 21 November 1991. Romania joined the European Union on 1 January 2007.
  5. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Romania (/rˈmniə/ (About this soundlisten) ro-MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a] (About this soundlisten)) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.

The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).[8]

Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and, consequently, in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a market economy.

The sovereign state of Romania is a developing country[9][10] and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.[11] It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7% (2017), the highest in the EU at the time.[12] Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language.

Etymology

Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome".[13] The first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia.[14][15][16][17]

Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.

The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung",[18] is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească).

Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably[a] until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning.[19] After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român.[b] Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia."[20]

The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century.[c] The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861.[21]

In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania.[22] Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975.[23] Romania is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government.[24] A handful of other languages (including Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Norwegian) have also switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie, German and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania (the archaic form Rumanía is still in use in Spain), Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния (Rumyniya), and Japanese ルーマニア (Rūmania).

Official names

History

Prehistory and antiquity

A partially reconstructed skull
Skull from the "Cave with Bones" (the oldest known remains of Homo sapiens in Europe).

Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase ("Cave with Bones"), radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe.[25] Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC.[26][27] Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; here the production of salt started between 6050 and 5900 BC.[28] The first permanent settlements also appeared in the Neolithic.[29] Some of them developed into "proto-cities",[29] which were larger than 800 acres (3.2 km2).[30][31] The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd millenium BC.[31] The first fortified settlements appeared around 1800 BC, showing the militant character of Bronze Age societies.[31]

The territorial extent of the Kingdom of Dacia during Burebista's reign (c. 40s BC.)
Remains of circular buildings in a glade
Ruins of sanctuaries at Sarmizegetusa Regia (Dacia's capital during the reigns of Burebista and Decebalus).

Greek colonies established on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century BC became important centers of commerce with the local tribes.[32][33] Among the native peoples, Herodotus listed the Getae of the Lower Danube region, the Agathyrsi of Transylvania and the Syginnae of the plains along the river Tisza at the beginning of the 5th century BC.[34] Centuries later, Strabo associated the Getae with the Dacians who dominated the lands along the southern Carpathian Mountains in the 1st century BC.[35] Burebista was the first Dacian ruler to unite the local tribes.[35][36] He also conquered the Greek colonies in Dobruja and the neighboring peoples as far as the Middle Danube and the Balkan Mountains between around 55 and 44 BC.[35][37] After Burebista was murdered in 44 BC, his empire collapsed.[35][38]

The Romans reached Dacia during Burebista's reign and conquered Dobruja in 46 AD.[38] Dacia was again united under Decebalus around 85.[35][39] He resisted the Romans for decades, but the Roman army annihilated his troops in 106.[40] Emperor Trajan transformed Banat, Oltenia and the greater part of Transylvania into the new Roman province of Dacia, but Dacian, Germanic and Sarmatian tribes continued to dominate the lands along the Roman frontiers.[41][42] The Romans pursued an organized colonization policy and the provincials enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity in the 2nd century.[43][44] Scholars accepting the Daco-Roman continuity theory—one of the main theories about the origin of the Romanians—say that the cohabitation of the native Dacians and the Roman colonists in Roman Dacia was the first phase of the Romanians' ethnogenesis.[45][46]

Ruins of a building made of stones and bricks
Ruins of the amphitheatre at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa (the capital of Roman Dacia).

The Carpians, Goths and other neighboring tribes made regular raids against Dacia from the 210s.[47] The Romans could not resist and Emperor Aurelian ordered the evacuation of the province Dacia Trajana in 271.[48] Scholars supporting the continuity theory are convinced that most Latin-speaking commoners stayed behind when the army and civil administration was withdrawn.[49] The Romans did not abandon their fortresses along the northern banks of the Lower Danube for decades, and Dobruja (known as Scythia Minor) remained an integral part of the Roman Empire until the early 7th century.[45][50]

Middle Ages

During the Long Turkish War, Wallachian Prince Michael the Brave (portrayed to the right) briefly reigned over the three medieval principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania, covering most of present-day territory of Romania.

Subsequently, as the High Middle Ages came to an end and the Late Middle Ages began, many small Romanian-speaking states with varying degrees of independence developed, but only under the reigns of Basarab I and Bogdan I the larger principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia would emerge in the 14th century.[51][52]

Under Radu I and his successor Dan I, the realms in Transylvania and Severin continued to be disputed with Hungary,[53] while Wallachia and Moldavia remained largely independent from the Kingdom of Hungary, yet soon enough being forced to withstand the Ottoman threat from the east.[54][55]

Moldavian Prince Stephen the Great was designated 'Athleta Christi' by Pope Sixtus IV for his victories over the Ottoman Empire.

Early Modern Times and national awakening

The Kingdom of Hungary collapsed and the Ottomans occupied parts of Banat and Crișana in 1541.[56] Transylvania and Maramureș, along with the rest of Banat and Crișana developed into a new state under Ottoman suzerainty, the Principality of Transylvania.[57] Reformation spread and four denominations—Calvinism, Lutheranism, Unitarianism and Roman Catholicism—were officially acknowledged in 1568.[58] The Romanians' Orthodox faith remained only tolerated,[58] although they made up more than one-third of the population, according to 17th-century estimations.[59][60]

The princes of Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia joined the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in 1594.[61] The Wallachian prince, Michael the Brave, united the three principalities under his rule in May 1600.[62][63] The neighboring powers forced him to abdicate in September, but he became a symbol of the unification of the Romanian lands.[62] Although the rulers of the three principalities continued to pay tribute to the Ottomans, the most talented princes—Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, Matei Basarab of Wallachia, and Vasile Lupu of Moldavia—strengthened their autonomy.[64]

The united armies of the Holy League expelled the Ottoman troops from Central Europe between 1684 and 1699 and the Principality of Transylvania was integrated in the Habsburg Empire.[65] The Habsburgs supported the Catholic clergy and persuaded the Orthodox Romanian prelates to accept the union with the Roman Catholic Church in 1699.[66] The Church Union strengthened the Romanian intellectuals' devotion to their Roman heritage.[67] The Orthodox Church was restored in Transylvania only after Orthodox monks stirred up revolts in 1744 and 1759.[68] The organization of the Transylvanian Military Frontier caused further disturbances, especially among the Székelys in 1764.[69]

Princes Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Constantin Brâncoveanu of Wallachia concluded alliances with the Habsburg Empire and Russia against the Ottomans, but they were dethroned in 1711 and 1714, respectively.[70] The sultans lost confidence in the native princes and appointed Orthodox merchants from the Phanar district of Istanbul to rule Moldova and Wallachia.[71][72] The Phanariot princes pursued oppressive fiscal policies and dissolved the army.[73] The neighboring powers take advantage of the situation: the Habsburg Empire annexed northern Moldavia, or Bucovina, in 1775, and Russia seized Bessarabia in 1812.[74][75]

A census revealed that the Romanians were more numerous than any of the other ethnic groups in Transylvania in 1733, but legislation continued to use contemptuous adjectives (such as "tolerated" and "admitted") when referring to them.[76][77] The Uniate bishop, Inocențiu Micu-Klein who demanded the recognition of the Romanians as the fourth privileged nation was forced into exile.[78][77] Uniate and Orthodox clerics and laymen jointly signed a plea for the Transylvanian Romanians' emancipation in 1791, but the monarch and the local authorities denied to grant their requests.[79][76]

Independence and monarchy

Changes in Romania's territory since 1859.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza was the first Domnitor (i.e. Prince) of Romania (at that time the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia) between 1862 and 1866.

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca authorized the Russian ambassador in Istanbul to defend the autonomy of Moldavia and Wallachia (known as the Danubian Principalities) in 1774.[80] Taking advantage of the Greek War of Independence, a Wallachian lesser nobleman, Tudor Vladimirescu, stirred up a revolt against the Ottomans in January 1821, but he was murdered in June by Phanariot Greeks.[81] After a new Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Adrianople strengthened the autonomy of the Danubian Principalities in 1829, although it also acknowledged the sultan's right to confirm the election of the princes.[82]

Mihail Kogălniceanu, Nicolae Bălcescu and other leaders of the 1848 revolutions in Moldavia and Wallachia demanded the emancipation of the peasants and the union of the two principalities, but Russian and Ottoman troops crushed their revolt.[83][84] The Wallachian revolutioners were the first to adopt the blue, yellow and red tricolor as national flag.[85] In Transylvania, most Romanians supported the imperial government against the Hungarian revolutioners after the Diet passed a law about the union of Transylvania and Hungary.[85] Bishop Andrei Șaguna proposed the unification of the Romanians of the Habsburg Empire in a separate duchy, but the central government refused to change the internal frontiers.[86]

The Treaty of Paris put the Danubian Principalities under the collective guardianship of the Great Powers in 1856.[84] After special assemblies convoked in Moldavia and Wallachia urged the unification of the two principalities, the Great Powers did not prevent the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as their common domnitor (or ruling prince) in January 1859.[87] The united principalities officially adopted the name Romania on 21 February 1862.[88] Cuza's government carried out a series of reforms, including the secularization of the property of monasteries and an agrarian reform, but a coalition of conservative and radical politicians forced him to abdicate in February 1866.[89][90]

Cuza's successor, a German prince, Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (or Carol I), was elected in May.[91] The parliament adopted the first constitution of Romania in the same year.[92] The Great Powers acknowledged Romania's full independence at the Congress of Berlin and Carol I was crowned king in 1881.[93] The Congress also granted the Danube Delta and Dobruja to Romania.[93] Although Romanian scholars strived for the unification of all Romanians into a Greater Romania, the government did not oppenly support their irredentist projects.[94]

The Transylvanian Romanians and Saxons wanted to maintain the separate status of Transylvania in the Habsburg Monarchy, but the Austro-Hungarian Compromise brought about the union of the province with Hungary in 1867.[95] Ethnic Romanian politicians sharply opposed the Hungarian government's attempts to transform Hungary into a national state, especially the laws prescribing the obligatory teaching of Hungarian.[93] Leaders of the Romanian National Party proposed the federalization of Austria-Hungary and the Romanian intellectuals established cultural association to promote the use of Romanian.[96][97]

World Wars and Greater Romania

Late 19th century ethnic map of Central Europe depicting predominantly Romanian-inhabited territories in blue. Hungarians are marked in yellow and Germans in pink.
A 1917 British map showing territories with majority Romanian populations marked in black and surrounding enclaves of German-speaking minorities in red.

Romania remained neutral for the first two years of World War I. Following the secret Treaty of Bucharest, according to which Romania would acquire territories with a majority of Romanian population from Austria-Hungary, it joined the Entente Powers and declared war on 27 August 1916.[98] After initial advances the Romanian military campaign quickly turned disastrous for Romania as the Central Powers occupied two-thirds of the country within months, before reaching a stalemate in 1917. The October Revolution and Russian withdrawal from the War left Romania alone and surrounded, and a cease fire was negotiated at Focșani that December.

King Carol I of Romania with his nephew Ferdinand I of Romania and great nephew Carol II of Romania.

