|Book||Epistle to the Romans|
|Christian Bible part||New Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||6|
Romans 4 is the fourth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It is authored by Paul the Apostle, while he was in Corinth in the mid 50s AD, with the help of an amanuensis (secretary), Tertius, who adds his own greeting in Romans 16:22. The focus of this chapter is on Abraham, whose faith "was accounted (or imputed) to him for righteousness". The Geneva Bible's chapter summary states that "ten times in the chapter [Paul] beateth upon this word, Imputation.
Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are:
- Papyrus 40 (~AD 250; extant verses 1–8)
- Codex Vaticanus (325–350)
- Codex Sinaiticus (330–360)
- Codex Alexandrinus (400–440)
- Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (~450; complete)
Old Testament references
- Romans 4:3: Genesis 15:6
- Romans 4:7–8: Psalm 32:1–2
- Romans 4:17: Genesis 17:5
- Romans 4:18: Genesis 15:5
- Romans 4:22: Genesis 15:6
For what does the Scripture say? Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.
Heinrich Meyer explains that the citation from Genesis 15:6 ("he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness") is quoted according to the Septuagint (LXX), which renders the active Hebrew: וְיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ ( ; "and he counted it") by the passive Greek: και ελογισθη ( , "and it was accounted"). Paul quotes the same verse in the same way in Galatians 3:6. Meyer also disputes the charge from the Protestant theologian Leopold Immanuel Rückert that Paul "made an unwarrantable use of the passage for his purpose", because here Paul definitely understood δικαιοσύνη ( , "righteousness") 'in the dogmatic sense', justifiable in doing so, since 'the imputation of faith as צְדָקָה ( , "for righteousness") was essentially the same judicial act which takes place at the justification of Christians'.
- Related Bible parts: Genesis 12, Genesis 15, Genesis 17, Genesis 22, Psalm 32, Isaiah 53, Galatians 3, Hebrews 11
- Hill 2007, p. 1084.
- Donaldson, Terence L. (2007). "63. Introduction to the Pauline Corpus". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John (eds.). The Oxford Bible Commentary (first (paperback) ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 1077. ISBN 978-0199277186.
- Romans 4:3
- Geneva Bible, Romans 4, Introduction
- Kirkpatrick, A. F. (1901). The Book of Psalms: with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Book IV and V: Psalms XC-CL. Cambridge: At the University Press. p. 838. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- Romans 4:3 NKJV
- Genesis 15:6 Mechon-Mamre version
- Hebrew Text Analysis: Genesis 15:6. Biblehub
- Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm (1880). Commentary on the New Testament. Romans 4. Translation by Peter Christie from Meyer's sixth edition. Accessed February 14, 2019.
- Rückert, L. I., Commentary on Romans, 1831, referred to by Meyer in his NT Commentary on Romans 4, accessed 10 September 2016
- Greek Text Analysis: Romans 4:3. Biblehub
- Coogan, Michael David (2007). Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann; Perkins, Pheme (eds.). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version, Issue 48 (Augmented 3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288810.
- Hill, Craig C. (2007). "64. Romans". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John (eds.). The Oxford Bible Commentary (first (paperback) ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 1083–1108. ISBN 978-0199277186. Retrieved February 6, 2019.