Anthem: "Deșteaptă-te, române!"
("Awaken thee, Romanian!")
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|Chamber of Deputies|
• First Romanian polities
|c. 895 / 1247a|
|24 January 1859|
|9 May 1877/1878c|
|14 March 1881|
|1918 / 1920e|
|27 December 1989|
|238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi) (81st)|
• Water (%)
• 1 January 2020 estimate
• 2011 census
|81.1/km2 (210.0/sq mi) (136th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
|$636.481 billion (36th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
|$289.130 billion (47th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2019)|| 34.8|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.828|
very high · 49th
|Currency||Romanian leu (RON)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
• Summer (DST)
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy (AD)|
|ISO 3166 code||RO|
Romania (// (listen) ro-MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a] (listen)) is a country in Central and Eastern Europe which borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east and the Black Sea to the southeast. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate, and an area of 238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi), with a population of around 19 million. Romania is the twelfth-largest country in Europe, and the sixth-most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest; other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, Brașov, and Galați.
The Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a southeasterly direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).
Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. During World War I, after declaring its neutrality in 1914, Romania fought together with the Allied Powers from 1916. In the aftermath of the war, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania and parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and, consequently, in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war and occupation by the Red Army, Romania became a socialist republic and a member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and a market economy.
Romania is a developing country, with a high-income economy, ranking 49th in the Human Development Index. It has the world's 45th largest economy by nominal GDP. Romania experienced rapid economic growth in the early 2000s; its economy is now based predominantly on services. It is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy through companies such as Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. Romania has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, NATO since 2004, and the European Union since 2007. The majority of Romania's population are ethnic Romanian and Eastern Orthodox Christians, speaking Romanian, a Romance language.
"Romania" derives from Latin romanus, meaning "Roman" or "of Rome". The first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably[a] until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român.[b] Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia.
In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages (including Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Norwegian) have also switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie, German and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania (the archaic form Rumanía is still in use in Spain), Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния (Rumyniya), and Japanese ルーマニア (Rūmania).
- 1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia
- 1862–1866: United Principalities or Romania
- 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania
- 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania
- 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic (RPR) or Romania
- 1965–December 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania (RSR) or Romania
- December 1989–present: Romania
Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase ("Cave with Bones"), radiocarbon date from circa 40,000 years ago, and represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millennium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; here salt production began between the 5th and 4th millennium BC. The first permanent settlements developed into "proto-cities", which were larger than 320 hectares (800 acres). The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd millennium BC. The first fortified settlements appeared around 1800 BC, showing the militant character of Bronze Age societies.
Greek colonies established on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century BC became important centres of commerce with the local tribes. Among the native peoples, Herodotus listed the Getae of the Lower Danube region, the Agathyrsi of Transylvania and the Syginnae of the plains along the river Tisza at the beginning of the 5th century BC. Centuries later, Strabo associated the Getae with the Dacians who dominated the lands along the southern Carpathian Mountains in the 1st century BC. Burebista was the first Dacian ruler to unite the local tribes. He also conquered the Greek colonies in Dobruja and the neighbouring peoples as far as the Middle Danube and the Balkan Mountains between around 55 and 44 BC. After Burebista was murdered in 44 BC, his kingdom collapsed.
The Romans reached Dacia during Burebista's reign and conquered Dobruja in 46 AD. Dacia was again united under Decebalus around 85 AD. He resisted the Romans for decades, but the Roman army defeated his troops in 106 AD. Emperor Trajan transformed Banat, Oltenia and the greater part of Transylvania into a new province called Roman Dacia, but Dacian, Germanic and Sarmatian tribes continued to dominate the lands along the Roman frontiers. The Romans pursued an organised colonisation policy, and the provincials enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity in the 2nd century. Scholars accepting the Daco-Roman continuity theory—one of the main theories about the origin of the Romanians—say that the cohabitation of the native Dacians and the Roman colonists in Roman Dacia was the first phase of the Romanians' ethnogenesis.
The Carpians, Goths and other neighbouring tribes made regular raids against Dacia from the 210s. The Romans could not resist, and Emperor Aurelian ordered the evacuation of the province Dacia Trajana in 271. Scholars supporting the continuity theory are convinced that most Latin-speaking commoners stayed behind when the army and civil administration was withdrawn. The Romans did not abandon their fortresses along the northern banks of the Lower Danube for decades, and Dobruja (known as Scythia Minor) remained an integral part of the Roman Empire until the early 7th century.
The Goths were expanding towards the Lower Danube from the 230s, forcing the native peoples to flee to the Roman Empire or to accept their suzerainty. The Goths' rule ended abruptly when the Huns invaded their territory in 376, causing new waves of migrations. The Huns forced the remnants of the local population into submission, but their empire collapsed in 454. The Gepids took possession of the former Dacia province. The nomadic Avars defeated the Gepids and established a powerful empire around 570. The Bulgars, who also came from the Eurasian steppes, occupied the Lower Danube region in 680.
Place names that are of Slavic origin abound in Romania, indicating that a significant Slavic-speaking population used to live in the territory. The first Slavic groups settled in Moldavia and Wallachia in the 6th century, in Transylvania around 600. After the Avar Khaganate collapsed in the 790s, Bulgaria became the dominant power of the region, occupying lands as far as the river Tisa. The Council of Preslav declared Old Church Slavonic the language of liturgy in the First Bulgarian Tsardom in 893. The Romanians also adopted Old Church Slavonic as their liturgical language.
The Magyars (or Hungarians) took control of the steppes north of the Lower Danube in the 830s, but the Bulgarians and the Pechenegs jointly forced them to abandon this region for the lowlands along the Middle Danube around 894. Centuries later, the Gesta Hungarorum wrote of the invading Magyars' wars against three dukes—Glad, Menumorut and the Vlach Gelou—for Banat, Crișana and Transylvania. The Gesta also listed many peoples—Slavs, Bulgarians, Vlachs, Khazars, and Székelys—inhabiting the same regions. The reliability of the Gesta is debated. Some scholars regard it as a basically accurate account, others describe it as a literary work filled with invented details. The Pechenegs seized the lowlands abandoned by the Hungarians to the east of the Carpathians.
Byzantine missionaries proselytised in the lands east of the Tisa from the 940s and Byzantine troops occupied Dobruja in the 970s. The first king of Hungary, Stephen I, who supported Western European missionaries, defeated the local chieftains and established Roman Catholic bishoprics (office of a bishop) in Transylvania and Banat in the early 11th century. Significant Pecheneg groups fled to the Byzantine Empire in the 1040s; the Oghuz Turks followed them, and the nomadic Cumans became the dominant power of the steppes in the 1060s. Cooperation between the Cumans and the Vlachs against the Byzantine Empire is well documented from the end of the 11th century. Scholars who reject the Daco-Roman continuity theory say that the first Vlach groups left their Balkan homeland for the mountain pastures of the eastern and southern Carpathians in the 11th century, establishing the Romanians' presence in the lands to the north of the Lower Danube.
Exposed to nomadic incursions, Transylvania developed into an important border province of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Székelys—a community of free warriors—settled in central Transylvania around 1100 and moved to the easternmost regions around 1200. Colonists from the Holy Roman Empire—the Transylvanian Saxons' ancestors—came to the province in the 1150s. A high-ranking royal official, styled voivode, ruled the Transylvanian counties from the 1170s, but the Székely and Saxon seats (or districts) were not subject to the voivodes' authority. Royal charters wrote of the "Vlachs' land" in southern Transylvania in the early 13th century, indicating the existence of autonomous Romanian communities. Papal correspondence mentions the activities of Orthodox prelates among the Romanians in Muntenia in the 1230s. Also in the 13th century, during one of its greatest periods of expansion, the Republic of Genoa started establishing many colonies and commercial and military ports on the Black Sea, in the current territory of Romania. The largest Genoese colonies in present-day Romania were Calafat (still known as such), Constanța (Costanza), Galați (Caladda), Giurgiu (San Giorgio), Licostomo and Vicina (unknown modern location). These would last until the 15th century.
The Mongols destroyed large territories during their invasion of Eastern and Central Europe in 1241 and 1242. The Mongols' Golden Horde emerged as the dominant power of Eastern Europe, but Béla IV of Hungary's land grant to the Knights Hospitallers in Oltenia and Muntenia shows that the local Vlach rulers were subject to the king's authority in 1247. Basarab I of Wallachia united the Romanian polities between the southern Carpathians and the Lower Danube in the 1310s. He defeated the Hungarian royal army in the Battle of Posada and secured the independence of Wallachia in 1330. The second Romanian principality, Moldavia, achieved full autonomy during the reign of Bogdan I around 1360. A local dynasty ruled the Despotate of Dobruja in the second half of the 14th century, but the Ottoman Empire took possession of the territory after 1388.
Princes Mircea I and Vlad III of Wallachia, and Stephen III of Moldavia defended their countries' independence against the Ottomans. Most Wallachian and Moldavian princes paid a regular tribute to the Ottoman sultans from 1417 and 1456, respectively. A military commander of Romanian origin, John Hunyadi, organised the defence of the Kingdom of Hungary until his death in 1456. Increasing taxes outraged the Transylvanian peasants, and they rose up in an open rebellion in 1437, but the Hungarian nobles and the heads of the Saxon and Székely communities jointly suppressed their revolt. The formal alliance of the Hungarian, Saxon, and Székely leaders, known as the Union of the Three Nations, became an important element of the self-government of Transylvania. The Orthodox Romanian knezes ("chiefs") were excluded from the Union.
Early Modern Times and national awakening
The Kingdom of Hungary collapsed, and the Ottomans occupied parts of Banat and Crișana in 1541. Transylvania and Maramureș, along with the rest of Banat and Crișana developed into a new state under Ottoman suzerainty, the Principality of Transylvania. Reformation spread and four denominations—Calvinism, Lutheranism, Unitarianism, and Roman Catholicism—were officially acknowledged in 1568. The Romanians' Orthodox faith remained only tolerated, although they made up more than one-third of the population, according to 17th-century estimations.
The princes of Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia joined the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in 1594. The Wallachian prince, Michael the Brave, united the three principalities under his rule in May 1600. The neighboring powers forced him to abdicate in September, but he became a symbol of the unification of the Romanian lands in the 19th century. Although the rulers of the three principalities continued to pay tribute to the Ottomans, the most talented princes—Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, Matei Basarab of Wallachia, and Vasile Lupu of Moldavia—strengthened their autonomy.
The united armies of the Holy League expelled the Ottoman troops from Central Europe between 1684 and 1699, and the Principality of Transylvania was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy. The Habsburgs supported the Catholic clergy and persuaded the Orthodox Romanian prelates to accept the union with the Roman Catholic Church in 1699. The Church Union strengthened the Romanian intellectuals' devotion to their Roman heritage. The Orthodox Church was restored in Transylvania only after Orthodox monks stirred up revolts in 1744 and 1759. The organization of the Transylvanian Military Frontier caused further disturbances, especially among the Székelys in 1764.