Romania was occupied and a harsh peace treaty was signed in May 1918. In November, Romania reentered the conflict. Total military and civilian losses from 1916 to 1918, within contemporary borders, were estimated at 748,000.[99] After the war, the transfer of Bukovina from Austria was acknowledged by the 1919 Treaty of Saint Germain,[100] Transylvania and parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș from Hungary by the 1920 Treaty of Trianon,[101] and of Bessarabia from Russian rule by the 1920 Treaty of Paris.[102] All cessions made to the Central Powers in the ceasefire and treaty were nullified and renounced.[103]

The following interwar period is referred as Greater Romania, as the country achieved its greatest territorial extent at that time (almost 300,000 km2 or 120,000 sq mi).[104] Radical agricultural reforms, and a new constitution creating a democracy, allowed rapid economic growth. With oil production of 7.2 million tons in 1937, Romania ranked second in Europe and seventh in the world.[105][106] and was Europe's second-largest food producer.[107] However, the early 1930s were marked by social unrest, high unemployment, and strikes, and there were over 25 governments in the course of the decade.[citation needed] On several occasions in the last few years before World War II, the democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and chauvinistic Iron Guard and the authoritarian tendencies of King Carol II.[108]

Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940. Of these territories, only Northern Transylvania was regained after the end of World War II.

During World War II, Romania tried again to remain neutral, but on 28 June 1940, it received a Soviet ultimatum with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance.[109] Again foreign powers created heavy pressure on Romania, by means of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of non-aggression from 23 August 1939. As a result of it the Romanian government and the army were forced to retreat from Bessarabia as well as from northern Bukovina in order to avoid war with the Soviet Union.[110] The king was compelled to abdicate and appointed general Ion Antonescu as the new prime minister with full powers in ruling the state by royal decree.[111] Romania was prompted to join the Axis military campaign. Thereafter, southern Dobruja was ceded to Bulgaria, while Hungary received Northern Transylvania as result of an Axis powers' arbitration.[112]

American B-24 Liberator flying over a burning oil refinery at Ploiești, as part of Operation Tidal Wave on 1 August 1943. Due to its role as a major supplier of oil to the Axis, Romania was a prime target of Allied strategic bombing in 1943 and 1944.

The Antonescu fascist regime played a major role in The Holocaust in Romania,[113][114] and copied the Nazi policies of oppression and genocide of Jews and Roma, mainly in the Eastern territories reoccupied by the Romanians from the Soviet Union. In total between 280,000 and 380,000 Jews in Romania (including Bessarabia, Bukovina and the Transnistria Governorate) were killed during the war[115][116] and at least 11,000 Romanian Gypsies ("Roma") were also killed.[117] In August 1944, a coup d'état led by King Michael toppled Ion Antonescu and his regime. Antonescu was convicted of war crimes and executed on 1 June 1946.[118] 9 October is now the National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust in Romania.[119]

During the Antonescu fascist regime, Romanian contribution to Operation Barbarossa was enormous, with the Romanian Army of over 1.2 million men in the summer of 1941, fighting in numbers second only to Nazi Germany.[120] Romania was the main source of oil for the Third Reich,[121] and thus became the target of intense bombing by the Allies. Growing discontent among the population eventually peaked in August 1944 with King Michael's Coup, and the country switched sides to join the Allies. It is estimated that the coup shortened the war by as much as six months.[122] Even though the Romanian Army had suffered 170,000 casualties after switching sides,[123] Romania's role in the defeat of Nazi Germany was not recognized by the Paris Peace Conference of 1947,[124] as the Soviet Union annexed Bessarabia and other territories corresponding roughly to present-day Republic of Moldova, and Bulgaria retained Southern Dobruja, but Romania did regain Northern Transylvania from Hungary.

Communism

King Michael I of Romania was forced to abdicate during the last days of December, 1947 by the Communists, concomitantly with the Soviet occupation of the country.

During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called for new elections in 1946, which were fraudulently won, with a fabricated 70% majority of the vote.[125] Thus, they rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force.[126] Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, a Communist party leader imprisoned in 1933, escaped in 1944 to become Romania's first Communist leader. In 1947 he and others forced King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country, and proclaimed Romania a people's republic.[127][128] Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were continuously drained by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms) set up for unilateral exploitative purposes.[129][130][131]

In 1948, the state began to nationalize private firms and to collectivize agriculture.[132] Until the early 1960s, the government severely curtailed political liberties and vigorously suppressed any dissent with the help of the Securitate (the Romanian secret police). During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges in which numerous "enemies of the state" and "parasite elements" were targeted for different forms of punishment, such as deportation, internal exile, and internment in forced labour camps and prisons, sometimes for life, as well as extrajudicial killing.[133] Nevertheless, anti-Communist resistance was one of the most long-lasting in the Eastern Bloc.[134] A 2006 Commission estimated the number of direct victims of the Communist repression at two million people.[135]

Nicolae Ceaușescu ruled Romania as its Communist leader from 1965 until 1989.

In 1965, Nicolae Ceaușescu came to power and started to conduct the foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union. Thus, Communist Romania was the only Warsaw Pact country which refused to participate in the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia (with Ceaușescu at the time even publicly condemning the action as "a big mistake, [and] a serious danger to peace in Europe and to the fate of Communism in the world"[136]); it was also the only Communist state to maintain diplomatic relations with Israel after 1967's Six-Day War; and established diplomatic relations with West Germany the same year.[137] At the same time, close ties with the Arab countries (and the PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel–Egypt and Israel–PLO peace talks.[138]

The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was one of the few violent revolutions in the Iron Curtain that brought an end to Communist rule.

As Romania's foreign debt sharply increased between 1977 and 1981 (from US$3 billion to $10 billion),[139] the influence of international financial organizations (such as the IMF and the World Bank) grew, gradually conflicting with Ceaușescu's autocratic rule. The latter eventually initiated a policy of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing austerity steps that impoverished the population and exhausted the economy. The process succeeded in repaying all foreign government debt of Romania in 1989. At the same time, Ceaușescu greatly extended the authority of the Securitate secret police and imposed a severe cult of personality, which led to a dramatic decrease in the dictator's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and eventual execution, together with his wife, in the violent Romanian Revolution of December 1989 in which thousands were killed or injured. The charges for which they were executed were, among others, genocide by starvation.

Contemporary period

Anti-Communist rally in Bucharest (early 1990)

After the 1989 revolution, the National Salvation Front (NSF), led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures.[140][141] In April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of that year's legislative elections and accusing the NSF, including Iliescu, of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate — rapidly grew to become what was called the Golaniad. The peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. This episode has been documented widely by both local[142] and foreign media,[143] and is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad.[144][145]

The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party and the Democratic Party. The former governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009.[146]

In November 2014, Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt) mayor Klaus Johannis was elected president, unexpectedly defeating former Prime Minister Victor Ponta, who had been in the lead in the opinion polls. This surprise victory is attributed by many to the Romanian diaspora, of which almost 50 percent voted for Iohannis in the first tour, compared to 16 percent for Ponta.[147]

Romania has seen large waves of protests against judicial reforms during the 2017–2018 Romanian protests.

The post-1989 period is also characterized by the fact that most of the former industrial and economic enterprises which were built and operated during the Communist period have been closed, mainly as a result of the policies of privatization of the post-1989 regimes.[148]

Corruption has also been a major issue in contemporary Romanian politics.[149][150][151][152] In November 2015, massive anti-corruption protests which developed in the wake of the Colectiv nightclub fire led to the resignation of Romania's Prime Minister Victor Ponta.[153] During 2017–2018, in response to measures which were perceived to weaken the fight against corruption, some of the biggest protests since 1989 took place in Romania, with over 500,000 people protesting across the country.[154][155]

Nevertheless, in recent years, many efforts have been made to tackle corruption. A National Anticorruption Directorate was formed in the country in 2002, and according to Transparency International's annual Corruption Perceptions Index, Romania is now less corrupt than Italy or Greece (and equals neighbouring Hungary).[156]

NATO and EU integration

Romania joined the European Union in 2007 and signed the Treaty of Lisbon.

After the end of the Cold War, Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe and the United States, eventually joining NATO in 2004, and hosting the 2008 summit in Bucharest.[157]

The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a full member on 1 January 2007.[158]

During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred at times as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe".[159] This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in living standards as the country successfully reduced internal poverty and established a functional democratic state.[160][161] However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the late-2000s recession leading to a large gross domestic product contraction and budget deficit in 2009.[162] This led to Romania borrowing from the International Monetary Fund.[163] The worsening economic conditions led to unrest and triggered a political crisis in 2012.[164]

Romania joined NATO in 2004 and hosted its 2008 summit in Bucharest.

Romania still faces problems related to infrastructure,[165] medical services,[166] education,[167] and corruption.[168] Near the end of 2013, The Economist reported Romania again enjoying 'booming' economic growth at 4.1% that year, with wages rising fast and a lower unemployment than in Britain. Economic growth accelerated in the midst of government liberalisations in opening up new sectors to competition and investment—most notably, energy and telecoms.[169] In 2016 the Human Development Index ranked Romania as a nation of "Very High Human Development".[170]

Following the experience of economic instability throughout the 1990s, and the implementation of a free travel agreement with the EU, a great number of Romanians emigrated to Western Europe and North America, with particularly large communities in Italy and Spain. In 2008, the Romanian diaspora was estimated to be at over two million people.[171]

Geography and climate

Topographic map of Romania

With an area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the largest country in Southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe.[172]:17 It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N and longitudes 20° and 30° E.

The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills, and plains.

The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges reaching above 2,000 m or 6,600 ft, the highest of which is Moldoveanu Peak at 2,544 m or 8,346 ft.[172]:11 They are surrounded by the Moldavian and Transylvanian plateaus and Carpathian Basin and Wallachian plains.

About 47% of the country's land area is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems.[173] There are almost 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) (about 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania covering 13 national parks and three biosphere reserves.[174]

The Danube river forms a large part of the border with Serbia and Bulgaria, and flows into the Black Sea, forming the Danube Delta, which is the second-largest and best-preserved delta in Europe, and also a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site.[175] At 5,800 km2 (2,200 sq mi),[176] the Danube Delta is the largest continuous marshland in Europe,[177] and supports 1,688 different plant species alone.[178]

Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe, covering almost 27% of the territory.[179] Some 3,700 plant species have been identified in the country, from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments, 74 missing, 39 endangered, 171 vulnerable, and 1,253 rare.[180]

The fauna consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate,[180] with almost 400 unique species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians,[181] including about 50% of Europe's (excluding Russia) brown bears[182] and 20% of its wolves.[183]

Climate

Owing to its distance from open sea and position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north.[184] In summer, average maximum temperatures in Bucharest rise to 28 °C (82 °F), and temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country.[185] In winter, the average maximum temperature is below 2 °C (36 °F).[185] Precipitation is average, with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains, while around Bucharest it drops to around 570 mm (22 in).[172]:29 There are some regional differences: in the western parts, such as Banat, the climate is milder and has some Mediterranean influences; the eastern part of the country has a more pronounced continental climate. In Dobruja, the Black Sea also exerts an influence over the region's climate.[186]

Romania map of Köppen climate classification, according with Clima României from the Administrația Națională de Meteorologie, Bucharest 2008
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the eight largest cities in Romania[187]
Location July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Bucharest 28.8/15.6 84/60 1.5/−5.5 35/22
Cluj-Napoca 24.5/12.7 76/55 0.3/−6.5 33/20
Timișoara 27.8/14.6 82/58 2.3/−4.8 36/23
Iași 26.8/15 80/59 −0.1/−6.9 32/20
Constanța 25.9/18 79/64 3.7/−2.3 39/28
Craiova 28.5/15.7 83/60 1.5/−5.6 35/22
Brașov 24.2/11.4 76/53 −0.1/−9.3 32/15
Galați 27.9/16.2 82/61 1.1/–5.3 34/22

Governance

Klaus Iohannis Senate of Poland 2015 02 (cropped 2).JPG
Klaus Iohannis
President
Viorica Dăncilă
Prime Minister

The Constitution of Romania is based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic and was approved in a national referendum on 8 December 1991, and amended in October 2003 to bring it into conformity with the EU legislation. The country is governed on the basis of a multi-party democratic system and the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. It is a semi-presidential republic where executive functions are held by both government and the president.[188] The latter is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two terms of five years and appoints the prime minister, who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers. The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (residing at the Palace of the Parliament), consists of two chambers (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) whose members are elected every four years by simple plurality.[189][190]

The justice system is independent of the other branches of government, and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts culminating in the High Court of Cassation and Justice, which is the supreme court of Romania.[191] There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model, considering that it is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. The Constitutional Court (Curtea Constituțională) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations to the constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country and can only be amended through a public referendum.[189][192] The 2007 entry into the EU has been a significant influence on its domestic policy, and including judicial reforms, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption.

