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The Rukun Negara or (formerly Rukunegara; Malay for 'National Principles') is the Malaysian declaration of national philosophy instituted by royal proclamation on Merdeka Day, 1970, in reaction to a serious race riot known as the 13 May Incident, which occurred in 1969. The incident proved at that time that Malaysian racial balance and stability was fragile. Immediately thereafter, the Malaysian government sought ways to foster unity among the various races in Malaysia. One of the methods used to encourage unity is the Rukun Negara.
The word Rukun Negara can refer to the whole declaration, the words after the preamble (beginning Maka kami...) or the five principles alone.
The formulation of the principles of the Rukun Negara was the efforts of the National Consultative Council (Majlis Perundingan Negara or MAPEN), headed by Tun Abdul Razak. The aim of the Rukun Negara is to create harmony and unity among the various races in Malaysia. Thereafter, the New Economic Policy (1971-1990) was launched in 1971, the aim was to create unity among the various races in Malaysia, through economic equality, via the reduction of the economic gap among the Malays and Bumiputera, with that of the Chinese and Indian communities in Malaysia.
Rukun Negara text
WHEREAS OUR COUNTRY, MALAYSIA nurtures the ambitions of:
WE, the citizens of Malaysia, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:
BAHAWASANYA NEGARA KITA MALAYSIA mendukung cita-cita hendak:
MAKA KAMI, rakyat Malaysia, berikrar akan menumpukan seluruh tenaga dan usaha kami untuk mencapai cita-cita tersebut berdasarkan atas prinsip-prinsip yang berikut:
எமது நாடு, மலேசியாவின் குறிக்கோள்களை வளர்க்கிறது:
மலேசியாவின் குடிவரவு, இந்த கோட்பாடுகளால் வழிநடத்தப்படும் இந்த முனைப்புகளை அடைவதற்கு நமது ஐக்கியப்பட்ட முயற்சிகளை உறுதியளிக்கிறோம்:
It is a norm for primary and secondary public schools in Malaysia to recite the pledge weekly during a compulsory assembly. Pledge reading follows immediately after the singing of the Malaysian national anthem, Negaraku. Of some interest, the Rukun Negara could usually be found behind the cover of every exercise book that is typically used by primary and secondary Malaysian public school students. This is primarily a move recognised to have been formulated to emulate the similar tactic introduced by the Singapore government immediately after its expulsion from the Malaysian federation in 1965.
On 8 December 2005, the Malaysian government has made reading of the pledge compulsory at official functions. The announcement was made a few months after the government made singing of the national anthem as compulsory at every official function.
- Jeong, Chun Hai, 1973- (2007). Principles of public administration : an introduction. Nor Fadzlina Nawi. Shah Alam, Selangor: Karisma Publications. ISBN 978-983-195-253-5. OCLC 298421717.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Rukun Negara bukan sekadar di kulit belakang buku - KSU KPM". Berita Harian. 19 July 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim & Nor Fadzlina Nawi. (2012). Principles of Public Administration: Malaysian Perspectives. Kuala Lumpur: Pearson. ISBN 978-967-349-233-6
- Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim. (2007). Fundamental of Development Administration. Selangor: Scholar Press. ISBN 978-967-5-04508-0