Princes Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Constantin Brâncoveanu of Wallachia concluded alliances with the Habsburg Monarchy and Russia against the Ottomans, but they were dethroned in 1711 and 1714, respectively. The sultans lost confidence in the native princes and appointed Orthodox merchants from the Phanar district of Istanbul to rule Moldova and Wallachia. The Phanariot princes pursued oppressive fiscal policies and dissolved the army. The neighboring powers took advantage of the situation: the Habsburg Monarchy annexed the northwestern part of Moldavia, or Bukovina, in 1775, and the Russian Empire seized the eastern half of Moldavia, or Bessarabia, in 1812.
A census revealed that the Romanians were more numerous than any other ethnic group in Transylvania in 1733, but legislation continued to use contemptuous adjectives (such as "tolerated" and "admitted") when referring to them. The Uniate bishop, Inocențiu Micu-Klein who demanded recognition of the Romanians as the fourth privileged nation was forced into exile. Uniate and Orthodox clerics and laymen jointly signed a plea for the Transylvanian Romanians' emancipation in 1791, but the monarch and the local authorities refused to grant their requests.
Independence and monarchy
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca authorised the Russian ambassador in Istanbul to defend the autonomy of Moldavia and Wallachia (known as the Danubian Principalities) in 1774. Taking advantage of the Greek War of Independence, a Wallachian lesser nobleman, Tudor Vladimirescu, stirred up a revolt against the Ottomans in January 1821, but he was murdered in June by Phanariot Greeks. After a new Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Adrianople strengthened the autonomy of the Danubian Principalities in 1829, although it also acknowledged the sultan's right to confirm the election of the princes.
Mihail Kogălniceanu, Nicolae Bălcescu and other leaders of the 1848 revolutions in Moldavia and Wallachia demanded the emancipation of the peasants and the union of the two principalities, but Russian and Ottoman troops crushed their revolt. The Wallachian revolutionists were the first to adopt the blue, yellow and red tricolour as the national flag. In Transylvania, most Romanians supported the imperial government against the Hungarian revolutionaries after the Diet passed a law concerning the union of Transylvania and Hungary. Bishop Andrei Șaguna proposed the unification of the Romanians of the Habsburg Monarchy in a separate duchy, but the central government refused to change the internal borders.
The Treaty of Paris put the Danubian Principalities under the collective guardianship of the Great Powers in 1856. After special assemblies convoked in Moldavia and Wallachia urged the unification of the two principalities, the Great Powers did not prevent the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as their collective domnitor (or ruling prince) in January 1859. The united principalities officially adopted the name Romania on 21 February 1862. Cuza's government carried out a series of reforms, including the secularisation of the property of monasteries and agrarian reform, but a coalition of conservative and radical politicians forced him to abdicate in February 1866.
Cuza's successor, a German prince, Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (or Carol I), was elected in May. The parliament adopted the first constitution of Romania in the same year. The Great Powers acknowledged Romania's full independence at the Congress of Berlin and Carol I was crowned king in 1881. The Congress also granted the Danube Delta and Dobruja to Romania. Although Romanian scholars strove for the unification of all Romanians into a Greater Romania, the government did not openly support their irredentist projects.
The Transylvanian Romanians and Saxons wanted to maintain the separate status of Transylvania in the Habsburg Monarchy, but the Austro-Hungarian Compromise brought about the union of the province with Hungary in 1867. Ethnic Romanian politicians sharply opposed the Hungarian government's attempts to transform Hungary into a national state, especially the laws prescribing the obligatory teaching of Hungarian. Leaders of the Romanian National Party proposed the federalisation of Austria-Hungary and the Romanian intellectuals established a cultural association to promote the use of Romanian.
World Wars and Greater Romania
Fearing Russian expansionism, Romania secretly joined the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in 1883, but public opinion remained hostile to Austria-Hungary. Romania seized Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War in 1913. German and Austrian-Hungarian diplomacy supported Bulgaria during the war, bringing about a rapprochement between Romania and the Triple Entente of France, Russia and the United Kingdom. The country remained neutral when World War I broke out in 1914, but Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu started negotiations with the Entente Powers. After they promised Austrian-Hungarian territories with a majority of ethnic Romanian population to Romania in the Treaty of Bucharest, Romania entered the war against the Central Powers in 1916. The German and Austrian-Hungarian troops defeated the Romanian army and occupied three-quarters of the country by early 1917. After the October Revolution turned Russia from an ally into an enemy, Romania was forced to sign a harsh peace treaty with the Central Powers in May 1918, but the collapse of Russia also enabled the union of Bessarabia with Romania. King Ferdinand again mobilised the Romanian army on behalf of the Entente Powers a day before Germany capitulated on 11 November 1918.
Austria-Hungary quickly disintegrated after the war. The General Congress of Bukovina proclaimed the union of the province with Romania on 28 November 1918, and the Grand National Assembly proclaimed the union of Transylvania, Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with the kingdom on 1 December. Peace treaties with Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary delineated the new borders in 1919 and 1920, but the Soviet Union did not acknowledge the loss of Bessarabia. Romania achieved its greatest territorial extent, expanding from the pre-war 137,000 to 295,000 km2 (53,000 to 114,000 sq mi). A new electoral system granted voting rights to all adult male citizens, and a series of radical agrarian reforms transformed the country into a "nation of small landowners" between 1918 and 1921. Gender equality as a principle was enacted, but women could not vote or be candidates. Calypso Botez established the National Council of Romanian Women to promote feminist ideas. Romania was a multiethnic country, with ethnic minorities making up about 30% of the population, but the new constitution declared it a unitary national state in 1923. Although minorities could establish their own schools, Romanian language, history and geography could only be taught in Romanian.
Agriculture remained the principal sector of economy, but several branches of industry—especially the production of coal, oil, metals, synthetic rubber, explosives and cosmetics—developed during the interwar period. With oil production of 5.8 million tons in 1930, Romania ranked sixth in the world. Two parties, the National Liberal Party and the National Peasants' Party, dominated political life, but the Great Depression in Romania brought about significant changes in the 1930s. The democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and anti-Semitic Iron Guard and the authoritarian tendencies of King Carol II. The King promulgated a new constitution and dissolved the political parties in 1938, replacing the parliamentary system with a royal dictatorship.
The 1938 Munich Agreement convinced King Carol II that France and the United Kingdom could not defend Romanian interests. German preparations for a new war required the regular supply of Romanian oil and agricultural products. The two countries concluded a treaty concerning the coordination of their economic policies in 1939, but the King could not persuade Adolf Hitler to guarantee Romania's frontiers. Romania was forced to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union on 26 June 1940, Northern Transylvania to Hungary on 30 August, and Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria in September. After the territorial losses, the King was forced to abdicate in favour of his minor son, Michael I, on 6 September, and Romania was transformed into a national-legionary state under the leadership of General Ion Antonescu. Antonescu signed the Tripartite Pact of Germany, Italy and Japan on 23 November. The Iron Guard staged a coup against Antonescu, but he crushed the riot with German support and introduced a military dictatorship in early 1941.
Romania entered World War II soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. The country regained Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and the Germans placed Transnistria (the territory between the rivers Dniester and Dnieper) under Romanian administration. Romanian and German troops massacred at least 160,000 local Jews in these territories; more than 105,000 Jews and about 11,000 Gypsies died during their deportation from Bessarabia to Transnistria. Most of the Jewish population of Moldavia, Wallachia, Banat and Southern Transylvania survived, but their fundamental rights were limited. After the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944, about 132,000 Jews – mainly Hungarian-speaking – were deported to extermination camps from Northern Transylvania with the Hungarian authorities' support.
After the Soviet victory in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, Iuliu Maniu, a leader of the opposition to Antonescu, entered into secret negotiations with British diplomats who made it clear that Romania had to seek reconciliation with the Soviet Union. To facilitate the coordination of their activities against Antonescu's regime, the National Liberal and National Peasants' parties established the National Democratic Bloc, which also included the Social Democratic and Communist parties. After a successful Soviet offensive, the young King Michael I ordered Antonescu's arrest and appointed politicians from the National Democratic Bloc to form a new government on 23 August 1944. Romania switched sides during the war, and nearly 250,000 Romanian troops joined the Red Army's military campaign against Hungary and Germany, but Joseph Stalin regarded the country as an occupied territory within the Soviet sphere of influence. Stalin's deputy instructed the King to make the Communists' candidate, Petru Groza, the prime minister in March 1945. The Romanian administration in Northern Transylvania was soon restored, and Groza's government carried out an agrarian reform. In February 1947, the Paris Peace Treaties confirmed the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania, but they also legalised the presence of units of the Red Army in the country.
During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called for new elections in 1946, which they fraudulently won, with a fabricated 70% majority of the vote. Thus, they rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force. Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, a Communist party leader imprisoned in 1933, escaped in 1944 to become Romania's first Communist leader. In February 1947, he and others forced King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country and proclaimed Romania a people's republic. Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were drained continuously by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms) set up for unilateral exploitative purposes.
In 1948, the state began to nationalise private firms and to collectivise agriculture. Until the early 1960s, the government severely curtailed political liberties and vigorously suppressed any dissent with the help of the Securitate—the Romanian secret police. During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges during which numerous "enemies of the state" and "parasite elements" were targeted for different forms of punishment including: deportation, internal exile, internment in forced labour camps and prisons—sometimes for life—as well as extrajudicial killing. Nevertheless, anti-Communist resistance was one of the most long-lasting in the Eastern Bloc. A 2006 Commission estimated the number of direct victims of the Communist repression at two million people.
In 1965, Nicolae Ceaușescu came to power and started to conduct the country's foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union. Thus, Communist Romania was the only Warsaw Pact country which refused to participate in the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. Ceaușescu even publicly condemned the action as "a big mistake, [and] a serious danger to peace in Europe and to the fate of Communism in the world".) It was the only Communist state to maintain diplomatic relations with Israel after 1967's Six-Day War and established diplomatic relations with West Germany the same year. At the same time, close ties with the Arab countries and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel–Egypt and Israel–PLO peace talks.
As Romania's foreign debt increased sharply between 1977 and 1981 (from US$3 billion to $10 billion), the influence of international financial organisations—such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank—grew, gradually conflicting with Ceaușescu's autocratic rule. He eventually initiated a policy of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing austerity steps that impoverished the population and exhausted the economy. The process succeeded in repaying all of Romania's foreign government debt in 1989. At the same time, Ceaușescu greatly extended the authority of the Securitate secret police and imposed a severe cult of personality, which led to a dramatic decrease in the dictator's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and eventual execution, together with his wife, in the violent Romanian Revolution of December 1989 in which thousands were killed or injured. The charges for which they were executed were, among others, genocide by starvation.
After the 1989 revolution, the National Salvation Front (NSF), led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures. In April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of that year's legislative elections and accusing the NSF, including Iliescu, of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate grew rapidly to become what was called the Golaniad. Peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. This episode has been documented widely by both local and foreign media, and is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad.
The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party (PDSR then PSD) and the Democratic Party (PD and subsequently PDL). The former governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments, with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009.
In November 2014, Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt) former FDGR/DFDR mayor Klaus Iohannis was elected president, unexpectedly defeating former Prime Minister Victor Ponta, who had been previously leading in the opinion polls. This surprise victory was attributed by many analysts to the implication of the Romanian diaspora in the voting process, with almost 50% casting ballots for Klaus Iohannis in the first round, compared to only 16% for Ponta. In 2019, Iohannis was re-elected president in a landslide victory over former Prime Minister Viorica Dăncilă.