Foreign relations

Diplomatic missions of Romania
Romania is a noteworthy ally of the United States, being the first NATO member state that agreed to support increasing its defence spending after the 2017 Trump-Iohannis meeting at the White House.

Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union, albeit with limited relations involving the Russian Federation. It joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on 29 March 2004, the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007, while it had joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founding member of the World Trade Organization.[193]

Past recent governments states that one of their goals is to strengthen ties with and helping other countries (in particular Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia) with the process of integration with the rest of the West.[194] Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.[194] Romania also declared its public support for Turkey, and Croatia joining the European Union.[194] Because it has a large Hungarian minority, Romania has also developed strong relations with Hungary. Romania opted on 1 January 2007, to adhere the Schengen Area, and its bid to join was approved by the European Parliament in June 2011, but was rejected by the EU Council in September 2011.

In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country.[195] In May 2009, Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA."[196]

Relations with Moldova are a special case, considering that the two countries share the same language and a common history.[194] A movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule,[197] but lost ground in the mid-1990s when a new Moldovan government pursued an agenda towards preserving a Moldovan republic independent of Romania.[198] After the 2009 protests in Moldova and subsequent removal of Communists from power, relations between the two countries have improved considerably.[199]

Military

Romanian marine troopers during a combined Dutch-Romanian exercise at Vadu beach.
Romania is the fourth largest contributor of troops in Afghanistan.

The Romanian Armed Forces consist of Land, Air, and Naval Forces, and are led by a Commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of Defense, and by the president as the Supreme Commander during wartime. The Armed Forces consist of approximately 15,000 civilians and 75,000 are military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields.[200] The total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP, or approximately US$2.9 billion, with a total of $11 billion spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment.[201]

The Air Force currently operates modernized Soviet MiG-21 Lancer fighters which are due to be replaced by twelve F-16s, recently purchased.[202] The Air Force purchased seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlifters,[203] while the Naval Forces acquired two modernized Type 22 frigates from the British Royal Navy.[204]

Romania has contributed troops to the international coalition in Afghanistan since 2002,[205] with a peak deployment of 1,600 troops in 2010 (which was the 4th largest contributor according to the US). [206][207] Its combat mission in the country concluded in 2014.[208] Romanian troops participated in the occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly drawn down to 350 soldiers. Romania terminated its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on 24 July 2009, among the last countries to do so. The Regele Ferdinand frigate participated in the 2011 military intervention in Libya.[209]

In December 2011, the Romanian Senate unanimously adopted the draft law ratifying the Romania-United States agreement signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a US land-based ballistic missile defence system in Romania as part of NATO's efforts to build a continental missile shield.[210]

Administrative divisions

Romania is divided into 41 counties (județe, pronounced judets) and the municipality of Bucharest. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level. The prefect is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party.[211] Each county is further subdivided into cities and communes, which have their own mayor and local council. There are a total of 320 cities and 2,861 communes in Romania.[172]:17 A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality statuses, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. The municipality of Bucharest is a special case as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors[172]:6 and has a prefect, a general mayor (primar), and a general city council.

The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure, and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest.[212] The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. The NUTS-1 (four macroregions) and NUTS-2[213] (eight development regions) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity, and are instead used for coordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.[212]

Development region Area (km2) Population (2011)[214] Most populous urban center*[215]
Nord-Vest 34,159 2,600,132 Cluj-Napoca (411,379)
Centru 34,082 2,360,805 Brașov (369,896)
Nord-Est 36,850 3,302,217 Iași (382,484)
Sud-Est 35,762 2,545,923 Constanța (425,916)
Sud – Muntenia 34,489 3,136,446 Ploiești (276,279)
București – Ilfov 1,811 2,272,163 Bucharest (2,272,163)
Sud-Vest Oltenia 29,212 2,075,642 Craiova (356,544)
Vest 32,028 1,828,313 Timișoara (384,809)

Economy

Since 2007, Romania has been part of the EU single market.

In 2019, Romania has a GDP (PPP) of around $547 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $28,189.[216] According to the World Bank, Romania is a high income country with a mixed economy.[217] According to Eurostat, Romania's GDP per capita (PPS) was at 63% of the EU average in 2017, an increase from 41% in 2007 (the year of Romania's accession to the EU), making Romania one of the fastest growing economies in the EU.[218]

City Gate Towers in Bucharest

After 1989 the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onward, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterized by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe.[219] However, a recession following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 forced the government to borrow externally, including an IMF €20bn bailout program.[220] GDP has been growing by over 2% each year since.[221] According to The World Bank, the GDP per capita purchasing power parity grew from $13,442 in 2007 to an estimated $22,124 in 2015.[222] Romania still has one of the lowest net average monthly wages in the EU of €540 in 2016,[223] and an inflation rate of −1.1% in 2016.[224] Unemployment in Romania is at 4.3% in August 2018, which is very low compared to other EU countries.[222]

The CEC Palace is situated on Bucharest's Victory Avenue.
The Bucharest Stock Exchange Palace, situated in the capital's historical city centre.

Industrial output growth reached 6.5% year-on-year in February 2013, the highest in the EU-27.[225] The largest local companies include car maker Automobile Dacia, Petrom, Rompetrol, Ford Romania, Electrica, Romgaz, RCS & RDS and Banca Transilvania.[226] Exports have increased substantially in the past few years, with a 13% annual rise in exports in 2010. Romania's main exports are cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Trade is mostly centered on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The account balance in 2012 was estimated to be −4.52% of the GDP.[227]

After a series of privatizations and reforms in the late 1990s and 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat lower than in other European economies.[228] In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, among the lowest rates in the European Union.[229] The economy is predominantly based on services, which account for 51% of GDP, even though industry and agriculture also have significant contributions, making up 36% and 13% of GDP, respectively. Additionally, 30% of the Romanian population was employed in 2006 in agriculture and primary production, one of the highest rates in Europe.[230]

Since 2000, Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment, becoming the single largest investment destination in Southeastern and Central Europe. Foreign direct investment was valued at €8.3 billion in 2006.[231] According to a 2011 World Bank report, Romania currently ranks 72nd out of 175 economies in the ease of doing business, scoring lower than other countries in the region such as the Czech Republic.[232] Additionally, a study in 2006 judged it to be the world's second-fastest economic reformer (after Georgia).[233]

Dacia Duster concept at the Geneva Motor Show (2009)

Since 1867 the official currency has been the Romanian leu ("lion") and following a denomination in 2005, it has been valued at €0.2–0.3. After joining the EU in 2007, Romania is expected to adopt the Euro sometime around 2020.[234]

On 1 July 2015, Romania's external debt was reported to be situated at the sum of €90.59 billion.[235] In 2018, the external debt of Romania was reported to be situated at the sum of €96 billion according to the National Bank of Romania.[236]

Infrastructure

Romania's road network.
Graph depicting Romania's electricity supply mix as of 2015

According to the INSSE, Romania's total road network was estimated in 2015 at 86,080 kilometres (53,488 mi).[237] The World Bank estimates the railway network at 22,298 kilometres (13,855 mi) of track, the fourth-largest railroad network in Europe.[238] Rail transport experienced a dramatic decline after 1989, and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004; but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatization of lines,[189] accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country.[189] Bucharest Metro, the only underground railway system, was opened in 1979 and measures 61.41 km (38.16 mi) with an average ridership in 2007 of 600,000 passengers during the workweek.[239] There are sixteen international commercial airports in service today. Over 12.8 million passengers flew through Bucharest's Henri Coandă International Airport in 2017.[240]

Romania is a net exporter of electrical energy and is 48th worldwide in terms of consumption of electric energy.[241][better source needed] Around a third of the produced energy comes from renewable sources, mostly as hydroelectric power.[242] In 2015, the main sources were coal (28%), hydroelectric (30%), nuclear (18%), and hydrocarbons (14%).[243] It has one of the largest refining capacities in Eastern Europe, even though oil and natural gas production has been decreasing for more than a decade.[241] With one of the largest reserves of crude oil and shale gas in Europe,[241] it is among the most energy-independent countries in the European Union,[244] and is looking to further expand its nuclear power plant at Cernavodă.[245]

There were almost 18,3 million connections to the Internet in June, 2014.[246] According to Bloomberg, in 2013 Romania ranked 5th in the world, and according to The Independent, it ranks number one in Europe at Internet speeds,[247][248] with Timișoara ranked among the highest in the world.[249]

Tourism

Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP.[250] According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, Romania was estimated to have the fourth-fastest-growing travel and tourism total demand in the world, with an estimated potential growth of 8% per year from 2007 to 2016.[251] The number of tourists has been steadily rising, reaching 9.33 million foreign tourists in 2016, according to the Worldbank.[252] Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005.[253]

More than 60% of the foreign visitors in 2007 were from other EU countries.[254] The popular summer attractions of Mamaia and other Black Sea Resorts attracted 1.3 million tourists in 2009.[255][256]

Most popular skiing resorts are along the Valea Prahovei and in Poiana Brașov. Castles, fortifications, or strongholds as well as well preserved medieval Transylvanian cities or towns such as Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Brașov, Bistrița, Mediaș, Cisnădie, or Sighișoara also attract a large number of tourists. Bran Castle, near Brașov, is one of the most famous attractions in Romania, drawing hundreds of thousands of tourists every year as it is often advertised as being Dracula's Castle.[257] Hunedoara Castle is another famous structure.

