|United States Senator|
February 23, 1841 – March 4, 1845
|Preceded by||Daniel Webster|
|Succeeded by||Daniel Webster|
|Member of the |
U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 2nd district
March 4, 1831 – June 30, 1834
|Preceded by||Benjamin W. Crowninshield|
|Succeeded by||Stephen C. Phillips|
|10th Massachusetts Attorney General|
|Governor||John H. Clifford|
|Preceded by||John H. Clifford|
|Succeeded by||John H. Clifford|
|Member of the Massachusetts Senate|
|Member of the |
Massachusetts House of Representatives
|Born||October 1, 1799|
Ipswich, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Died||July 13, 1859 (aged 59)|
Halifax, British Canada
|Alma mater||Dartmouth College|
Rufus Choate was born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, the son of Miriam (Foster) and David Choate, a teacher and Revolutionary War veteran. He was a descendant of an English family which settled in Massachusetts in 1643. His first cousin, physician George Choate, was the father of George C. S. Choate and Joseph Hodges Choate. Rufus Choate's birthplace, Choate House, remains virtually unchanged to this day.
A precocious child, at six he is said to have been able to repeat large parts of the Bible and of Pilgrim's Progress from memory. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and graduated as valedictorian of his class at Dartmouth College in 1819, was a tutor there in 1819–1820.
In the fall of 1820 he was entered at the Dane Law School in Cambridge, under the instruction of Chief Justice Parker and Professor Asahel Stearns. In the following year Choate studied in Washington, D.C. in the office of William Wirt, then Attorney General of the United States.
He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1823 and practiced at what was later South Danvers (now Peabody) for five years, during which time he served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1825–1826) and in the Massachusetts Senate (1827).
In 1828, he moved to Salem, where his successful conduct of several important lawsuits brought him prominently into public notice. In 1830 he was elected to Congress as a Whig from Salem, defeating the Jacksonian candidate for re-election, Benjamin Crowninshield, a former United States Secretary of the Navy, and in 1832 he was re-elected. His career in Congress was marked by a speech in defence of a protective tariff.
In 1834, before the completion of his second term, he resigned and established himself in the practice of law in Boston. Already his reputation as a speaker had spread beyond New England, and he was much sought after as an orator for public occasions. For several years, he devoted himself unremittingly to his profession but, in 1841, succeeded fellow Dartmouth graduate Daniel Webster in the United States Senate. Shortly afterwards he delivered an address at the memorial services for President William Henry Harrison at Faneuil Hall.
In the Senate, he spoke on the tariff, the Oregon boundary, in favor of the Fiscal Bank Act, and in opposition to the annexation of Texas. On Webster's re-election to the Senate in 1845, Choate resumed his law practice. He later served a short term as attorney-general of Massachusetts in 1853–1854. In 1846, Choate convinced a jury that the accused, Albert Tirrell, did not cut the throat of his lover, or, if he did so, he did it while sleepwalking, under the 'insanity of sleep'. His successful use of sleepwalking as a defense against murder charges was the first time in American legal history this defense was successful in a murder prosecution. He was a faithful supporter of Webster's policy as declared in the latter's Seventh of March Speech of 1850 and labored to secure for him the presidential nomination at the Whig National Convention in 1852. In 1853, he was a member of the state constitutional convention.
In 1856, he refused to follow most of his former Whig associates into the Republican Party and gave his support to Democrat James Buchanan, whom he considered the representative of a national instead of a sectional party.
With his wife Helen Olcott, whom he married on March 29, 1825, Choate had seven children: Catherine Bell (1826-1830), an infant child (1828-1828), Helen Olcott (1830-1918), Sarah (1831-1875), Rufus (1834-1866), Miriam Foster (1835-??), and Caroline (1837-1840).
Choate's private library contained seven thousand books with three thousand volumes in his law library. His childhood home is preserved by the Trustees of Reservations on the Crane Wildlife Refuge. A statue of him stands in the Suffolk County Courthouse in Boston.
- Works — edited, with a memoir, by S. G. Brown, and published in two volumes at Boston in 1862
- Memoir — published in 1870
- EG Parker's Reminiscences of Rufus Choate (New York, 1860)
- EP Whipple's Some Recollections of Rufus Choate (New York, 1879)
- Albany Law Review of 1877–1878
- Claude Fuess' Rufus Choate, The Wizard of the Law (1928)
- The Political Writings of Rufus Choate (2003)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.
- Jameson, Ephraim Orcutt. The Choates in America. 1643–1896. John Choate and His Descendants. Chebacco, Ipswich, Mass. Boston: A. Mudge & Son, printers, 1896.
- Dartmouth to honor two valedictorians, Dartmouth Press Release, June 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
- Cogswell, J. B. D. (John Bear Doane), 1829-1889 (1884). Memoir of Rufus Choate. The Library of Congress: Cambridge : J. Wilson.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- State Street Trust Company. Forty of Boston's historic houses. 1912.
- "Maria Bickford". Brown University Law Library. Archived from the original on November 21, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
- Kappman (ed), Edward W. (1994). Great American Trials. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press. pp. 101–104. ISBN 0-8103-9134-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Historic Ipswich (February 18, 2019). "Choate Island and Rufus Choate". Historic Ipswich. Historic Ipswich. Archived from the original on December 6, 2020. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Rufus Choate|
- United States Congress. "Rufus Choate (id: C000375)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Reminiscences of Rufus Choate by Edward Parker, published 1860.
- The Works of Rufus Choate: With a Memoir of His Life by Samuel Gilman Brown, published 1862.
- Memories of Rufus Choate by Joseph Neilson, published 1884.