The post–1989 period is also characterised by the fact that most of the former industrial and economic enterprises which were built and operated during the Communist period were closed, mainly as a result of the policies of privatisation of the post–1989 regimes.
Corruption has also been a major issue in contemporary Romanian politics. In November 2015, massive anti-corruption protests which developed in the wake of the Colectiv nightclub fire led to the resignation of Romania's Prime Minister Victor Ponta. During 2017–2018, in response to measures which were perceived to weaken the fight against corruption, some of the biggest protests since 1989 took place in Romania, with over 500,000 people protesting across the country.
Nevertheless, there have been efforts to tackle corruption. A National Anticorruption Directorate was formed in the country in 2002. In Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, Romania's public sector corruption score deteriorated to 44 out of 100, reversing gains made in previous years.
NATO and EU integration
During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred at times as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe". This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in living standards as the country successfully reduced domestic poverty and established a functional democratic state. However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the late-2000s' recession leading to a large gross domestic product contraction and a budget deficit in 2009. This led to Romania borrowing from the International Monetary Fund. Worsening economic conditions led to unrest and triggered a political crisis in 2012.
Romania still faces problems related to infrastructure, medical services, education, and corruption. Near the end of 2013, The Economist reported Romania again enjoying "booming" economic growth at 4.1% that year, with wages rising fast and a lower unemployment than in Britain. Economic growth accelerated in the midst of government liberalisations in opening up new sectors to competition and investment—most notably, energy and telecoms. In 2016 the Human Development Index ranked Romania as a nation of "Very High Human Development".
Following the experience of economic instability throughout the 1990s, and the implementation of a free travel agreement with the EU, a great number of Romanians emigrated to Western Europe and North America, with particularly large communities in Italy, Germany and Spain. In 2016, the Romanian diaspora was estimated to be over 3.6 million people, the fifth-highest emigrant population in the world.
Geography and climate
Romania is the largest country in Southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe, having an area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi).:17 It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N and longitudes 20° and 30° E. The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills, and plains. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges reaching above 2,000 m or 6,600 ft—the highest is Moldoveanu Peak at 2,544 m or 8,346 ft.:11 They are surrounded by the Moldavian and Transylvanian plateaus, the Carpathian Basin and the Wallachian plains.
Romania is home to six terrestrial ecoregions: Balkan mixed forests, Central European mixed forests, East European forest steppe, Pannonian mixed forests, Carpathian montane conifer forests, and Pontic steppe. Natural and semi-natural ecosystems cover about 47% of the country's land area. There are almost 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) (about 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania covering 13 national parks and three biosphere reserves. The Danube river forms a large part of the border with Serbia and Bulgaria, and flows into the Black Sea, forming the Danube Delta, which is the second-largest and best-preserved delta in Europe, and a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site. At 5,800 km2 (2,200 sq mi), the Danube Delta is the largest continuous marshland in Europe, and supports 1,688 different plant species alone.
Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe, covering almost 27% of its territory. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.95/10, ranking it 90th globally out of 172 countries. Some 3,700 plant species have been identified in the country, from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments, 74 extinct, 39 endangered, 171 vulnerable, and 1,253 rare.
The fauna of Romania consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate, with almost 400 unique species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, including about 50% of Europe's (excluding Russia) brown bears and 20% of its wolves.
Owing to its distance from open sea and its position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north. In summer, average maximum temperatures in Bucharest rise to 28 °C (82 °F), and temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country. In winter, the average maximum temperature is below 2 °C (36 °F). Precipitation is average, with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains, while around Bucharest it drops to approximately 570 mm (22 in).:29 There are some regional differences: in western sections, such as Banat, the climate is milder and has some Mediterranean influences; the eastern part of the country has a more pronounced continental climate. In Dobruja, the Black Sea also exerts an influence over the region's climate.
|Location||July (°C)||July (°F)||January (°C)||January (°F)|
The Constitution of Romania is based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic and was approved in a national referendum on 8 December 1991 and amended in October 2003 to bring it into conformity with EU legislation. The country is governed on the basis of a multi-party democratic system and the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. It is a semi-presidential republic where executive functions are held by both the government and the president. The latter is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two terms of five years and appoints the prime minister who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers. The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (residing at the Palace of the Parliament), consists of two chambers (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) whose members are elected every four years by simple plurality.
The justice system is independent of the other branches of government and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts with the High Court of Cassation and Justice being the supreme court of Romania. There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model, is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. The Constitutional Court (Curtea Constituțională) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations with the constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country and can only be amended through a public referendum. Romania's 2007 entry into the EU has been a significant influence on its domestic policy, and including judicial reforms, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption.
Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union, albeit with limited relations involving the Russian Federation. It joined the NATO on 29 March 2004, the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007, while it joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founding member of the World Trade Organization.
In the past, recent governments have stated that one of their goals is to strengthen ties with and helping other countries (in particular Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia) with the process of integration with the rest of the West. Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Romania also declared its public support for Turkey, and Croatia joining the European Union.
Romania opted on 1 January 2007, to accede to the Schengen Area, and its bid to join was approved by the European Parliament in June 2011, but was rejected by the EU Council in September 2011. As of August 2019, its acceptance into the Schengen Area is hampered because the European Council has misgivings about Romania's adherence to the rule of law, a fundamental principle of EU membership.
In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country. In May 2009, Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA."
Relations with Moldova are a special case given that the two countries share the same language and a common history. A movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule but lost ground in the mid-1990s when a new Moldovan government pursued an agenda towards preserving a Moldovan republic independent of Romania. After the 2009 protests in Moldova and the subsequent removal of Communists from power, relations between the two countries have improved considerably.
The Romanian Armed Forces consist of land, air, and naval forces led by a Commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of National Defence, and by the president as the Supreme Commander during wartime. The Armed Forces consist of approximately 15,000 civilians and 75,000 military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields. Total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP, or approximately US$2.9 billion, with a total of $11 billion spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment.
The Air Force operates modernised Soviet MiG-21 Lancer fighters. The Air Force purchased seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlifters, while the Naval Forces acquired two modernised Type 22 frigates from the British Royal Navy.
Romania contributed troops to the international coalition in Afghanistan beginning in 2002, with a peak deployment of 1,600 troops in 2010 (which was the 4th largest contribution according to the US). Its combat mission in the country concluded in 2014. Romanian troops participated in the occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly drawn down to 350 soldiers. Romania terminated its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on 24 July 2009, among the last countries to do so. The frigate the Regele Ferdinand participated in the 2011 military intervention in Libya.
In December 2011, the Romanian Senate unanimously adopted the draft law ratifying the Romania-United States agreement signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a US land-based ballistic missile defence system in Romania as part of NATO's efforts to build a continental missile shield.
Romania is divided into 41 counties (județe, pronounced judetse) and the municipality of Bucharest. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level. The prefect is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party. Each county is subdivided further into cities and communes, which have their own mayor and local council. There are a total of 320 cities and 2,861 communes in Romania.:17 A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality status, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. The municipality of Bucharest is a special case, as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors:6 and has a prefect, a general mayor (primar), and a general city council.
The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of the European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest. The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. The NUTS-1 (four macroregions) and NUTS-2 (eight development regions) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity and are used instead for coordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.
|Development region||Area (km2)||Population (2011)||Most populous urban centre*|
|Sud – Muntenia||34,489||3,136,446||Ploiești (276,279)|
|București - Ilfov||1,811||2,272,163||Bucharest (2,272,163)|
|Sud-Vest Oltenia||29,212||2,075,642||Craiova (356,544)|
In 2019, Romania has a GDP (PPP) of around $547 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $28,189. According to the World Bank, Romania is a high-income economy. According to Eurostat, Romania's GDP per capita (PPS) was 70% of the EU average (100%) in 2019, an increase from 44% in 2007 (the year of Romania's accession to the EU), making Romania one of the fastest growing economies in the EU.
After 1989 the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onward, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterised by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe. However, a recession following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 forced the government to borrow externally, including an IMF €20 billion bailout program. According to The World Bank, GDP per capita in purchasing power parity grew from $13,687 in 2007 to $28,206 in 2018. Romania's net average monthly wage increased to 666 euro as of 2020, and an inflation rate of −1.1% in 2016. Unemployment in Romania was at 4.3% in August 2018, which is low compared to other EU countries.
Industrial output growth reached 6.5% year-on-year in February 2013, the highest in the Europe. The largest local companies include car maker Automobile Dacia, Petrom, Rompetrol, Ford Romania, Electrica, Romgaz, RCS & RDS and Banca Transilvania. As of 2020, there are around 6000 exports per month. Romania's main exports are: cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Trade is mostly centred on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The account balance in 2012 was estimated to be 4.52% of GDP.
After a series of privatizations and reforms in the late 1990s and 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat less than in other European economies. In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, among the lowest rates in the European Union. The economy is based predominantly on services, which account for 56.2% of the country's total GDP as of 2017, with industry and agriculture accounting for 30% and 4.4% respectively. Approximately 25.8% of the Romanian workforce is employed in agriculture, one of the highest rates in Europe.
Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment following the end of Communism, with the stock of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Romania rising to €83.8 billion in June 2019. Romania's FDI outward stock (an external or foreign business either investing in or purchasing the stock of a local economy) amounted to $745 million in December 2018, the lowest value among the 28 EU member states.
According to a 2019 World Bank report, Romania ranks 52nd out of 190 economies in the ease of doing business, one place higher than neighbouring Hungary and one place lower than Italy. The report praised the consistent enforcement of contracts and access to credit in the country, while noting difficulties in access to electricity and dealing with construction permits.
In January 2020, Romania's external debt was reported to be US$122 billion according to CEIC data.
According to the Romania's National Institute of Statistics (INSSE), Romania's total road network was estimated in 2015 at 86,080 kilometres (53,488 mi). The World Bank estimates the railway network at 22,298 kilometres (13,855 mi) of track, the fourth-largest railroad network in Europe. Romania's rail transport experienced a dramatic decline after 1989 and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004, but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatisation of lines, accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country. Bucharest Metro, the only underground railway system, was opened in 1979 and measures 61.41 km (38.16 mi) with an average ridership in 2007 of 600,000 passengers during the workweek in the country. There are sixteen international commercial airports in service today. Over 12.8 million passengers flew through Bucharest's Henri Coandă International Airport in 2017.
Romania is a net exporter of electrical energy and is 52nd worldwide in terms of consumption of electric energy. Around a third of the produced energy comes from renewable sources, mostly as hydroelectric power. In 2015, the main sources were coal (28%), hydroelectric (30%), nuclear (18%), and hydrocarbons (14%). It has one of the largest refining capacities in Eastern Europe, even though oil and natural gas production has been decreasing for more than a decade. With one of the largest reserves of crude oil and shale gas in Europe it is among the most energy-independent countries in the European Union, and is looking to expand its nuclear power plant at Cernavodă further.
There were almost 18.3 million connections to the Internet in June 2014. According to Bloomberg, in 2013 Romania ranked fifth in the world, and according to The Independent, it ranks number one in Europe at Internet speeds, with Timișoara ranked among the highest in the world.
Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP. The number of tourists has been rising steadily, reaching 9.33 million foreign tourists in 2016, according to the Worldbank. Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005. More than 60% of the foreign visitors in 2007 were from other EU countries. The popular summer attractions of Mamaia and other Black Sea Resorts attracted 1.3 million tourists in 2009.
Most popular skiing resorts are along the Valea Prahovei and in Poiana Brașov. Castles, fortifications, or strongholds as well as preserved medieval Transylvanian cities or towns such as Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Brașov, Bistrița, Mediaș, Cisnădie, or Sighișoara also attract a large number of tourists. Bran Castle, near Brașov, is one of the most famous attractions in Romania, drawing hundreds of thousands of tourists every year as it is often advertised as being Dracula's Castle.
Rural tourism, focusing on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative, and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the painted churches of northern Moldavia, and the wooden churches of Maramureș, or the villages with fortified churches in Transylvania. Other attractions include the Danube Delta or the Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu.
In 2014, Romania had 32,500 companies active in the hotel and restaurant industry, with a total turnover of €2.6 billion. More than 1.9 million foreign tourists visited Romania in 2014, 12% more than in 2013. According to the country's National Statistics Institute, some 77% came from Europe (particularly from Germany, Italy, and France), 12% from Asia, and less than 7% from North America.
Science and technology
Historically, Romanian researchers and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields. In the history of flight, Traian Vuia built the first airplane to take off under its own power and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coandă discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics. Victor Babeș discovered more than 50 types of bacteria; biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin, while Emil Palade received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesise amphetamine, and he also invented the procedure of separating valuable petroleum components with selective solvents.
During the 1990s and 2000s, the development of research was hampered by several factors, including: corruption, low funding, and a considerable brain drain. In recent years, Romania has ranked the lowest or second-lowest in the European Union by research and development spending as a percentage of GDP, standing at roughly 0.5% in 2016 and 2017, substantially below the EU average of just over 2%. The country joined the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2011, and CERN in 2016. In 2018, however, Romania lost its voting rights in the ESA due to a failure to pay €56.8 million in membership contributions to the agency.
In the early 2010s, the situation for science in Romania was characterised as "rapidly improving" albeit from a low base. In January 2011, Parliament passed a law that enforces "strict quality control on universities and introduces tough rules for funding evaluation and peer review".
The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania. In early 2012, Romania launched its first satellite from the Centre Spatial Guyanais in French Guyana. Starting in December 2014, Romania became a co-owner of the International Space Station.
According to the 2011 Romanian census, Romania's population was 20,121,641. Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to decline gradually as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. In October 2011, Romanians made up 88.9% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians, 6.1% of the population, and the Roma, 3.0% of the population.[d] The Roma minority is usually underestimated in census data and may represent up to 10% of the population. Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. Other minorities include Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Lipovans, Aromanians, Tatars, and Serbs. In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans living in Romania, but only about 36,000 remained in the country to this day. As of 2009[update], there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, primarily from Moldova and China.
The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2018 was estimated at 1.36 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest in the world, it remains considerably below the high of 5.82 children born per woman in 1912. In 2014, 31.2% of births were to unmarried women. The birth rate (9.49‰, 2012) is much lower than the mortality rate (11.84‰, 2012), resulting in a shrinking (−0.26% per year, 2012) and aging population (median age: 41.6 years, 2018), one of the oldest populations in the world, with approximately 16.8% of total population aged 65 years and over. The life expectancy in 2015 was estimated at 74.92 years (71.46 years male, 78.59 years female). The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million. After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a significant number of Romanians emigrated to other European countries, North America or Australia. For example, in 1990, 96,919 Romanians permanently settled abroad.
The official language is Romanian, a Romance language (the most widely spoken of the Eastern Romance branch), which presents a consistent degree of similarity to Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian, but shares many features equally with the rest of the Western Romance languages, specifically Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan. The Romanian alphabet contains the same 26 letters of the standard Latin alphabet, as well as five additional ones (namely ă,â,î,ț, and ș), totaling 31.
Romanian is spoken as a first language by approximately 90% of the entire population, while Hungarian and Vlax Romani are spoken by 6.2% and 1.2% of the population, respectively. There are also approximately 50,000 native speakers of Ukrainian (concentrated in some compact regions near the border, where they form local majorities), 25,000 native speakers of German, and 32,000 native speakers of Turkish living in Romania.
According to the Constitution, local councils ensure linguistic rights to all minorities. In localities with ethnic minorities of over 20%, that minority's language can be used in the public administration, justice system, and education. Foreign citizens and stateless persons who live in Romania have access to justice and education in their own language. English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie identified 4,756,100 French speakers in the country. According to the 2012 Eurobarometer, English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, and Italian and German, each by 7%.
Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Other denominations include Protestantism (6.2%), Roman Catholicism (4.3%), and Greek Catholicism (0.8%). From the remaining population, 195,569 people belong to other Christian denominations or have another religion, which includes 64,337 Muslims (mostly of Turkish and Tatar ethnicity) and 3,519 Jewish (Jews once constituted 4% of the Romanian population—728,115 persons in the 1930 census). Moreover, 39,660 people have no religion or are atheist, whilst the religion of the rest is unknown.
The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with other Orthodox churches, with a Patriarch as its leader. It is the fourth-largest Orthodox Church in the world, and unlike other Orthodox churches, it functions within a Latin culture and uses a Romance liturgical language. Its canonical jurisdiction covers the territories of Romania and Moldova. Romania has the world's third-largest Eastern Orthodox population.
Although 54.0% of the population lived in urban areas in 2011, this percentage has been declining since 1996. Counties with over ⅔ urban population are Hunedoara, Brașov and Constanța, while those with less than a third are Dâmbovița (30.06%) and Giurgiu and Teleorman. Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania, with a population of over 1.8 million in 2011. Its larger urban zone has a population of almost 2.2 million, which are planned to be included into a metropolitan area up to 20 times the area of the city proper. Another 19 cities have a population of over 100,000, with Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara of slightly more than 300,000 inhabitants, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov with over 250,000 inhabitants, and Galați and Ploiești with over 200,000 inhabitants. Metropolitan areas have been constituted for most of these cities.
Largest cities in Romania
|10||Oradea||Bihor||196,367||20||Satu Mare||Satu Mare||102,441|
Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has received mixed criticism. In 2004, some 4.4 million individuals were enrolled in school. Of these, 650,000 were in kindergarten (three-six years), 3.11 million in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 in tertiary level (universities). In 2018, the adult literacy rate was 98.8%. Kindergarten is optional between three and five years. Since 2020, compulsory schooling starts at age 5 with the last year of kindergarten (grupa mare) and is compulsory until twelfth grade. Primary and secondary education is divided into 12 or 13 grades. There is also a semi-legal, informal private tutoring system used mostly during secondary school, which prospered during the Communist regime.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, University of Bucharest, and West University of Timișoara have been included in the QS World University Rankings' top 800.
Romania ranks fifth in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 316 total medals, dating back to 1959. Ciprian Manolescu managed to write a perfect paper (42 points) for a gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, in 1995, 1996 and 1997. Romania has achieved the highest team score in the competition, after China, Russia, the United States and Hungary. Romania also ranks sixth in the all-time medal count at the International Olympiad in Informatics with 107 total medals, dating back to 1989.
Romania has a universal health care system; total health expenditures by the government are roughly 5% of GDP. It covers medical examinations, any surgical operations, and any post-operative medical care, and provides free or subsidised medicine for a range of diseases. The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics. The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Transmissible diseases are quite common by European standards. In 2010, Romania had 428 state and 25 private hospitals, with 6.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people, and over 200,000 medical staff, including over 52,000 doctors. As of 2013[update], the emigration rate of doctors was 9%, higher than the European average of 2.5%.
Arts and monuments
The topic of the origin of Romanian culture began to be discussed by the end of the 18th century among the Transylvanian School scholars. Several writers rose to prominence in the 19th century, including: George Coșbuc, Ioan Slavici, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae Bălcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creangă, and Mihai Eminescu, the later being considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceafărul.
In the 20th century, a number of Romanian artists and writers achieved international acclaim, including: Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, Mircea Eliade, Nicolae Grigorescu, Marin Preda, Liviu Rebreanu, Eugène Ionesco, Emil Cioran, and Constantin Brâncuși. Brâncuși has a sculptural ensemble in Târgu Jiu, while his sculpture Bird in Space, was auctioned in 2005 for $27.5 million. Romanian-born Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, while Banat Swabian writer Herta Müller received the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Prominent Romanian painters include: Nicolae Grigorescu, Ștefan Luchian, Ion Andreescu Nicolae Tonitza, and Theodor Aman. Notable Romanian classical composers of the 19th and 20th centuries include: Ciprian Porumbescu, Anton Pann, Eduard Caudella, Mihail Jora, Dinu Lipatti, and especially George Enescu. The annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in honour of the 20th-century composer.
Contemporary musicians like Angela Gheorghiu, Gheorghe Zamfir, Inna, Alexandra Stan, and many others have achieved various levels of international acclaim. At the Eurovision Song Contest Romanian singers achieved third place in 2005 and 2010.
In cinema, several movies of the Romanian New Wave have achieved international acclaim. At the Cannes Film Festival, The Death of Mr. Lazarescu by Cristi Puiu won the Prix Un Certain Regard in 2005, while 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days by Cristian Mungiu won the festival's top prize, the Palme d'Or, in 2007. At the Berlin International Film Festival, Child's Pose by Călin Peter Netzer won the Golden Bear in 2013.
The list of World Heritage Sites includes six cultural sites located within Romania, including eight painted churches of northern Moldavia, eight wooden churches of Maramureș, seven villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Horezu Monastery, and the Historic Centre of Sighișoara. The city of Sibiu, with its Brukenthal National Museum, was selected as the 2007 European Capital of Culture and the 2019 European Region of Gastronomy. Multiple castles exist in Romania, including the popular tourist attractions of Peleș Castle, Corvin Castle, and Bran Castle or "Dracula's Castle".
Holidays, traditions, and cuisine
There are 12 non-working public holidays, including the Great Union Day, celebrated on 1 December in commemoration of the 1918 union of Transylvania with Romania. Winter holidays include the Christmas and New Year festivities during which various unique folklore dances and games are common: plugușorul, sorcova, ursul, and capra. The traditional Romanian dress that otherwise has largely fallen out of use during the 20th century, is a popular ceremonial vestment worn on these festivities, especially in rural areas. There are sacrifices of live pigs during Christmas and lambs during Easter that has required a special exemption from EU law after 2007. In the Easter, traditions such as painting the eggs are very common. On 1 March features mărțișor gifting, which is a tradition that females are gifted with a type of talisman that is given for good luck.
Romanian cuisine has been influenced by Austrian and German cuisine (especially in the historical regions that had been formerly administered by the Habsburg Monarchy), but also shares some similarities with other cuisines in the Balkan region such as the Greek, Bulgarian, or Serbian cuisine. Ciorbă includes a wide range of sour soups, while mititei, mămăligă (similar to polenta), and sarmale are featured commonly in main courses.