Rural tourism, focusing on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative,[258] and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the painted churches of northern Moldavia, and the wooden churches of Maramureș, or the villages with fortified churches in Transylvania.[259] Other attractions include the Danube Delta or the Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu.[260][261]

In 2014, Romania had 32,500 companies which were active in the hotel and restaurant industry, with a total turnover of EUR 2.6 billion.[262] More than 1.9 million foreign tourists visited Romania in 2014, 12% more than in 2013.[263] According to the country's National Statistics Institute, some 77% came from Europe (particularly from Germany, Italy, and France), 12% from Asia, and less than 7% from North America.[263]

Science and technology

Historically, Romanian researchers and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields. In the history of flight, Traian Vuia made the first airplane to take off on its own power[264] and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coandă discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics. Victor Babeș discovered more than 50 types of bacteria; biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin, while Emil Palade, received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine and he also invented the procedure of separating valuable petroleum components with selective solvents, while Costin Nenițescu developed numerous new classes of compounds in organic chemistry. Notable Romanian mathematicians include Spiru Haret, Grigore Moisil, and Ștefan Odobleja; physicists and inventors: Șerban Țițeica, Alexandru Proca, and Ștefan Procopiu.

During the 1990s and 2000s, the development of research was hampered by several factors, including corruption, low funding and a considerable brain drain.[265] However, since the country's accession to the European Union, this has begun to change.[266] After being slashed by 50% in 2009 because of the global recession, R&D spending was increased by 44% in 2010 and now stands at $0.5 billion (1.5 billion lei).[267] In January 2011, the Parliament also passed a law that enforces "strict quality control on universities and introduces tough rules for funding evaluation and peer review".[268] The country has joined several major international organizations such as CERN and the European Space Agency.[269][270] Overall, the situation has been characterized as "rapidly improving", albeit from a low base.[271]

The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania.[272] In early 2012, Romania launched its first satellite from the Centre Spatial Guyanais in French Guyana.[273] Starting December 2014, Romania is a co-owner of the International Space Station.[274]

Demographics

Ethnic map of Romania based on 2011 census data.
Ethnic map of the Kingdom of Romania based on the 1930 census data.

According to the 2011 census, Romania's population is 20,121,641.[3] Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to gradually decline in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. In October 2011, Romanians made up 88.9% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians, 6.1% of the population, and the Roma, 3.0% of the population.[d][275] Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. Other minorities include Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Lipovans, Aromanians, Tatars, and Serbs.[276] In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans in Romania,[277] but only about 36,000 remain today.[276] As of 2009, there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, primarily from Moldova and China.[160]

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2015 was estimated at 1.33 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest in the world.[278] In 2014, 31.2% of births were to unmarried women.[279] The birth rate (9.49‰, 2012) is much lower than the mortality rate (11.84‰, 2012), resulting in a shrinking (−0.26% per year, 2012) and aging population (median age: 39.1, 2012), with approximately 14.9% of total population aged 65 years and over.[280][281][282] The life expectancy in 2015 was estimated at 74.92 years (71.46 years male, 78.59 years female).[278]

The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million.[171] After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a significant number of Romanians emigrated to other European countries, North America or Australia.[283] For example, in 1990, 96,919 Romanians permanently settled abroad.[284]

Foreign-born population[285] 2013 2015 2017
Population total 20,020,074 19,870,647 19,644,350
Total 182,939 281,048 421,801
 Moldova 59,670 114,654 161,846
 Italy 22,486 38,580 56,515
 Spain 18,827 29,937 42,165
 Ukraine 8,743 11,900 16,729
 United Kingdom 2,604 5,208 15,346
 Germany 3,759 6,552 15,121
 France 3,780 6,471 12,589
 Bulgaria 11,163 10,465 10,646
 Hungary 5,795 6,420 8,184
 Turkey 5,057 3 7,986
 Greece 4,085 4,653 6,494
 Russia 4,952 5,269 6,063
 China 2,978 3,722 5,068
 United States 2,360 2,876 4,428
 Syria 2,295 2,576 3,492
 Israel 1,665 1,837 2,936
 Belgium 54 1,102 2,650
 Iraq 1,136 1,419 2,338
 Serbia 1,529 5,783 2,296
 Austria 121 509 1,934
 Ireland 22 657 1,876
 Tunisia 1,034 1,062 1,627
 Iran 1,114 1,261 1,464
 Portugal 81 364 1,377

Languages

Romanian is an Eastern Romance language, part of the larger linguistic family of Romance languages alongside French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan.

The official language is Romanian, a Romance language (the most widely spoken of the Eastern Romance branch), which presents a consistent degree of similarity to Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian, but equally shares many features with the rest of the Western Romance languages, specifically Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan. The Romanian alphabet contains the same 26 letters of the standard Latin alphabet, as well as five additional ones (namely 'ă','â','î','ț', and 'ș'), totaling 31.

Romanian is spoken as a first language by approximately 90% of the entire population, while Hungarian and Vlax Romani are spoken by 6.2% and 1.2% of the population, respectively. There are also approximately 50,000 native speakers of Ukrainian (concentrated in some compact regions, near the border, where they form local majorities),[286] 25,000 native speakers of German, and 32,000 native speakers of Turkish living in Romania.[287]

According to the Constitution, local councils ensure linguistic rights to all minorities, with localities with ethnic minorities of over 20%, that minority's language can be used in the public administration, justice system, and education. Foreign citizens and stateless persons that live in Romania have access to justice and education in their own language.[288] English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools.[289] In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie identifies 4,756,100 French speakers in the country.[290] According to the 2012 Eurobarometer, English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, as well as Italian and German, each by 7%.[291]

Religion

Eastern Orthodoxy is the most widespread religious denomination in the country.
Religion in Romania (2011 census)
Religion Percentage
Eastern Orthodox
81.0%
Roman Catholic
4.3%
Reformed
3.0%
Pentecostal
1.8%
Greek Catholic
0.7%
Baptist
0.6%
Seventh-day Adventist
0.4%
Other
1.8%
Non-Religious
0.2%
No data
6.2%

Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Other denominations include Protestantism (6.2%), Roman Catholicism (4.3%), and Greek Catholicism (0.8%). From the remaining population, 195,569 people belong to other Christian denominations or have another religion, which includes 64,337 Muslims (mostly of Turkish and Tatar ethnicity) and 3,519 Jewish (Jews once constituted 4% of the Romanian population, 728,115 persons in the 1930 census). Moreover, 39,660 people have no religion or are atheist, whilst the religion of the rest is unknown.[292]

The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with other Orthodox churches, with a Patriarch as its leader. It is the second-largest Orthodox Church in the world[citation needed], and unlike other Orthodox churches, it functions within a Latin culture and utilizes a Romance liturgical language.[293] Its canonical jurisdiction covers the territories of Romania and Moldova,[294] with dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Serbia and Hungary, as well as diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe, North America and Oceania.

Urbanization

Although 54.0% of the population lived in urban areas in 2011,[3] this percentage has been declining since 1996.[295] Counties with over ⅔ urban population are Hunedoara, Brașov and Constanța, while with less than a third are Dâmbovița (30.06%) and Giurgiu and Teleorman.[3] Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania, with a population of over 1.8 million in 2011. Its larger urban zone has a population of almost 2.2 million,[296] which are planned to be included into a metropolitan area up to 20 times the area of the city proper.[297][298][299] Another 19 cities have a population of over 100,000, with Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara of slightly more than 300,000 inhabitants, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov with over 250,000 inhabitants, and Galați and Ploiești with over 200,000 inhabitants.[215] Metropolitan areas have been constituted for most of these cities.

Education

University of Bucharest was opened in 1864.
The Colțea Hospital in Bucharest completed a $90 million renovation in 2011.[301]

Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has received mixed criticism.[302] In 2004, some 4.4 million of the population were enrolled in school. Out of these, 650,000 in kindergarten (3–6 years), 3.11 million in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 in tertiary level (universities).[303] In 2018, the adult literacy rate was 98.8%.[304] Kindergarten is optional between 3 and 6 years. Since 2012, compulsory schooling starts at age 6 with the "preparatory school year" (clasa pregătitoare)[305] and is compulsory until tenth grade.[306] Primary and secondary education is divided into 12 or 13 grades. There also exists a semi-legal, informal private tutoring system used mostly during secondary school, which has prospered during the Communist regime.[307]

Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, University of Bucharest, and West University of Timișoara have been included in the QS World University Rankings' top 800.[308]

Romania ranks 5th in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 316 total medals, dating back to 1959. Ciprian Manolescu managed to write a perfect paper (42 points) for gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, doing it all three times he participated in the IMO (1995, 1996, 1997).[309] Romania has achieved the highest team score in the competition, after China and Russia, and right after the United States and Hungary. Romania also ranks 6th in the all-time medal count at the International Olympiad in Informatics with 107 total medals, dating back to 1989.[310][311][312]

Healthcare

Romania has a universal health care system, and total health expenditures by the government are roughly 5% of the GDP.[313] It covers medical examinations, any surgical interventions, and any post-operator medical care, and provides free or subsidized medicine for a range of diseases. The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics. The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Transmissible diseases are quite common by European standards.[314] In 2010, Romania had 428 state and 25 private hospitals,[315] with 6.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people,[316] and over 200,000 medical staff, including over 52,000 doctors.[317] As of 2013, the emigration rate of doctors was 9%, higher than the European average of 2.5%.[318]

Culture

Arts and monuments

Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt, Hungarian: Nagyszeben) was the European Capital of Culture in 2007.
Timișoara (German: Temeschburg, Hungarian: Temesvár) was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2021.

The topic of the origin of the Romanians began to be discussed by the end of the 18th century among the Transylvanian School scholars.[319] Several writers rose to prominence in the 19th century, including George Coșbuc, Ioan Slavici, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae Bălcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creangă, and Mihai Eminescu, the later being considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceafărul.[320]

In the 20th century, Romanian artists reached international acclaim, including Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco,[321] Mircea Eliade, Nicolae Grigorescu, Marin Preda, Liviu Rebreanu,[322] Eugène Ionesco, Emil Cioran, and Constantin Brâncuși. The last has a sculptural ensemble in Târgu Jiu, while his sculpture Bird in Space, was auctioned in 2005 for $27.5 million.[323][324] Romanian-born Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, while Banat Swabian writer Herta Müller received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2009.