Pork, chicken, and beef are the preferred types of meat, but lamb and fish are also quite popular. Certain traditional recipes are made in direct connection with the holidays: chiftele, tobă and tochitura at Christmas; drob, pască and cozonac at Easter and other Romanian holidays. Țuică is a strong plum brandy reaching a 70% alcohol content which is the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, taking as much as 75% of the national crop (Romania is one of the largest plum producers in the world). Traditional alcoholic beverages also include wine, rachiu, palincă and vișinată, but beer consumption has increased dramatically over recent years.
The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. The Romania national football team played its first match in 1922 and is one of only four national teams to have taken part in the first three FIFA World Cups, the other three being Brazil, France, and Belgium. Overall, it has played in seven World Cups and had its most successful period during the 1990s, when it finished 6th at the 1994 FIFA World Cup, eventually being ranked 3rd by FIFA in 1997.
The core player of this golden generation was Gheorghe Hagi, who was nicknamed "Maradona of the Carpathians". Other successful players include the European Golden Shoe winners: Dudu Georgescu, Dorin Mateuț and Rodion Cămătaru, Nicolae Dobrin, Ilie Balaci, Florea Dumitrache, Mihai Mocanu, Michael Klein, Mircea Rednic, Cornel Dinu, Mircea Lucescu, Costică Ștefănescu, Liță Dumitru, Lajos Sătmăreanu, Ștefan Sameș, Ladislau Bölöni, Anghel Iordănescu, Miodrag Belodedici, Helmuth Duckadam, Marius Lăcătuș, Victor Pițurcă and many others, and most recently Gheorghe Popescu, Florin Răducioiu, Dorinel Munteanu, Dan Petrescu, Adrian Mutu, Cristian Chivu, or Cosmin Contra. Romania's home ground is the Arena Națională in Bucharest.
The most successful club is Steaua București, who were the first Eastern European team to win the Champions League in 1986, and were runners-up in 1989. They were also Europa League semi-finalists in 2006. Dinamo București reached the Champions League semi-final in 1984 and the Cup Winners' Cup semi-final in 1990. Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid București, UTA Arad, Universitatea Craiova, Petrolul Ploiești, CFR Cluj, Astra Giurgiu, and Viitorul Constanța.
Tennis is the second most popular sport. Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times in 1969, 1971 and 1972. In singles, Ilie Năstase was the first year-end World Number 1 in the ATP Rankings in 1973, winning several Grand Slam titles. Also Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in 1978, and was runner-up in 1980, Simona Halep won the French Open in 2018 and Wimbledon in 2019 after losing her first three Grand Slam finals. She has ended 2017 and 2018 as WTA's World Number 1. And in doubles Horia Tecău won three Grand Slams and the ATP Finals final. He was World Number 2 in 2015.
The second most popular team sport is handball. The men's team won the handball world championship in 1961, 1964, 1970, 1974 making them the third most successful nation ever in the tournament. The women's team won the world championship in 1962 and have enjoyed more success than their male counterparts in recent years. In the club competition Romanian teams have won the EHF Champions League a total of three times, Steaua București won in 1968 as well as 1977 and Dinamo București won in 1965. The most notable players include Ștefan Birtalan, Vasile Stîngă (all-time top scorer in the national team) and Gheorghe Gruia who was named the best player ever in 1992. In present-day Cristina Neagu is the most notable player and has a record four IHF World Player of the Year awards. In women's handball, powerhouse CSM București lifted the EHF Champions League trophy in 2016.
Popular individual sports include combat sports, martial arts, and swimming. In professional boxing, Romania has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by governing bodies. World champions include Lucian Bute, Leonard Dorin Doroftei, Adrian Diaconu, and Michael Loewe. Another popular combat sport is professional kickboxing, which has produced prominent practitioners including Daniel Ghiță, and Benjamin Adegbuyi.
Romania's 306 all-time Summer Olympics medals would rank 12th most among all countries, while its 89 gold medals would be 14th most. The 1984 Summer Olympics was their most successful run, where they won 53 medals in total, 20 of them gold, ultimately placing 2nd to the hosts United States in the medal rankings. Amongst countries who have never hosted the event themselves, they are second in the total number of medals earned.
Gymnastics is the country's major medal-producing sport, with Olympic and sport icon Nadia Comăneci becoming the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten in an Olympic event at the 1976 Summer Olympics. Other Romanian athletes who collected five gold medals like Comăneci are rowers Elisabeta Lipa (1984–2004) and Georgeta Damian (2000–2008). The Romanian competitors have won gold medals in other Olympic sports: athletics, canoeing, wrestling, shooting, fencing, swimming, weightlifting, boxing, and judo.
- "am scris aceste sfente cărți de învățături, să fie popilor rumânesti ... să înțeleagă toți oamenii cine-s rumâni creștini" "Întrebare creștinească" (1559), Bibliografia românească veche, IV, 1944, p. 6.
"... că văzum cum toate limbile au și înfluresc întru cuvintele slăvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare muncă scoasem de limba jidovească si grecească si srâbească pre limba românească 5 cărți ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru cărți și le dăruim voo frați rumâni și le-au scris în cheltuială multă ... și le-au dăruit voo fraților români, ... și le-au scris voo fraților români" Palia de la Orăștie (1581–1582), București, 1968.
În Țara Ardealului nu lăcuiesc numai unguri, ce și sași peste seamă de mulți și români peste tot locul ..., Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul Țării Moldovei, p. 133–134.
- In his literary testament Ienăchiță Văcărescu writes: "Urmașilor mei Văcărești!/Las vouă moștenire:/Creșterea limbei românești/Ș-a patriei cinstire."
In the "Istoria faptelor lui Mavroghene-Vodă și a răzmeriței din timpul lui pe la 1790" a Pitar Hristache writes: "Încep după-a mea ideie/Cu vreo câteva condeie/Povestea mavroghenească/Dela Țara Românească.
- In 1816, the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published his work The History of Romania in Leipzig, followed by The Geography of Romania.
On the tombstone of Gheorghe Lazăr in Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: "Precum Hristos pe Lazăr din morți a înviat/Așa tu România din somn ai deșteptat."
- 2002 census data, based on population by ethnicity Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, gave a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. Many ethnicities are not recorded, as they do not have ID cards Archived 15 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. International sources give higher figures than the official census (e.g.,  UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank, "International Association for Official Statistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2008.
- "Constitution of Romania". Cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- "Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 – European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "Romanian 2011 census (final results)" (PDF) (in Romanian). INSSE. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "2011 census results by religion" (xls). www.recensamantromania.ro, website of the Romanian Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "Ministers of the Romanian Government". Gov.ro. Government of Romania. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- Elgie, Robert (28 November 2017). Political Leadership: A Pragmatic Institutionalist Approach. Springer. ISBN 9781137346223 – via Google Books.
- Romania Directory. Editura Cronos. 1 April 1990. ISBN 9789739000000 – via Google Books.
- "DECRET-LEGE 2 27/12/1989 - Portal Legislativ". legislatie.just.ro.
- "Populația rezidentă la 1 Ianuarie 2020" [The usually resident population on 1 January 2020] (PDF). Insse.ro (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021 Edition". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- "2020 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- "Romania Geography". aboutromania.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "The Story of the Romanian Royal Family – a Journey into the Past". TravelMakerTours.com. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- Stoleru, Ciprian (13 September 2018). "Romania during the period of neutrality". Europe Centenary. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". datahelpdesk.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
- "Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language, 1998; New Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language, 2002" (in Romanian). Dexonline.ro. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Veress, Andréas. Acta et Epistolae. I. p. 243.
nunc se Romanos vocant
- Cl. Isopescu (1929). "Notizie intorno ai romeni nella letteratura geografica italiana del Cinquecento". Bulletin de la Section Historique. XVI: 1–90.
... si dimandano in lingua loro Romei ... se alcuno dimanda se sano parlare in la lingua valacca, dicono a questo in questo modo: Sti Rominest ? Che vol dire: Sai tu Romano, ...
- Holban, Maria (1983). Călători străini despre Țările Române (in Romanian). II. Ed. Științifică și Enciclopedică. pp. 158–161.
Anzi essi si chiamano romanesci, e vogliono molti che erano mandati quì quei che erano dannati a cavar metalli ...
- Cernovodeanu, Paul (1960). "Voyage fait par moy, Pierre Lescalopier l'an 1574 de Venise a Constantinople, fol 48". Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medievală (in Romanian). IV: 444.
Tout ce pays la Wallachie et Moldavie et la plus part de la Transilvanie a eté peuplé des colonies romaines du temps de Traian l'empereur ... Ceux du pays se disent vrais successeurs des Romains et nomment leur parler romanechte, c'est-à-dire romain ...
- Ion Rotaru, Literatura română veche, "The Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung" Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, București, 1981, pp. 62–65
- Brezeanu, Stelian (1999). Romanitatea Orientală în Evul Mediu. Bucharest: Editura All Educational. pp. 229–246.
- Goina, Călin. "How the State Shaped the Nation: an Essay on the Making of the Romanian Nation" Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine in Regio – Minorities, Politics, Society.
- "Wallachia and Moldavia, 1859–61". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
- See, for example, "Rumania: Remarkable Common Ground" Archived 31 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times (21 December 1989).
- See the Google Ngrams for Romania, Rumania, and Roumania.
- "General principles" (in Romanian). cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- Price 2013, pp. 60–61.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 1–2.
- Price 2013, pp. 125–127.
- Gibbs, Patrick. "Antiquity Vol 79 No 306 December 2005 The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania Olivier Weller & Gheorghe Dumitroaia". Antiquity.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Price 2013, p. 149.
- John Noble Wilford (1 December 2009). "A Lost European Culture, Pulled From Obscurity". The New York Times (30 November 2009). Archived from the original on 23 April 2017.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 2.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 3.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 3.
- Rustoiu 2005, pp. 32, 35–36.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 7.
- Pop 1999, p. 14.
- Pop 1999, pp. 14–15.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 4.
- Pop 1999, p. 15.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 9–10.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 6.
- Opreanu 2005, pp. 68–69, 97–98.
- Pop 1999, pp. 22–23.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 13–14.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 10.
- Pop 1999, pp. 19–20.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 14.
- Opreanu 2005, pp. 105–107.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 8, 10.
- Opreanu 2005, p. 108, 110–111.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 16.
- Heather 2010, pp. 116–117, 165.
- Opreanu 2005, pp. 117–118.
- Heather 2010, p. 151.
- Heather 2010, pp. 151, 207–208.
- Bóna 1994, pp. 66–67.
- Curta 2006, p. 54.
- Curta 2006, pp. 62–63.
- Opreanu 2005, p. 131.
- Heather 2010, pp. 395–397.
- Bóna 1994, pp. 97–99.
- Curta 2006, pp. 168, 177.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 37.
- Curta 2006, pp. 123, 178.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 20.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 14–15.
- Sălăgean 2005, p. 140.
- Pop 1999, p. 36.
- Curta 2006, pp. 15–16 (note 41).
- Sălăgean 2005, pp. 140–141.
- Bóna 1994, p. 111.
- Curta 2006, pp. 182–183.
- Curta 2006, pp. 189–190.
- Sălăgean 2005, p. 152.