Prominent Romanian painters include Nicolae Grigorescu, Ștefan Luchian, Ion Andreescu Nicolae Tonitza and Theodor Aman. Notable Romanian classical composers of the 19th and 20th centuries include Ciprian Porumbescu, Anton Pann, Eduard Caudella, Mihail Jora, Dinu Lipatti and especially George Enescu. The annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in honor of the 20th-century eponymous composer.[325]

Contemporary musicians like Angela Gheorghiu, Gheorghe Zamfir,[326][327] Inna,[328] Alexandra Stan[329] and many others have achieved various levels of international acclaim. At the Eurovision Song Contest Romanian singers have achieved third place in 2005 and 2010.[330]

In cinema, several movies of the Romanian New Wave have achieved international acclaim. At the Cannes Film Festival, The Death of Mr. Lazarescu by Cristi Puiu won the Prix Un Certain Regard in 2005,[331] while 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days by Cristian Mungiu won the festival's top prize, the Palme d'Or, in 2007.[332] At the Berlin International Film Festival, Child's Pose by Călin Peter Netzer won the Golden Bear in 2013.[333]

The list of World Heritage Sites includes six cultural sites located within Romania, including eight Painted churches of northern Moldavia, eight Wooden Churches of Maramureș, seven Villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Horezu Monastery, and the Historic Centre of Sighișoara. [334] The city of Sibiu, with its Brukenthal National Museum, was selected as the 2007 European Capital of Culture.[335] Multiple castles exist in Romania, including popular tourist attractions of Peleș Castle,[336] Corvin Castle, and "Dracula's Castle".[337]

Holidays, traditions, and cuisine

Christmas market in Bucharest

There are 12 non-working public holidays, including the Great Union Day, celebrated on 1 December in commemoration of the 1918 union of Transylvania with Romania.[338] Winter holidays include the Christmas festivities and the New Year during which, various unique folklore dances and games are common: plugușorul, sorcova, ursul, and capra.[339][340] The traditional Romanian dress that otherwise has largely fallen out of use during the 20th century, is a popular ceremonial vestment worn on these festivities, especially in the rural areas.[341] Sacrifices of live pigs during Christmas and lambs during Easter has required a special derogation from EU law after 2007.[342] During Easter, painted eggs are very common, while on 1 March features mărțișor gifting, a tradition likely of Thracian origin.[343]

Romanian cuisine has been influenced by Austrian and German cuisine (especially in the historical regions that had been formerly administered by the Habsburg Monarchy), but also shares some similarities with other cuisines in the Balkan region such as the Greek, Bulgarian, or Serbian cuisine.[344] Ciorbă includes a wide range of sour soups, while mititei, mămăligă (similar to polenta), and sarmale are featured commonly in main courses.[345]

Pork, chicken, and beef are the preferred types of meat, but lamb and fish are also quite popular.[346] [347] Certain traditional recipes are made in direct connection with the holidays: chiftele, tobă and tochitura at Christmas; drob, pască and cozonac at Easter and other Romanian holidays.[348] Țuică is a strong plum brandy reaching a 70% alcohol content which is the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, taking as much as 75% of the national crop (Romania is one of the largest plum producers in the world).[349][350] Traditional alcoholic beverages also include wine, rachiu, palincă and vișinată, but beer consumption has increased dramatically over the recent years.[351]

Sports

Simona Halep has ended 2017 and 2018 as WTA's World No. 1.
Cristina Neagu is the only female handball player in history to win three IHF World Player of the Year awards.

Association football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Romania with over 234,000 registered players as of 2010.[352] The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. The Romania national football team played its first match in 1922 and is one of only four national teams to have taken part in the first three FIFA World Cups, the other three being Brazil, France, and Belgium. Overall, it has played in seven World Cups and had its most successful period during the 1990s, when it reached the quarterfinals of the 1994 FIFA World Cup, being eventually ranked third by FIFA in 1997.[353] The core player of this "Golden Generation" was Gheorghe Hagi, who was nicknamed "the Maradona of the Carpathians."[354][355] Other successful players include Iuliu Bodola, Nicolae Dobrin, Dudu Georgescu, Florea Dumitrache, Liță Dumitru, Ilie Balaci, Miodrag Belodedici, Loți Bölöni, Michael Klein, Anghel Iordănescu, Rodion Cămătaru, Mircea Rednic, Costică Ștefănescu, Cornel Dinu, Marius Lăcătuș or Gheorghe Popescu, and most recently Florin Răducioiu, Dorinel Munteanu, Viorel Moldovan, Dan Petrescu, Adrian Mutu, Cristian Chivu, Răzvan Raț or Cosmin Contra. Romania's home ground is Arena Națională, Bucharest.

The most successful club is Steaua București, who were the first Eastern European team to win the European Champions Cup in 1986, and were runners-up in 1989. Dinamo București reached the European Champions' Cup semifinal in 1984 and the Cup Winners' Cup semifinal in 1990. Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid București, UTA Arad, Universitatea Craiova, CFR Cluj, Astra Giurgiu, and Viitorul Constanța.

Tennis is the second-most-popular sport, with over 15,000 registered players.[356] Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times (1969, 1971, 1972). The tennis player Ilie Năstase won several Grand Slam titles, and was the first player to be ranked as number 1 by ATP between 1973 and 1974. Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in 1978, and was runner-up in 1980, Simona Halep won in 2018 and was runner up in 2014 and 2017. She is currently ranked 1st by the WTA.[357] The Romanian duo Horia Tecău and Florin Mergea won the doubles silver medal at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.[358]

Other popular team sports are team handball,[356] basketball[359] and rugby union. Both the men's and women's handball national teams are multiple world champions. On 13 January 2010, Cristina Neagu became the first Romanian in handball to win the IHF World Player of the Year award.[360] Basketball is widely enjoyed, especially by the youth.[359] Gheorghe Mureșan was one of the two tallest players to ever play in the NBA. In 2016, Romania was chosen as a host for the 2017 EuroBasket. The rugby national team has competed in every Rugby World Cup.

Popular individual sports include athletics, chess, judo, dancesport, table tennis and combat sports (Lucian Bute, Leonard Dorin Doroftei, Mihai Leu aka Michael Loewe, Daniel Ghiță, Benjamin Adegbuyi, Cătălin Moroșanu etc.).[356] While it has a limited popularity nowadays, oină is a traditional Romanian sporting game similar to baseball that has been continuously practiced since at least the 14th century.[361]

Romania participated in the Olympic Games for the first time in 1900 and has taken part in 21 of the 28 summer games. It has been one of the more successful countries at the Summer Olympic Games, with a total of 307 medals won throughout the years, of which 89 gold ones, ranking 15th overall, and second of the nations that have never hosted the game.

It participated at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles and finished second in gold medals (20) and third in total medal count (53).[362] Almost a quarter of all the medals and 25 of the gold ones were won in gymnastics, with Nadia Comăneci becoming the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten in an Olympic event at the 1976 Summer Olympics.[363] Romanian competitors have won gold medals in other Olympic sports: rowing, athletics, canoeing, wrestling, shooting, fencing, swimming, weightlifting, boxing, and judo. At the Winter Olympic Games, Romania has won only a bronze medal in bobsleigh at the 1968 Winter Olympics.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "am scris aceste sfente cărți de învățături, să fie popilor rumânesti ... să înțeleagă toți oamenii cine-s rumâni creștini" "Întrebare creștinească" (1559), Bibliografia românească veche, IV, 1944, p. 6.
    "... că văzum cum toate limbile au și înfluresc întru cuvintele slăvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare muncă scoasem de limba jidovească si grecească si srâbească pre limba românească 5 cărți ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru cărți și le dăruim voo frați rumâni și le-au scris în cheltuială multă ... și le-au dăruit voo fraților români, ... și le-au scris voo fraților români" Palia de la Orăștie (1581–1582), București, 1968.
    În Țara Ardealului nu lăcuiesc numai unguri, ce și sași peste seamă de mulți și români peste tot locul ..., Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul Țării Moldovei, p. 133–134.
  2. ^ In his literary testament Ienăchiță Văcărescu writes: "Urmașilor mei Văcărești!/Las vouă moștenire:/Creșterea limbei românești/Ș-a patriei cinstire."
    In the "Istoria faptelor lui Mavroghene-Vodă și a răzmeriței din timpul lui pe la 1790" a Pitar Hristache writes: "Încep după-a mea ideie/Cu vreo câteva condeie/Povestea mavroghenească/Dela Țara Românească.
  3. ^ In 1816, the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published in Leipzig his work The History of Romania, followed by The Geography of Romania.
    On the tombstone of Gheorghe Lazăr in Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: "Precum Hristos pe Lazăr din morți a înviat/Așa tu România din somn ai deșteptat."
  4. ^ 2002 census data, based on population by ethnicity Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, gave a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. Many ethnicities are not recorded, as they do not have ID cards Archived 15 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. International sources give higher figures than the official census (e.g., [1]UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank, "International Association for Official Statistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2008.