- Curta 2006, pp. 248–250.
- Pop 1999, pp. 40–41.
- Curta 2006, pp. 304–305.
- Sălăgean 2005, p. 157.
- Bóna 1994, p. 183.
- Sălăgean 2005, pp. 158–159.
- Bóna 1994, pp. 144–145.
- Pop 1999, p. 43.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 21.
- Pop 1999, pp. 41–43.
- Bóna 1994, p. 189.
- Curta 2006, p. 408.
- Heyd, Guglielmo. Le Colonie Commerciali Degli Italiani in Oriente Nel Medio Evo (in Italian). HardPress Publishing. p. 97.
- Iliescu, Octavian. Revue Roumaine d'Histoire (Contributions à l'histoire des colonies génoises en Roumanie aux XIIIe – XVe siècles). Editions de l'Académie de la République socialiste de Roumanie. pp. 25–52.
- Pop 1999, pp. 43–44.
- Curta 2006, pp. 407, 414.
- Pop 1999, p. 44.
- Pop 1999, p. 45.
- Pop 1999, p. 46.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 17.
- Sălăgean 2005, p. 202.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 26–29.
- Pop 1999, pp. 60–61, 63–66.
- Pop 1999, pp. 61–62.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 30–31.
- Pop 1999, pp. 52–53.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 41.
- Pop 1999, p. 69.
- Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, p. 419.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 71.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 54.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 35.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 55–56.
- Pop 1999, pp. 75–76.
- Pop 1999, p. 79.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 42.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 60.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 61.
- Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, pp. 432–434.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 44–45.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 55–56.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 73–74.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 74–75, 78.
- Pop 1999, p. 92.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 75–76.
- Pop 1999, p. 87.
- Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, pp. 427–428.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 89–90.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 73–74.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 68.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 103–104.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 81.
- Pop 1999, p. 99.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 96–97.
- Pop 1999, p. 100.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 99.
- Pop 1999, p. 108.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 105–106.
- Pop 1999, pp. 109–111.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 109–111.
- Pop 1999, p. 111.
- Pop 1999, p. 112.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 118.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 166.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 157.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 145.
- Pop 1999, pp. 118–119.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 149–150.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 165.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 150.
- Pop 1999, p. 122.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 151.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 169–170.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 155.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 170–171.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 156.
- Pop 1999, pp. 124–125.
- Pop 1999, p. 125.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 189.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 167.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 180.
- Pop 1999, p. 127.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 158, 183.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 183.
- Pop 1999, p. 128.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 179.
- Hitchins & 19201491, p. 179. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHitchins19201491 (help)
- Pop 1999, p. 129.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 167–169.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 167–168.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 174–175.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 207.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 198.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 198–199.
- Pop 1999, pp. 131–132.
- Pop 1999, p. 133.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 213.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 214–215.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 208.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 216–217.
- International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (28 January 2012). "Executive Summary: Historical Findings and Recommendations" (PDF). Final Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania. Yad Vashem (The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 222.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 210.
- Köpeczi 1994, p. 689.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 211–212.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 219.
- Hitchins 2014, p. 215.
- Hitchins 2014, pp. 215, 221.
- Georgescu 1991, pp. 223–224.
- Pop 1999, p. 138.
- Köpeczi 1994, p. 692.
- Georgescu 1991, p. 224.
- Giurescu, "'Alegeri' după model sovietic", p.17 (citing Berry), 18 (citing Berry and note); Macuc, p.40; Tismăneanu, p.113
- "Romania: Country studies – Chapter 1.7.1 "Petru Groza's Premiership"". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Romania". CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Romania – Country Background and Profile". ed-u.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- Rîjnoveanu, Carmen (2003). "Romania's Policy of Autonomy in the Context of the Sino-Soviet Conflict" (PDF). Czech Republic Military History Institute, Militärgeschichtliches Forscheungamt. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- Roper, Stephen D. (2000). Romania: The Unfinished Revolution. London: Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 978-90-5823-027-0.
- Cioroianu, Adrian (2005). On the Shoulders of Marx. An Incursion into the History of Romanian Communism (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Curtea Veche. pp. 68–73. ISBN 978-973-669-175-1.
- Stoica, Stan (2007). Dicționar de Istorie a României (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Merona. pp. 77–78, 233–34. ISBN 978-973-7839-21-3.
- Ionițoiu, Cicerone (2000). Victimele terorii comuniste. Arestați, torturați, întemnițați, uciși. Dicționar (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Mașina de scris. ISBN 978-973-99994-2-7.[page needed]
- Consiliul National pentru Studierea Ahivelor Securității, Bande, bandiți si eroi; Grupurile de rezistență și Securitatea (1948–1968), Editura Enciclopedica, București, 2003
- Raportul Comisiei Prezidențiale pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România (PDF) (Report). Comisia Prezidențială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România. 15 December 2006. pp. 215–217.
- Political Tension 1968 (in Romanian). Bucharest: British Pathé. 21 August 1968. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014.
- "Romania: Soviet Union and Eastern Europe". Country Studies.us. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Middle East policies in Communist Romania". Country Studies.us. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- Deletant, Dennis. "New Evidence on Romania and the Warsaw Pact, 1955–1989" (PDF). Cold War International History Project e-Dossier Series. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 January 2012.
- Carothers, Thomas. "Romania: The Political Background" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
This seven-year period can be characterised as a gradualistic, often ambiguous transition away from communist rule towards democracy.
- Hellman, Joel (January 1998). "Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform in Postcommunist". Transitions World Politics. 50 (2): 203–234. doi:10.1017/S0043887100008091. S2CID 55115094.
- "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- Bohlen, Celestine (15 June 1990). "Evolution in Europe; Romanian miners invade Bucharest". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
Responding to an emergency appeal by President Ion Iliescu, thousands of miners from northern Romania descended on the capital city today
- "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- Presa internationala despre alegerile din Romania: Traian Basescu a castigat la limita; Romanii au mici sperante sa se dezghete ajutorul de la FMI – International Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. HotNews.ro. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- Reguly, Eric (20 May 2014). "In Gold Blood". Newsweek.
- "Romania profile – Leaders – BBC News-GB". Archived from the original on 17 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- France-Presse, Agence (24 November 2019). "Romanian centrist president re-elected by a landslide". The Guardian.
- Popescu, Claudia. "Deindustrialization and Urban Shrinkage in Romania. What Lessons for the Spatial Policy?". Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- Ilie, Luiza (October 2015). "Romania's powerful mayors tumble in corruption crackdown". Reuters.
- "Romania PM Ponta resigns over Bucharest nightclub fire Archived 15 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine". BBC News. 4 November 2015.
- "Huge Romania rally despite decree repeal". BBC News. 6 February 2017.
- Marinas, Radu-Sorin (26 November 2017). "Thousands of Romanians rally against ruling party's judicial overhaul". Reuters.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2019". transparency.org. Transparency International. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
- "NATO update: NATO welcomes seven new members". NATO. Archived from the original on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "EU approves Bulgaria and Romania". BBC News. 26 September 2006. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Adevarul". Adevarul.ro. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Human Development Report 2009 – Country Fact Sheets – Romania Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- Tracking the Millennium Development Goal Archived 26 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. MDG Monitor. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- Joe Parkinson (4 December 2009). "Romania Faces Crucial Vote". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017.
- "Romania and the IMF". IMF. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015.
- Gheorghe Stoica; Lavinia Stan. "Romanian Politics in 2012: Intra-Cabinet Coexistence and Political Instability". South-East European Journal of Political Science. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014.
- "Romania's Infrastructure and International Transport Links". Assessment of the Romanian Economy. Romania Central. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- Romania, world's 53rd country in quality of life index – Denisa Morariu. Denisamorariu.wordpress.com (8 January 2010). Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- Sistemul de invatamant distrus de lipsa reformelor – Cluj Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. citynews.ro. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- D+C 2010/03 – Focus – Roos: In Romania and Bulgaria, civil-society organisations are demanding rule of law – Development and Cooperation – International Journal Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Inwent.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- "Romania is booming". The Economist. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- "Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for Everyone"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- "Report: Romanian diaspora, fifth largest in the world". Romania Insider.
- Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2017 (PDF) (Report). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
- "Romania's Biodiversity". Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection of Romania (via enrin.grida.no). Archived from the original on 10 February 2008.
- "Protected Areas in Romania". Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (via envir.ee). Archived from the original on 17 November 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- "Danube Delta". UNESCO's World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
- "Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere". Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (via envir.ee). Archived from the original on 26 April 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- "Danube Delta". UNESCO's World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- Wohl, Ellen (2010). A World of Rivers: Environmental Change on Ten of the World's Great Rivers. University of Chicago Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-226-90480-1.
- "Romania". Fao.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
- "Flora si fauna salbatica" (in Romanian). enrin.grida.no. Archived from the original on 23 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- "EarthTrends: Biodiversity and Protected Areas – Romania" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- "Bears. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan" (PDF). IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Romania: Climate". U.S. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- "Permafrost Monitoring and Prediction in Southern Carpathians, Romania". CliC International Project Office (CIPO). 22 December 2004. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Meteo Romania | Site-ul Administratiei Nationale de Meteorologie". Archived from the original on 22 January 2016.
- "Klimatafel von Rumänien". Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Verheijen, Tony (14 March 1990). Oxford Scholarship Online: Semi-Presidentialism in Europe. Oxfordscholarship.com. ISBN 9780191599156. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Romania". The Europa World Year Book. 2 (48 ed.). London and New York: Routledge. 2007. pp. 3734–3759. ISBN 978-1-85743-412-5.
- "Se schimbă sistemul de vot. Deputații au adoptat noua Lege Electorală propusă de USL". Antena3.ro. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Presentation". High Court of Cassation and Justice -—Romania. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Romanian Legal system". CIA Factbook. 2000. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
- "Post-Accession (Anti-)Corruption Record in Romania and Bulgaria". Cairn.Info.
- "Understanding the WTO – members". WTO. Archived from the original on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Foreign Policy Priorities of Romania for 2008" (in Romanian). Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- "Romania's Schengen Accession in Jeopardy Over Rule of Law". Schengen Visa Info. 14 May 2019.
- "EU". europarlamentti.info.
- "Background Note: Romania – U.S.-Romanian Relations". U.S. Department of State.
- "Bucharest Herald Resources & Information". www.bucharestherald.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2009.
- Gabriel Andreescu; Valentin Stan; Renate Weber (30 October 1994). "Romania'S Relations with the Republic of Moldova". International Studies. Centre for International Studies. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- Ihrig, Stefan. "Rediscovering History, Rediscovering Ultimate Truth" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- "Moldova, Romania open new chapter in bilateral relations". People's Daily. 29 April 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Press conference" (Press release). Ministry of National Defence of Romania. 21 January 2003. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "MoND Budget as of 2007" (in Romanian). Ziarul Financiar. 30 October 2006. Archived from the original on 22 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- Donald, David. "Romania Finally Settles On Portuguese F-16s". Aviation International News. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016.
- "PICTURES: Romania accepts first C-27J Spartans-12/04/2010-London". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "Spartan Order". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 11 December 2006.