References

  1. ^ "Constitution of Romania". Cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  2. ^ "Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 – European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Romanian 2011 census (final results)" (PDF) (in Romanian). INSSE. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  4. ^ "Annual official estimate" Archived 30 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine.(PDF) 2019 Revision
  5. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  6. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  7. ^ "2016 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Romania Geography". aboutromania.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "- Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org.
  12. ^ ""Country Comparison : GDP - Real Growth Rate", CIA World Factbook, accessed 26 July 2017". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  13. ^ "Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language, 1998; New Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language, 2002" (in Romanian). Dexonline.ro. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  14. ^ Veress, Andréas. Acta et Epistolae. I. p. 243. nunc se Romanos vocant
  15. ^ Cl. Isopescu (1929). "Notizie intorno ai romeni nella letteratura geografica italiana del Cinquecento". Bulletin de la Section Historique. XVI: 1–90. ... si dimandano in lingua loro Romei ... se alcuno dimanda se sano parlare in la lingua valacca, dicono a questo in questo modo: Sti Rominest ? Che vol dire: Sai tu Romano, ...
  16. ^ Holban, Maria (1983). Călători străini despre Țările Române (in Romanian). II. Ed. Științifică și Enciclopedică. pp. 158–161. Anzi essi si chiamano romanesci, e vogliono molti che erano mandati quì quei che erano dannati a cavar metalli ...
  17. ^ Cernovodeanu, Paul (1960). "Voyage fait par moy, Pierre Lescalopier l'an 1574 de Venise a Constantinople, fol 48". Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medievală (in Romanian). IV: 444. Tout ce pays la Wallachie et Moldavie et la plus part de la Transilvanie a eté peuplé des colonies romaines du temps de Traian l'empereur ... Ceux du pays se disent vrais successeurs des Romains et nomment leur parler romanechte, c'est-à-dire romain ...
  18. ^ Ion Rotaru, Literatura română veche, "The Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung" Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, București, 1981, pp. 62–65
  19. ^ Brezeanu, Stelian (1999). Romanitatea Orientală în Evul Mediu. Bucharest: Editura All Educational. pp. 229–246.
  20. ^ Goina, Călin. How the State Shaped the Nation: an Essay on the Making of the Romanian Nation Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine in Regio – Minorities, Politics, Society.
  21. ^ "Wallachia and Moldavia, 1859–61". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
  22. ^ See, for example, "Rumania: Remarkable Common Ground" Archived 31 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times (December 21, 1989).
  23. ^ See the Google Ngrams for Romania, Rumania, and Roumania.
  24. ^ "General principles" (in Romanian). cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  25. ^ Price 2013, pp. 60–61.
  26. ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 1–2.
  27. ^ Price 2013, pp. 125–127.
  28. ^ Gibbs, Patrick. "Antiquity Vol 79 No 306 December 2005 The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania Olivier Weller & Gheorghe Dumitroaia". Antiquity.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  29. ^ a b Price 2013, p. 149.
  30. ^ John Noble Wilford (1 December 2009). "A Lost European Culture, Pulled From Obscurity". The New York Times (30 November 2009). Archived from the original on 31 December 2016.
  31. ^ a b c Georgescu 1991, p. 2.
  32. ^ Georgescu 1991, p. 3.
  33. ^ Hitchins 1991, p. 3.
  34. ^ Rustoiu 2005, pp. 32, 35–36.
  35. ^ a b c d e Hitchins 1991, p. 7.
  36. ^ Pop 1999, p. 14.
  37. ^ Pop 1999, pp. 14–15.
  38. ^ a b Georgescu 1991, p. 4.
  39. ^ Pop 1999, p. 15.
  40. ^ Hitchins 1991, pp. 9–10.
  41. ^ Georgescu 1991, p. 6.
  42. ^ Opreanu 2005, pp. 68–69, 97–98.
  43. ^ Pop 1999, pp. 22–23.
  44. ^ Hitchins 1991, pp. 13–14.
  45. ^ a b Georgescu 1991, p. 10.
  46. ^ Pop 1999, pp. 19–20.
  47. ^ Hitchins 1991, p. 14.
  48. ^ Opreanu 2005, pp. 105–107.
  49. ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 8, 10.
  50. ^ Opreanu 2005, p. 108, 110–111.
  51. ^ Vásáry 2005, p. 30.
  52. ^ Павлов, Пламен. "За северната граница на Второто българско царство през XIII-XIV в." (in Bulgarian). LiterNet. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
  53. ^ Ștefănescu, p. 94
  54. ^ Ștefănescu, Ștefan (1991). Istoria medie a României. I. Bucharest. p. 114.
  55. ^ Predescu, Lucian (1940). Enciclopedia Cugetarea.
  56. ^ Pop 1999, pp. 52–53.
  57. ^ Georgescu 1991, p. 41.
  58. ^ a b Pop 1999, p. 69.
  59. ^ Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, p. 419.
  60. ^ Georgescu 1991, p. 71.
  61. ^ Georgescu 1991, p. 54.
  62. ^ a b Hitchins 1991, p. 35.
  63. ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 55–56.
  64. ^ Pop 1999, pp. 75–76.
  65. ^ Pop 1999, p. 79.
  66. ^ Georgescu 1991, p. 42.
  67. ^ Hitchins 1991, p. 60.
  68. ^ Hitchins 1991, p. 61.
  69. ^ Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, pp. 432–434.
  70. ^ Hitchins 1991, pp. 44–45.
  71. ^ Hitchins 1991, pp. 55–56.
  72. ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 73–74.
  73. ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 74–75, 78.
  74. ^ Pop 1999, p. 92.
  75. ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 75–76.
  76. ^ a b Pop 1999, p. 87.
  77. ^ a b Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, pp. 427–428.
  78. ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 89–90.
  79. ^ Hitchins 1991, pp. 73–74.
  80. ^ Hitchins 1991, p. 68.
  81. ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 103–104.
  82. ^ Hitchins 1991, p. 81.
  83. ^ Pop 1999, p. 99.
  84. ^ a b Hitchins 1991, pp. 96–97.
  85. ^ a b Pop 1999, p. 100.
  86. ^ Hitchins 1991, p. 99.
  87. ^ Pop 1999, p. 108.
  88. ^ Hitchins 1991, pp. 105–106.
  89. ^ Pop 1999, pp. 109–111.
  90. ^ Hitchins 1991, pp. 109–111.
  91. ^ Pop 1999, p. 111.
  92. ^ Pop 1999, p. 112.
  93. ^ a b c Hitchins 1991, p. 118.
  94. ^ Georgescu 1991, p. 166.
  95. ^ Georgescu 1991, p. 157.
  96. ^ Hitchins 1991, p. 145.
  97. ^ Pop 1999, pp. 118–119.
  98. ^ Horne, Charles F. "Romania's Declaration of War with Austria-Hungary". Source Records of the Great War. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  99. ^ Erlikman, Vadim (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow. ISBN 978-5-93165-107-1.
  100. ^ Bernard Anthony Cook (2001). Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia. Taylor&Francis. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-8153-4057-7.
  101. ^ "Text of the Treaty of Trianon". World War I Document Archive. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  102. ^ Malbone W. Graham (October 1944). "The Legal Status of the Bukovina and Bessarabia". The American Journal of International Law. 38 (4): 667–673. doi:10.2307/2192802. JSTOR 2192802.
  103. ^ "World War I: The Players". www.mtholyoke.edu. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  104. ^ "Statul National Unitar (România Mare 1919–1940)" (in Romanian). ici.ro. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008.
  105. ^ "his1". Aneir-cpce.ro. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  106. ^ "VIDEO Înregistrare senzațională cu Hitler: "Fără petrolul din România nu aș fi atacat niciodată URSS-ul"". adevarul.ro. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  107. ^ "Business in Romania: a country that's fast off the Bloc – Two years of EU membership have transformed the business face of Romania and savvy UK firms are reaping the rewards. Paul Bray reports". The Daily Telegraph. London. 24 February 2010. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  108. ^ "Post-War Romania". www.shsu.edu. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  109. ^ Ioan Scurtu; Theodora Stănescu-Stanciu; Georgiana Margareta Scurtu (2002). Istoria Românilor între anii 1918–1940 (in Romanian). University of Bucharest. Archived from the original on 13 November 2007.
  110. ^ Nagy-Talavera, Nicolas M. (1970). Green Shirts and Others: a History of Fascism in Hungary and Romania. Hoover Institution Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-973-9432-11-5.
  111. ^ Ioan Scurtu; Theodora Stănescu-Stanciu; Georgiana Margareta Scurtu. "Decret regal privind investirea generalului Ion Antonescu cu depline puteri". Istoria românilor între anii 1918–1940 (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  112. ^ M. Broszat (1968). "Deutschland – Ungarn – Rumänien. Entwicklung und Grundfaktoren nationalsozialistischer Hegemonial- und Bündnispolitik 1938–1941". Historische Zeitschrift (in German) (206): 552–553.
  113. ^ Note: follow the World War II link: Ronald D. Bachman, ed. (9 November 2005). Romania:World War II (Report) (2 ed.). Washington D.C.: Library of Congress.Federal Research Division. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  114. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Romania, Holocaust Encyclopedia
  115. ^ Ilie Fugaru (11 November 2004). "Romania clears doubts about Holocaust past". UPI. Archived from the original on 11 March 2005.
  116. ^ International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (28 January 2012). "Executive Summary: Historical Findings and Recommendations" (PDF). Final Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania. Yad Vashem (The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  117. ^ Associated, The (17 April 2012). "Study: More than 280,000 Jews killed in Romania in WWII – Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News". Haaretz.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  118. ^ "Ion Antonescu | ruler of Romania". Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  119. ^ "Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research in Romania". holocaustremembrance.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  120. ^ Axworthy, Mark; Scafes, Cornel; Craciunoiu, Cristian (editors) (1995). Third axis, Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces In the European War 1941–1945. London: Arms & Armour Press. pp. 1–368. ISBN 978-963-389-606-8.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  121. ^ "The Biggest Mistakes in World War 2:Ploesti – the most important target". Archived from the original on 18 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  122. ^ Constantiniu, Florin, O istorie sinceră a poporului român ("An Honest History of the Romanian People"), Ed. Univers Enciclopedic, București, 1997, ISBN 973-9243-07-X
  123. ^ Clodfelter, Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2 ed.). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 582. ISBN 978-0-7864-1204-4.
  124. ^ Tomiuc, Eugen (6 May 2005). "World War II – 60 Years After: Former Romanian Monarch Remembers Decision To Switch Sides". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  125. ^ Giurescu, "«Alegeri" după model sovietic", p.17 (citing Berry), 18 (citing Berry and note); Macuc, p.40; Tismăneanu, p.113
  126. ^ "Romania: Country studies – Chapter 1.7.1 "Petru Groza's Premiership"". Federal research Division, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  127. ^ "Romania". CIA – The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  128. ^ "Romania – Country Background and Profile". ed-u.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  129. ^ Rîjnoveanu, Carmen (2003). "Romania's Policy of Autonomy in the Context of the Sino-Soviet Conflict" (PDF). Czech Republic Military History Institute, Militärgeschichtliches Forscheungamt. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  130. ^ Roper, Stephen D. (2000). Romania: The Unfinished Revolution. London: Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 978-90-5823-027-0.
  131. ^ Cioroianu, Adrian (2005). On the Shoulders of Marx. An Incursion into the History of Romanian Communism (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Curtea Veche. pp. 68–73. ISBN 978-973-669-175-1.
  132. ^ Stoica, Stan (2007). Dicționar de Istorie a României (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Merona. pp. 77–78, 233–34. ISBN 978-973-7839-21-3.
  133. ^ Ionițoiu, Cicerone (2000). Victimele terorii comuniste. Arestați, torturați, întemnițați, uciși. Dicționar (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Mașina de scris. ISBN 978-973-99994-2-7.[page needed]
  134. ^ Consiliul National pentru Studierea Ahivelor Securității, Bande, bandiți si eroi; Grupurile de rezistență și Securitatea (1948–1968), Editura Enciclopedica, București, 2003
  135. ^ Raportul Comisiei Prezidențiale pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România (Report). Comisia Prezidențială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România. 15 December 2006. pp. 215–217.
  136. ^ Political Tension 1968 (in Romanian). Bucharest: British Pathé. 21 August 1968. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014.
  137. ^ "Romania: Soviet Union and Eastern Europe". Country Studies.us. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  138. ^ "Middle East policies in Communist Romania". Country Studies.us. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  139. ^ Deletant, Dennis. "New Evidence on Romania and the Warsaw Pact, 1955–1989" (PDF). Cold War International History Project e-Dossier Series. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 January 2012.
  140. ^ Carothers, Thomas. "Romania: The Political Background" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008. This seven-year period can be characterized as a gradualistic, often ambiguous transition away from communist rule towards democracy.
  141. ^ Hellman, Joel (January 1998). "Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform in Postcommunist". Transitions World Politics. 50 (2): 203–234. doi:10.1017/S0043887100008091.
  142. ^ "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  143. ^ "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  144. ^ Bohlen, Celestine (15 June 1990). "Evolution in Europe; Romanian miners invade Bucharest". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2008. Responding to an emergency appeal by President Ion Iliescu, thousands of miners from northern Romania descended on the capital city today
  145. ^ "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  146. ^ Presa internationala despre alegerile din Romania: Traian Basescu a castigat la limita; Romanii au mici sperante sa se dezghete ajutorul de la FMI – International Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. HotNews.ro. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
  147. ^ "Romania profile – Leaders – BBC News-GB". Archived from the original on 17 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  148. ^ Claudia POPESCU. "DEINDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBAN SHRINKAGE IN ROMANIA. WHAT LESSONS FOR THE SPATIAL POLICY?". Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  149. ^ Patran, Ioana. "Romania sends ex-prime minister Nastase to jail for corruption".
  150. ^ Ilie, Luiza. "Romania's powerful mayors tumble in corruption crackdown".
  151. ^ Marinas, Radu-Sorin. "Romanians rally again in anti-corruption, anti-government protests".
  152. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Romania making little progress fighting corruption, European agency..."
  153. ^ "Romania PM Ponta resigns over Bucharest nightclub fire Archived 15 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine". BBC News. 4 November 2015.
  154. ^ "Huge Romania rally despite decree repeal". 6 February 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
  155. ^ Marinas, Radu-Sorin. "Thousands of Romanians rally against ruling party's judicial overhaul".