- "Romania: 2 soldiers killed, 1 injured in Afghanistan". Colorado Springs Gazette. Associated Press. 7 May 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Joint Press Conference of the President of Romania Klaus Iohannis and US President Donald Trump, Rose Garden, White House – Embassy of Romania to the United States of America". washington.mae.ro.
- "Romania To Send 450 More Troops To Afghanistan". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 21 December 2014. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Romania ends combat mission in Afghanistan with visit from Prime Minister". Associated Press. 30 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Traian Basescu: Romania va trimite fregata Regele Ferdinand cu 205 militari in Mediterana pentru operatiuni de blocare a oricarei nave suspecte ca transporta armament" (in Romanian). HotNews.ro. 22 March 2011. Archived from the original on 25 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- "Romania ratifies US missile shield agreement". SpaceWar. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
- "Geografia Romaniei" (in Romanian). descopera.net. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- "Hierarchical list of the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics – NUTS and the Statistical regions of Europe". Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "LEGE nr. 151 din 15 iulie 1998" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "2011 Regions Population". INSSE. 4 July 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.[dead link]
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017., IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017
- "GDP per capita in PPS". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- "GDP in 2006" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian National Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- "Romania to Get Next Installment of Bailout". 1 November 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016 – via NYTimes.com.
- "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Romania". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- "Net average wage in Romania slows down to real 4.8% annual rise". Romania Insider. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- "Eurostat, HICP – monthly data (12-month average rate of change)". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- "In January 2017, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was estimated at 5.4%" (PDF) (Press release). National Institute of Statistics. 31 January 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- Industrial production up by 0.4% in euro area and EU27|Eurostat. Eurostat (12 April 2013). Retrieved on 13 May 2013.
- Chirileasa, Andrei (9 June 2014). "Top 20 companies in Romania by turnover". Romania-Insider.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2011 – Central and Eastern Europe". IMF. April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Romania". Index of Economic Freedom. heritage.org. Archived from the original on 5 January 2005. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- Taxation trends in the EU (PDF) (Report). Eurostat. 26 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Romania – share of economic sectors in the gross domestic product 2018". Statista.
- "Farmers in the EU – statistics – Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- "FDI stock in Romania approaches EUR 84 bln". 5 September 2019.
- "Explore Economies". World Bank.
- "Banca Națională a României – "The History of the Romanian Leu" Exhibition". www.bnr.ro. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "Romania and the euro". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "Romania External Debt 2004–2020 Monthly USD mn CEIC Data". ceicdata.com. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "Length of roads in Romania 2015" (PDF). INSSE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Reteaua feroviara" (in Romanian). cfr.to. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- "Metrorex ridership" (in Romanian). Financial Week newspaper. 23 April 2007. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Ann. aero database". Archived from the original on 26 March 2017.
- "Country Comparison-Electricity Consumptiom". cia.gov. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "Planul Național de Acțiune în Domeniul Energiei din Surse Regenerabile (PNAER)" (PDF) (in Romanian). 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Raport Anual 2015 energie" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Lazar, Cornel and Mirela. "Economic Insights – Trends and Challenges Vol.IV(LXVII) No. 4/2015 37 – 44Romanian Oil Industry Decline" (PDF). upg-bulletin-so.ro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "World Shale Resource Assessments". eia.gov. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Ana Hontz-Ward. "Romania Expects to be Energy Independent Despite Ukraine Crisis". Voanews.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Contractul pentru unitățile 3 și 4 de la centrala nucleară Cernavodă se va parafa în mai. Chinezii vor avea 51% din acțiuni – Nicolae Moga (PSD) – Energie – HotNews.ro". Economie.hotnews.ro. 17 January 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Numărul conexiunilor la internet a crescut cu 22,8%. Câte milioane de români au acces la internet". Gândul. 4 December 2014. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "• Chart: Blistering broadband: Europe's fastest downloaders | Statista". www.statista.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017.
- "Top 10: Where to Find the World's Fastest Internet". Bloomberg. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 28 June 2016.
- "Romanian city comes out first in the world in Internet download speed ranking". Net Index. 3 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013.
- "Country/Economy Profiles: Romania, Page 329 Travel&Tourism" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Worldbank Tourism in Romania". worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
- "Tourism attracted in 2005 investments worth €400 million" (in Romanian). Gandul Newspaper. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
- Report from Romanian National Institute of Statistics (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
for the first 9 months of 2007 an increase from the previous year of 8.7% to 16.5 million tourists; of these 94.0% came from European countries and 61.7% from EU
- Criza ne strică vacanța Archived 2 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 9 July 2010, jurnalul.ro, accessed on 21 August 2010
- "Tan and fun at the Black Sea". UnseenRomania. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- "Castelul Bran, marcat de istorie, dar și de legenda lui Dracula atrage anual sute de mii de turiști". www.digi24.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "Turismul renaste la tara" (in Romanian). Romania Libera. 5 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- "Bine ati venit pe site-ul de promovare a pensiunilor agroturistice din Romania !!!" (in Romanian). RuralTourism.ro. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- "Turism in Romania". Turism.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Ansamblul sculptural Constantin Brancusi din Targu Jiu". Romaniaturistica.com. 16 March 1957. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "How important is tourism in Romania's economy?". romania-insider.com. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015.
- "Over 1.9 million tourists visit Romania, where do they come from – Romania Insider". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015.
- "Traian Vuia in a Century of Aviation". Romanian Academy Library. p. 1. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "AUREL VLAICU". www2.rosa.ro. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "Henri Coandă". www2.rosa.ro. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "Victor Babeș, savantul român care a descoperit 50 de noi tipuri de microbi și un vaccin împotriva turbării". adevarul.ro. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Editor (15 January 2019). "Nicolae Paulescu was a Romanian scientist who claimed to have been the first person to discover insuli, which he called pancreine". Diabetes. Retrieved 15 April 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Moore, Elaine A. (10 January 2014). The Amphetamine Debate: The Use of Adderall, Ritalin and Related Drugs for Behavior Modification, Neuroenhancement and Anti-Aging Purposes. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-8012-8.
- "Science in post-communist Romania: The future is not inviting" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "R&D expenditure in the EU remained stable in 2016 at just over 2% of GDP" (Press release). Eurostat. 1 December 2017.
- "Romania, last in the EU on R&D expenditure". Romania Insider. 10 January 2019.
- "Romania accedes to ESA Convention" (Press release). European Space Agency. 20 January 2011.
- "CERN welcomes Romania as its twenty-second Member State" (Press release). CERN. 5 September 2016.
- "Romania loses voting right at European Space Agency due to unpaid debts". Romania Insider. 3 October 2018.
- Abbott, Alison (12 January 2011). "Romania's high hopes for science". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.8.
- Abbott, Alison (12 January 2011). "Science fortunes of Balkan neighbours diverge". Nature. 469 (7329): 142–143. Bibcode:2011Natur.469..142A. doi:10.1038/469142a. PMID 21228844.
- "ELI-NP | Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics". Eli-np.ro. Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "VIDEO Romania's first satellite Goliat successfully launch from Kourou base in French Guyana – Top News". HotNews.ro. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- "Romania will own a part of the International Space Station and will contribute to the development of the latest European rocket, Ariane 6". Romanian Space Agency. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014.
- "European effort spotlights plight of the Roma". usatoday. 10 February 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Roma dream of discrimination-free Romania ahead of Pope visit". France 24. 2 June 2019.
- Official site of the results of the 2002 Census (Report) (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "German Population of Romania, 1930–1948". hungarian-history.hu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- "World Factbook EUROPE : Romania", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World in Data, Gapminder Foundation, archived from the original on 9 February 2019, retrieved 8 May 2019
- "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016.
- Villeret, Graeme. "Roumanie". PopulationData.net. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Romania demographics profile (2011)". Indexmundi.com. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Europe :: Romania — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- "Romania". Germany: focus-migration.de. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- "Focus-Migration: Romania". focus-migration.hwwi.de (in German). Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- MIGRATION AND ASYLUM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE Archived 16 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine European Parliament
- "Romanian Translation | Romanian, Italian, English & French translations". Parolando. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- "Iarna Ucraineană – Află care sunt localitățile din Maramureș în care se prăznuiesc sărbătorile de iarnă după rit vechi" [Ukrainian winter: find out in which communes of Maramureș are the Winter holidays celebrated by the old calendar], Infomm.ro, archived from the original on 18 May 2015, retrieved 5 May 2015
- "2011 census results by native language" (xls). www.recensamantromania.ro, website of the Romanian Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "Constitutia României". Cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Two-thirds of working age adults in the EU28 in 2011 state they know a foreign language" (PDF). Eurostat. 26 September 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Roumanie – Organisation internationale de la Francophonie". francophonie.org. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "EUROPEANS AND THEIR LANGUAGES, REPORT" (PDF). Eurostat. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Orthodox Christianity in the 21st Century". pewforum.org. 8 November 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- Profiles of the Eastern Churches Archived 29 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine at cnewa.org
- "European Court of Human Rights – Case of Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2016.
- "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 10 May 2017.
- "Orthodox Christianity in the 21st Century". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 10 November 2017.
- "Urbanization of Romania: how urban population increased from 3.7 million in 1948 to 12 million in 1989". Businessday.ro. Archived from the original on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2012.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Urban Audit". Urban Audit. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Proiect – Zona metropolitana Bucuresti". Zmb.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest will be ready in 10 years" (in Romanian). Romania Libera. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Official site of Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest Project" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- "Galerie foto: Cum arată noul spital Colţea, după o investiţie de 90 de milioane de dolari" (in Romanian). România Liberă. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- The Romanian Educational Policy in Transition (Report). UNESCO. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Romanian Institute of Statistics Yearbook – Chapter 8" (PDF) (in Romanian). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Romania Literacy" (in Romanian). indexmundi.com. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "14 ani de școală obligatoriu începând din toamnă! Reguli pentru înscrierea la clasa pregătitoare". BitTV.Info (in Romanian). 4 July 2020. Archived from the original on 12 October 2020.
- "Ministrul Educației: Grupa mare la grădiniță devine obligatorie. Altminteri nu mai poți fi înscris la pregătitoare". EduPedu (in Romanian). 10 May 2020. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020.
- "Limited relevants. What feminists can learn from the eastern experience" (PDF). genderomania.ro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- "QS World University Rankings 2013". topuniversities.com. October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. All four universities are ranked at 700+ which means they are ranked among the 701–800 places.
- "IMO team record". Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
- "Romania's brains rank first in Europe, 10th in the world after Math Olympiad" (in Romanian). romania-insider.com. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012.
- "Romanian students win four medals, two gold, at the European Girls Mathematical Olympiad". business-review.eu. 16 April 2014. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015.
- "Romanian students win 32 medals at SEEMOUS International Mathematical Olympiad". AGERPRES. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015.
- "Ritli: Ministry of Health budget for 2012 can provide the assistance at least at the level of previous year" Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Mediafax.ro
- "Romania, 4th in Europe in TB" Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, România Liberă
- "Our patients vs. theirs: How many hospitals has Romania compared to other EU countries", Wall-Street.ro
- "Fewer hospital beds for sick Romanians" Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, România Liberă
- "Personalul medico-sanitar pe categorii, forme de proprietate, sexe, macroregiuni, regiuni de dezvoltare și județe" Archived 23 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Institutul Național de Statistică
- ""De profesie: medic în România". Cum încearcă ministrul Nicolăescu să-i țină pe doctori în țară" Archived 1 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Adevărul, 2 April 2013
- "Cultural aspects". National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics, Romania. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- "Mihai Eminescu" (in Romanian). National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics, Romania. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- Tom Sandqvist, DADA EAST: The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, London MIT Press, 2006.