  156. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2017". Transparency International. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  157. ^ "NATO update: NATO welcomes seven new members". NATO. Archived from the original on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  158. ^ "EU approves Bulgaria and Romania". BBC News. 26 September 2006. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  159. ^ "Adevarul". Adevarul.ro. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  160. ^ a b Human Development Report 2009 – Country Fact Sheets – Romania Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
  161. ^ Tracking the Millennium Development Goal Archived 26 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. MDG Monitor. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
  162. ^ Joe Parkinson (4 December 2009). "Romania Faces Crucial Vote". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017.
  163. ^ Romania and the IMF Archived 9 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  164. ^ Gheorghe Stoica; Lavinia Stan. "Romanian Politics in 2012: Intra-Cabinet Coexistence and Political Instability". South-East European Journal of Political Science. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014.
  165. ^ "Romania's Infrastructure and International Transport Links". Assessment of the Romanian Economy. Romania Central. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  166. ^ Romania, world's 53rd country in quality of life index « Denisa Morariu. Denisamorariu.wordpress.com (8 January 2010). Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
  167. ^ Sistemul de invatamant distrus de lipsa reformelor – Cluj Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. citynews.ro. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
  168. ^ D+C 2010/03 – Focus – Roos: In Romania and Bulgaria, civil-society organisations are demanding rule of law – Development and Cooperation – International Journal Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Inwent.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
  169. ^ "Romania is booming". The Economist. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
  170. ^ "Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for Everyone"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  171. ^ a b "Romania". Germany: focus-migration.de. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  172. ^ a b c d e Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2017 (PDF) (Report). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 2018. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  173. ^ "Romania's Biodiversity". Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection of Romania (via enrin.grida.no). Archived from the original on 10 February 2008.
  174. ^ "Protected Areas in Romania". Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (via envir.ee). Archived from the original on 17 November 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  175. ^ "Danube Delta". UNESCO's World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
  176. ^ "Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere". Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (via envir.ee). Archived from the original on 26 April 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  177. ^ "Danube Delta". UNESCO's World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  178. ^ Wohl, Ellen (2010). A World of Rivers: Environmental Change on Ten of the World's Great Rivers. University of Chicago Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-226-90480-1.
  179. ^ "Romania". Fao.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  180. ^ a b "Flora si fauna salbatica" (in Romanian). enrin.grida.no. Archived from the original on 23 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  181. ^ "EarthTrends: Biodiversity and Protected Areas – Romania" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  182. ^ "Bears. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  183. ^ "Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan" (PDF). IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  184. ^ "Romania: Climate". U.S. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  185. ^ a b "Permafrost Monitoring and Prediction in Southern Carpathians, Romania". CliC International Project Office (CIPO). 22 December 2004. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  186. ^ Clima Romaniei | Site-ul Administratiei Nationale de Meteorologie Archived 22 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  187. ^ "Klimatafel von Rumänien". Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  188. ^ Verheijen, Tony (14 March 1990). "Oxford Scholarship Online: Semi-Presidentialism in Europe". Oxfordscholarship.com. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  189. ^ a b c d Romania. The Europa World Year Book. 2 (48 ed.). London and New York: Routledge. 2007. pp. 3734–3759. ISBN 978-1-85743-412-5.
  190. ^ "Se schimbă sistemul de vot. Deputații au adoptat noua Lege Electorală propusă de USL". Antena3.ro. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  191. ^ "Presentation". High Court of Cassation and Justice -—Romania. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  192. ^ "Romanian Legal system". CIA Factbook. 2000. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  193. ^ "Understanding the WTO – members". WTO. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  194. ^ a b c d "Foreign Policy Priorities of Romania for 2008" (in Romanian). Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  195. ^ "Background Note: Romania – U.S.-Romanian Relations". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008.
  196. ^ [2] Archived 12 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  197. ^ Gabriel Andreescu; Valentin Stan; Renate Weber (30 October 1994). "Romania'S Relations with the Republic of Moldova". International Studies. Centre for International Studies. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  198. ^ Ihrig, Stefan. "Rediscovering History, Rediscovering Ultimate Truth" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
  199. ^ "Moldova, Romania open new chapter in bilateral relations". People's Daily. 29 April 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  200. ^ "Press conference" (Press release). Ministry of National Defense of Romania. 21 January 2003. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  201. ^ "MoND Budget as of 2007" (in Romanian). Ziarul Financiar. 30 October 2006. Archived from the original on 22 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  202. ^ "Romania Finally Settles On Portuguese F-16s" Archived 6 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  203. ^ "PICTURES: Romania accepts first C-27J Spartans-12/04/2010-London". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  204. ^ "Spartan Order". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 11 December 2006.
  205. ^ "Romania: 2 soldiers killed, 1 injured in Afghanistan". Colorado Springs Gazette. Associated Press. 7 May 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  206. ^ "Joint Press Conference of the President of Romania Klaus Iohannis and US President Donald Trump, Rose Garden, White House - EMBASSY OF ROMANIA to the United States of America". washington.mae.ro.
  207. ^ "Romania To Send 450 More Troops To Afghanistan". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 21 December 2014. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  208. ^ "Romania ends combat mission in Afghanistan with visit from Prime Minister". Associated Press. 30 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  209. ^ "Traian Basescu: Romania va trimite fregata Regele Ferdinand cu 205 militari in Mediterana pentru operatiuni de blocare a oricarei nave suspecte ca transporta armament" (in Romanian). HotNews.ro. 22 March 2011. Archived from the original on 25 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  210. ^ "Romania ratifies US missile shield agreement". SpaceWar. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
  211. ^ "Geografia Romaniei" (in Romanian). descopera.net. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  212. ^ a b "Hierarchical list of the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics – NUTS and the Statistical regions of Europe". Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  213. ^ "LEGE nr. 151 din 15 iulie 1998" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  214. ^ "2011 Regions Population". INSSE. 4 July 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  215. ^ a b "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.[dead link]
  216. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017
  217. ^ World Bank – Data for Romania 2019 Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  218. ^ "GDP per capita, consumption per capita and price level indices". Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  219. ^ "GDP in 2006" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian National Institute of Statistics. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  220. ^ nytimes.com: "Romania to Get Next Installment of Bailout" 1 Nov 2010 Archived 21 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  221. ^ "Veste excelenta pentru Romania de la Banca Mondiala (Video)". Archived from the original on 18 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  222. ^ a b "In January 2017, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was estimated at 5.4%" (PDF) (Press release). National Institute of Statistics. 31 January 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  223. ^ "Average gross earnings in Romania" (PDF). 16 March 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2017.
  224. ^ "Eurostat, HICP – monthly data (12-month average rate of change)". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  225. ^ Industrial production up by 0.4% in euro area and EU27|Eurostat. Eurostat (12 April 2013). Retrieved on 13 May 2013.
  226. ^ Chirileasa, Andrei (9 June 2014). "Top 20 companies in Romania by turnover". Romania-Insider.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  227. ^ "IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2011 – Central and Eastern Europe". IMF. April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  228. ^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Romania". heritage.org. Archived from the original on 5 January 2005. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  229. ^ Taxation trends in the EU (PDF) (Report). Eurostat. 26 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  230. ^ "Romania". CIA World Factbook. 2010. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  231. ^ "Romania: FDI reached over EUR 8.3 bn". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  232. ^ Economy Ranking. Doing Business (Report). World Bank. 2007. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  233. ^ Doing Business 2007 Report (Report). World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  234. ^ "Fifth Report on the Practical Preparations for the Future Enlargement of the Euro Area" (PDF). Commission of the European Communities. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  235. ^ "Banca Națională a României". bnr.ro. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  236. ^ "Datoria externa a Romaniei a crescut galopant si se apropie de 100 de miliarde de euro". Ziare.com.
  237. ^ "Length of roads in Romania 2015" (PDF). INSSE. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  238. ^ "Reteaua feroviara" (in Romanian). cfr.to. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
  239. ^ "Metrorex ridership" (in Romanian). Financial Week newspaper. 23 April 2007. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  240. ^ Ann.aero database Archived 26 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  241. ^ a b c [[[List of countries by electricity consumption]] "List of countries by electricity consumption"] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  242. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  243. ^ "Raport Anual 2015 energie" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  244. ^ Ana Hontz-Ward. "Romania Expects to be Energy Independent Despite Ukraine Crisis". Voanews.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  245. ^ "Contractul pentru unitatile 3 si 4 de la centrala nucleara Cernavoda se va parafa in mai. Chinezii v-or avea 51% din actiuni – Nicolae Moga (PSD) – Energie – HotNews.ro". Economie.hotnews.ro. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  246. ^ "Numărul conexiunilor la internet a crescut cu 22,8%. Câte milioane de români au acces la internet". Gândul. 4 December 2014. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015.
  247. ^ • Chart: Blistering BroadBand: Europe's fastest downloaders -> Statista Archived 22 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  248. ^ "Top 10: Where to Find the World's Fastest Internet". Bloomberg. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 28 June 2016.
  249. ^ "Romanian city comes out first in the world in Internet download speed ranking". Net Index. 3 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013.
  250. ^ "Country/Economy Profiles: Romania, Page 329 Travel&Tourism" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  251. ^ "WTTC spells out policy recommendations for Romania to tap travel and tourism potential". WTTC. Retrieved 11 January 2008.[dead link]
  252. ^ "Worldbank Tourism in Romania". worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  253. ^ "Tourism attracted in 2005 investments worth €400 million" (in Romanian). Gandul Newspaper. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  254. ^ Report from Romanian National Institute of Statistics (PDF) (Report). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008. for the first 9 months of 2007 an increase from the previous year of 8.7% to 16.5 million tourists; of these 94.0% came from European countries and 61.7% from EU
  255. ^ Criza ne strică vacanța Archived 2 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 9 July 2010, jurnalul.ro, accessed on 21 August 2010
  256. ^ "Tan and fun at the Black Sea". UnseenRomania. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
  257. ^ "Castelul Bran, marcat de istorie, dar şi de legenda lui Dracula atrage anual sute de mii de turişti". www.digi24.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  258. ^ "Turismul renaste la tara" (in Romanian). Romania Libera. 5 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  259. ^ "Bine ati venit pe site-ul de promovare a pensiunilor agroturistice din Romania !!!" (in Romanian). RuralTourism.ro. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  260. ^ "Turism in Romania". Turism.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  261. ^ "Ansamblul sculptural Constantin Brancusi din Targu Jiu". Romaniaturistica.com. 16 March 1957. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  262. ^ How important is tourism in Romania’s economy? Archived 6 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  263. ^ a b Over 1.9 million tourists visit Romania, where do they come from – Romania Insider Archived 4 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  264. ^ "Traian Vuia in a Century of Aviation". Romanian Academy Library. p. 1. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  265. ^ "Science in post-communist Romania: The future is not inviting" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  266. ^ "Laserul de la Magurele: Institutul de Cercetare pentru Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara a semnat contractul de 66 milioane euro pentru realizarea Sistemului Fascicul Gamma – Esential". HotNews.ro. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  267. ^ "Bulgaria: Science fortunes of Balkan neighbours diverge – Novinite.com – Sofia News Agency". Novinite.com. 13 January 2011. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  268. ^ "Science fortunes of Balkan neighbours diverge : Nature News". Nature.com. Archived from the original on 16 January 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  269. ^ "Funeriu: Stiinta din Romania 'se imbunatateste', insa mai sunt multe lucruri de facut". Epochtimes-romania.com. 13 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  270. ^ "Romania is to sign agreement on joining European space agency convention". Actmedia.eu. 20 January 2011. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  271. ^ "Romania's high hopes for science : Nature News". Nature.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  272. ^ "ELI-NP | Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics". Eli-np.ro. Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  273. ^ "VIDEO Romania's first satellite Goliat successfully launch from Kourou base in French Guyana – Top News". HotNews.ro. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  274. ^ "Romania will own a part of the International Space Station and will contribute to the development of the latest European rocket, Ariane 6". Romanian Space Agency. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014.
  275. ^ "European effort spotlights plight of the Roma". usatoday. 10 February 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  276. ^ a b Official site of the results of the 2002 Census (Report) (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  277. ^ "German Population of Romania, 1930–1948". hungarian-history.hu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  278. ^ a b The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Archived 24 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  279. ^ Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table Archived 27 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  280. ^ Villeret, Graeme. "Roumanie". PopulationData.net. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  281. ^ "Romania demographics profile (2011)". Indexmundi.com. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  282. ^ "CIA World Factbook: Romania". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  283. ^ "Focus-Migration: Romania". focus-migration.hwwi.de (in German). Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  284. ^ MIGRATION AND ASYLUM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE Archived 16 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine European Parliament
  285. ^ "Population on 1 January by age group, sex and country of birth". Eurostat.
  286. ^ "IARNA UCRAINEANĂ – Află care sunt localitățile din Maramureș în care se prăznuiesc sărbătorile de iarnă după rit vechi" [Ukrainian winter: find out in which communes of Maramureș are the Winter holidays celebrated by the old calendar], Infomm.ro, archived from the original on 18 May 2015, retrieved 5 May 2015
  287. ^ "2011 census results by native language" (xls). www.recensamantromania.ro, website of the Romanian Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  288. ^ "Constitutia României". Cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  289. ^ "Two-thirds of working age adults in the EU28 in 2011 state they know a foreign language" (PDF). Eurostat. 26 September 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  290. ^ "Roumanie – Organisation internationale de la Francophonie". francophonie.org. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017.
  291. ^ "EUROPEANS AND THEIR LANGUAGES, REPORT" (PDF). Eurostat. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  292. ^ "2011 census results by religion" (xls). www.recensamantromania.ro, website of the Romanian Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  293. ^ Profiles of the Eastern Churches Archived 29 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine at cnewa.org
  294. ^ European Court of Human Rights – Case of Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia Archived 30 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  295. ^ "Urbanization of Romania: how urban population increased from 3.7 million in 1948 to 12 million in 1989". Businessday.ro. Archived from the original on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  296. ^ "Urban Audit". Urban Audit. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  297. ^ "Proiect – Zona metropolitana Bucuresti". Zmb.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  298. ^ "Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest will be ready in 10 years" (in Romanian). Romania Libera. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  299. ^ "Official site of Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest Project" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  300. ^ "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  301. ^ "Galerie foto: Cum arată noul spital Colţea, după o investiţie de 90 de milioane de dolari" (in Romanian). România Liberă. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  302. ^ The Romanian Educational Policy in Transition (Report). UNESCO. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  303. ^ "Romanian Institute of Statistics Yearbook – Chapter 8" (PDF) (in Romanian). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  304. ^ "Romania Literacy" (in Romanian). indexmundi.com. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  305. ^ Clasa pregătitoare, obligatorie din septembrie. Ce vor învăţa copiii şi cum vor fi evaluaţi – Mediafax Archived 26 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  306. ^ The Romanian Educational Policy in Transition (Report). UNESCO. Archived from the original on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  307. ^ "Limited relevants. What feminists can learn from the eastern experience" (PDF). genderomania.ro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
  308. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2013". topuniversities.com. October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. All four universities are ranked at 700+ which means they are ranked among the 701–800 places.
  309. ^ "IMO team record". Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
  310. ^ "Romania's brains rank first in Europe, 10th in the world after Math Olympiad" (in Romanian). romania-insider.com. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012.
  311. ^ "Romanian students win four medals, two gold, at the European Girls Mathematical Olympiad". business-review.eu. 16 April 2014. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015.
  312. ^ "Romanian students win 32 medals at SEEMOUS International Mathematical Olympiad". AGERPRES. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015.
  313. ^ "Ritli: Ministry of Health budget for 2012 can provide the assistance at least at the level of previous year" Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Mediafax.ro
  314. ^ "Romania, 4th in Europe in TB" Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, România Liberă
  315. ^ "Our patients vs. theirs: How many hospitals has Romania compared to other EU countries", Wall-Street.ro
  316. ^ "Fewer hospital beds for sick Romanians" Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, România Liberă
  317. ^ "Personalul medico-sanitar pe categorii, forme de proprietate, sexe, macroregiuni, regiuni de dezvoltare și județe" Archived 23 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Institutul Național de Statistică
  318. ^ "«De profesie: medic în România». Cum încearcă ministrul Nicolăescu să-i țină pe doctori în țară" Archived 1 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Adevărul, 2 April 2013
  319. ^ "Cultural aspects". National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics, Romania. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  320. ^ "Mihai Eminescu" (in Romanian). National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics, Romania. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  321. ^ Tom Sandqvist, DADA EAST: The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, London MIT Press, 2006.
  322. ^ Ștefănescu, Alex. (1999). Nichita Stănescu, The Angel with a Book in His Hands (in Romanian). Mașina de scris. p. 8. ISBN 978-973-99297-4-5.
  323. ^ "Brancusi's 'Bird in Space' Sets World Auction Record for Sculpture at $27,456,000". Antiques and the Arts Online. Archived from the original on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  324. ^ "November 9, The price record for a Brancusi masterpiece was set up in 2005 when "Bird in Space" was sold for USD 27.5 M". Romanian Information Center in Brussels. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  325. ^ "George Enescu, the composer". International Enescu Society. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  326. ^ "Sounds Like Canada feat. Gheorghe Zamfir". CBC Radio. 17 January 2006. Archived from the original on 28 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  327. ^ "Gheorghe Zamfir, master of the pan pipe". Gheorghe Zamfir, Official Homepage. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  328. ^ "Inna Biography". BBC. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  329. ^ "10 One-Hit Wonders to Be or Not to Be?". vh1.i. 7 March 2014. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.
  330. ^ Arsenie, Dan. "Paula Seling despre rezultatul la Eurovision 2010: "Mai bine de atât nu se putea!"". EVZ.ro. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  331. ^ "MOARTEA DOMNULUI LAZARESCU". Festival de Cannes. Association Française du Festival International du Film. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  332. ^ "Cannes 2007 Winners". Alternative Film Guide. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  333. ^ Mike Collett-White (16 February 2013). "Romanian film "Child's Pose" wins Berlin Golden Bear". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
  334. ^ "World Heritage Site – Romania". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 31 October 2004. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  335. ^ "Report on the Nominations from Luxembourg and Romania for the European Capital of Culture 2007" (PDF). The Selection Panel for the European Capital of Culture (ECOC) 2007. 5 April 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  336. ^ "Muzeul National Peles | Site-ul oficial al castelelor Peles si Pelisor". Peles.ro. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  337. ^ "Castelul Bran". Viaromania.eu. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  338. ^ "Public holidays enacted by labour code" Archived 18 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Labor code, 22 March 2017
  339. ^ Improve It Grup S.R.L. "Traditii si obiceiuri romanesti. Artizanat traditional romanesc. Arta populara". Traditii.ro. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  340. ^ Insider, Romania (21 December 2012). "Winter holidays and Christmas traditions in Romania: the Bear dance, the Masked carolers and the Goat". Romania-Insider.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  341. ^ "ROMANIA – Traditions and Folklore – Official Travel and Tourism Information". Romaniatourism.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  342. ^ "Ministrul Agriculturii: UE accepta ca mieii de Pasti si porcii de Craciun sa fie sacrificati in mod traditional – Actualitate". HotNews.ro. 11 August 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  343. ^ Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans (29 June 2014). "Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans". Foreigners In Uk. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  344. ^ "Christina Bradatan, Cuisine and Cultural Identity in Balkans". Scholarworks.iu.edu. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  345. ^ Recipes, Gourmet European. "Romanian Recipes – like mom used to make". www.gourmet-european-recipes.com-gb. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  346. ^ "28 Romanian Foods The Whole World Should Know – oneJive". onejive.com-US. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  347. ^ "Retete traditionale Moldova: retete peste sau cu carne de porc". Bucataras.ro. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  348. ^ "Bucatarie romaneasca – Cultura si retete – Articole". Gastronomie.ele.ro. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  349. ^ "Țuica production consumed 75% of Romanian plums in 2003". Regard-est.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  350. ^ "Study in Romania". Educations.com. 5 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  351. ^ "Beer consumption per capita in 2008". kirinholdings.co.jp. Retrieved 17 March 2017.[permanent dead link]
  352. ^ "Topul sporturilor în funcție de numărul de sportivi legitimați". zf.ro. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015.
  353. ^ "Romania: FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking". FIFA.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  354. ^ "Hagi leaves Romania post". BBC Sport. 26 November 2001. Archived from the original on 22 January 2003. Retrieved 31 August 2008. Hagi earned a legendary status in Romania where he spearheaded the 'Golden Generation' of players ...
  355. ^ "Hagi snubs Maradona". BBC Sport Online. 6 April 2001. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  356. ^ a b c "Romania". The Europa World Year Book. 2. Routledge. 2007.
  357. ^ Rankings | WTA Tennis English Archived 12 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  358. ^ "Rio 2016 – Tennis: Mergea and Tecau win silver in men's doubles tournament", Agerpres, 13 August 2016, archived from the original on 19 August 2017, retrieved 25 August 2016
  359. ^ a b "What's the most popular sport in Romania?". cesport.eu. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  360. ^ "Cristina Neagu – World Handball Player of the Year 2010". Ihf.info. 13 January 2011. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  361. ^ "Originea jocului de Oina – Sport National Roman". Oina.ro. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  362. ^ "Recurs la ISTORIE: De ce s-a "prăbușit" România la Olimpiada de la Londra?". adevarul.ro. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  363. ^ Herman, Robin (28 March 1976). "Gymnast Posts Perfect Mark". New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.

Sources

Primary sources

Secondary sources

  • Georgescu, Vlad (1991). The Romanians: A History. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-0511-2.
  • Heather, Peter (2010). Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973560-0.
  • Hitchins, Keith (2014). A Concise History of Romania. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-69413-1.
  • Opreanu, Coriolan Horaţiu (2005). "The North-Danube Regions from the Roman Province of Dacia to the Emergence of the Romanian Language (2nd–8th Centuries AD)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan. History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 59–132. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
  • Rustoiu, Aurel (2005). "Dacia before the Romans". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan. History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 31–58. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
  • Pohl, Walter (2013). "National origin narratives in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy". In Geary, Patrick J.; Klaniczay, Gábor. Manufacturing Middle Ages: Entangled History of Medievalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe. BRILL. pp. 13–50. ISBN 978-90-04-24487-0.
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (1999). Romanians and Romania: A Brief History. Boulder. ISBN 978-0-88033-440-2.
  • Price, T. Douglas (2013). Europe Before Rome: A Site-by-Site Tour of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-991470-8.
  • Trócsányi, Zsolt; Miskolczy, Ambrus (1994). "Transylvania under the Habsburg Empire". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit. History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 413–523. ISBN 963-05-6703-2.

External links


Government

Culture and history links