- Ștefănescu, Alex. (1999). Nichita Stănescu, The Angel with a Book in His Hands (in Romanian). Mașina de scris. p. 8. ISBN 978-973-99297-4-5.
- "Brancusi's 'Bird in Space' Sets World Auction Record for Sculpture at $27,456,000". Antiques and the Arts Online. Archived from the original on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- "November 9, The price record for a Brancusi masterpiece was set up in 2005 when "Bird in Space" was sold for USD 27.5 M". Romanian Information Center in Brussels. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "George Enescu, the composer". International Enescu Society. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- "Sounds Like Canada feat. Gheorghe Zamfir". CBC Radio. 17 January 2006. Archived from the original on 28 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Gheorghe Zamfir, master of the pan pipe". Gheorghe Zamfir, Official Homepage. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- "Inna Biography". BBC. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "10 One-Hit Wonders to Be or Not to Be?". vh1.i. 7 March 2014. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.
- Arsenie, Dan. "Paula Seling despre rezultatul la Eurovision 2010: "Mai bine de atât nu se putea!"". EVZ.ro. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Moartea Domnului Lazarescu". Festival de Cannes. Association Française du Festival International du Film. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- "Cannes 2007 Winners". Alternative Film Guide. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- Mike Collett-White (16 February 2013). "Romanian film "Child's Pose" wins Berlin Golden Bear". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- "World Heritage Site – Romania". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 31 October 2004. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
- "Report on the Nominations from Luxembourg and Romania for the European Capital of Culture 2007" (PDF). The Selection Panel for the European Capital of Culture (ECOC) 2007. 5 April 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Sibiu 2019". europeanregionofgastronomy.org. International Institute of Gastronomy, Culture, Arts and Tourism. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
- "Muzeul National Peles | Site-ul oficial al castelelor Peles si Pelisor". Peles.ro. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Castelul Bran". Viaromania.eu. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Public holidays enacted by labour code" Archived 18 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Labor code, 22 March 2017
- Improve It Grup S.R.L. "Traditii si obiceiuri romanesti. Artizanat traditional romanesc. Arta populara". Traditii.ro. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- Insider, Romania (21 December 2012). "Winter holidays and Christmas traditions in Romania: the Bear dance, the Masked carolers and the Goat". Romania-Insider.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "ROMANIA – Traditions and Folklore – Official Travel and Tourism Information". Romaniatourism.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Ministrul Agriculturii: UE accepta ca mieii de Pasti si porcii de Craciun sa fie sacrificati in mod traditional – Actualitate". HotNews.ro. 11 August 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans (29 June 2014). "Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans". Foreigners in Uk. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Christina Bradatan, Cuisine and Cultural Identity in Balkans". Scholarworks.iu.edu. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Recipes, Gourmet European. "Romanian Recipes – like mom used to make". www.gourmet-european-recipes.com-gb. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- "28 Romanian Foods The Whole World Should Know – oneJive". onejive.com-US. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- "Retete traditionale Moldova: retete peste sau cu carne de porc". Bucataras.ro. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Bucatarie romaneasca – Cultura si retete – Articole". Gastronomie.ele.ro. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Țuica production consumed 75% of Romanian plums in 2003". Regard-est.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Study in Romania". Educations.com. 5 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Beer consumption per capita in 2008". kirinholdings.co.jp. Retrieved 17 March 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Football's impact in the Romanian economy reaches EUR 740 million annually, FRF estimates show". 28 August 2018.
- "The FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking – Associations – Romania – Men's". FIFA.com.
- Scragg, Steven (24 August 2017). "Gheorghe Hagi: the Maradona of the Carpathians". Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "Nicolae Dobrin: Romania's true greatest ever player". The Versed. 1 August 2017.
- "Romania mourns Ilie Balaci". UEFA.com.
- "European Footballer of the Year ("Ballon d'Or") 1970". www.rsssf.com.
- "Adio, Mihai Mocanu! | Liga 2". liga2.prosport.ro.
- "Echipa de vis all-time a Romaniei". Ziare.com.
- "Video Un Rio Formidabil: Mircea Lucescu, atacant dreapta în echipa de vis". Stiriletvr.ro. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Former Romania captain Costica Stefanescu dies aged 62". Associated Press. 21 August 2013 – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Concluzia dura a unei legende de la Steaua: Totul e un dezastru! – Interviu". Ziare.com.
- "EXCLUSIV | "Angelo Niculescu mi-a zis că nu mă bagă pentru că sunt maghiar şi Partidul crede că vând meciul. Sper să nu prind ziua când ne vor bate iar"". Telekomsport.ro.
- "Ne-a părăsit Ştefan Sameş, fostul mare fundaş al Stelei". jurnalul.antena3.ro.
- "L'Equipe: Nicolae Dobrin, cel mai valoros jucător român din istorie. Cine sunt următorii în Top 5". www.digi24.ro.
- "La multi ani Anghel Iordanescu!". www.revistavip.net.
- Wilson, Jonathan (17 May 2011). "Miodrag Belodedici: the fugitive libero who conquered Europe twice | Jonathan Wilson" – via www.theguardian.com.
- House, Future Publishing Limited Quay; Ambury, The; Engl, Bath BA1 1UA All rights reserved; number 2008885, Wales company registration (19 February 2019). "What happened to Helmuth Duckadam? "I saved four penalties to win the European Cup... but it was my last ever game"". FourFourTwo.
- "Victor Pițurcă. Amintiri târzii cu 'Gerd Muller al României' – Fanatik.ro". 8 May 2018.
- "Barca ex-captain Popescu turns 51". Tribuna.com.
- "Florin Răducioiu returns to AC Milan". 24 December 2018. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020.
- "Kicker: "Nemuritorul" Dorinel Munteanu | Romania Libera". romanialibera.ro.
- "Petrescu set to reject Crystal Palace". fourfourtwo.com. 19 November 2013.
- "Roménia na máxima força". UEFA.com.
- [Champions League: Once feared across Europe, Chelsea opponents Steaua Bucharest went the way of the Wall]
- "Middlesbrough seek UEFA Cup cure – UEFA.com". www.uefa.com. 24 April 2006.
- "Cum putea Dinamo domina Europa, în viziunea lui Lucescu! Ce strategie ar trebui să aplice!". ProSport. 10 March 2011.
- "Bucharest back to 1980s best". UEFA.com.
- Ciprian, Boitiu (17 April 2019). "Arad: "Bătrâna Doamnă", UTA Arad, împlinește, joi, 74 de ani. Lansare de carte și o inedită expoziție. Care este povestea "Campioanei Provinciei"".[permanent dead link]
- "Video Istoria unei legende". Stiriletvr.ro.
- "FC Petrolul – UTA Arad/Duelul celor zece titluri! – FC Petrolul Ploiești". fcpetrolul.ro.
- "Man Utd 0–1 CFR Cluj". BBC Sport. 5 December 2012.
- "EL: Roma and Astra Giurgiu celebrate | Football Italia". www.football-italia.net.
- "Viitorul confirmed as Romanian champions after row over rules". Eurosport. 13 July 2017.
- "Studiu IRES: Fotbalul, cel mai iubit sport in Romania; Simona Halep, locul patru in clasamentul celor mai mari sportivi romani ai tuturor timpurilor – Fotbal – HotNews.ro". sport.hotnews.ro. 13 June 2014.
- "Davis Cup – Teams". www.daviscup.com.
- "Horia Tecau", atptour.com, retrieved 20 July 2019
- "Handball World Mourns the Loss of Icon, Friend & Teacher". archive.ihf.info. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- "Neagu and Hansen named 2018 World Players of the Year | IHF". www.ihf.info. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019.
- "Women's handball: CSM Bucharest wins Champions League trophy!".
- "Jo Jo Dan le poate calca pe urme lui Leu, Doroftei, Bute si Diaconu saptamana viitoare: "Sunt crescut in Rahova, asta spune tot"". Sport.ro.
- "Ghita vs. Verhoeven: Kickboxing's top heavyweights go to war on Twitter". Bloodyelbow.com. 20 May 2014.
- "Adegbuyi: 'I'll show Wilnis why I'm ranked #1 at Heavyweight'". Fight Site.
- "Romanian Results and Medals in the Olympic Games". www.olympiandatabase.com.
- "Tokyo 2020 >> Romaniangymnastics.ro". www.romaniangymnastics.ro. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Armour, Nancy. "40 years after perfect 10, gymnast Nadia Comaneci remains an Olympic icon". USA Today.
- "Romania at the Olympic Games". www.topendsports.com.
- "Analysis. What to expect from Romania at Rio 2016 Olympic Games". Business Review (in Romanian). 26 July 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Bóna, István (1994). "From Dacia to Transylvania: The Period of the Great Migrations (271–895); The Hungarian–Slav Period (895–1172)". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit (eds.). History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 62–177. ISBN 963-05-6703-2.
- Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge University Press.
- Georgescu, Vlad (1991). The Romanians: A History. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-0511-2.
- Heather, Peter (2010). Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973560-0.
- Hitchins, Keith (2014). A Concise History of Romania. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-69413-1. excerpt
- Hitchins, Keith. Rumania 1866-1947 (1994) (Oxford History of Modern Europe) excerpt
- Köpeczi, Béla (1994). "Transylvania under the Habsburg Empire". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit (eds.). History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 663–692. ISBN 963-05-6703-2.
- Opreanu, Coriolan Horațiu (2005). "The North-Danube Regions from the Roman Province of Dacia to the Emergence of the Romanian Language (2nd–8th Centuries AD)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan (eds.). History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 59–132. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
- Pohl, Walter (2013). "National origin narratives in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy". In Geary, Patrick J.; Klaniczay, Gábor (eds.). Manufacturing Middle Ages: Entangled History of Medievalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe. BRILL. pp. 13–50. ISBN 978-90-04-24487-0.
- Pop, Ioan-Aurel (1999). Romanians and Romania: A Brief History. Boulder. ISBN 978-0-88033-440-2.
- Price, T. Douglas (2013). Europe Before Rome: A Site-by-Site Tour of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-991470-8.
- Rustoiu, Aurel (2005). "Dacia before the Romans". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan (eds.). History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 31–58. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
- Sălăgean, Tudor (2005). "Romanian Society in the Early Middle Ages (9th–14th Centuries AD)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan (eds.). History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 133–207. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
- Stavrianos, L.S. The Balkans Since 1453 (1958), major scholarly history; online free to borrow
- Trócsányi, Zsolt; Miskolczy, Ambrus (1994). "Transylvania under the Habsburg Empire". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit (eds.). History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 413–523. ISBN 963-05-6703-2.
- Country Profile from BBC News.
- Romania Article and Country Profile from Encyclopædia Britannica
- Romania Profile from Balkan Insight.
- România Un Secol de Istorie – statistical data from INS
- Romania. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.