Saltora (community development block)

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Saltora
Community development block
Saltora is located in West Bengal
Saltora
Saltora
Location in West Bengal, India
Saltora is located in India
Saltora
Saltora
Saltora (India)
Coordinates: 23°32′00″N 86°56′00″E / 23.5333°N 86.9333°E / 23.5333; 86.9333Coordinates: 23°32′00″N 86°56′00″E / 23.5333°N 86.9333°E / 23.5333; 86.9333
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictBankura
Government
 • TypeRepresentative democracy
Area
 • Total312.62 km2 (120.70 sq mi)
Elevation
128 m (420 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total135,980
 • Density430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, Santali, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
722 158 (Saltora)
722 153 (Tiluri)
Telephone/STD code03241
ISO 3166 codeIN-WB
Vehicle registrationWB-67, WB-68
Literacy61.45%
Lok Sabha constituencyBankura
Vidhan Sabha constituencySaltora
Websitebankura.gov.in

Saltora is a community development block (CD block) that forms an administrative division in the Bankura Sadar subdivision of the Bankura district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

From Bishnupur kingdom to the British Raj[edit]

From around the 7th century AD till around the advent of British rule, for around a millennium, history of Bankura district is identical with the rise and fall of the Hindu Rajas of Bishnupur. The Bishnupur Rajas who were at the summit of their fortunes towards the end of the 17th century, started declining in the first half of the 18th century. First, the Maharaja of Burdwan seized the Fatehpur Mahal, and then the Bargi invasions laid waste their country.[1]

Bishnupur was ceded to the British with the rest of Burdwan chakla in 1760. In 1787, Bishnupur was united with Birbhum to form a separate administrative unit. In 1793 it was transferred to the Burdwan collectorate. In 1879, the district acquired its present shape with the thanas of Khatra and Raipur and the outpost of Simplapal being transferred from Manbhum, and the thanas of Sonamukhi, Kotulpur and Indas being retransferred from Burdwan. However, it was known for sometime as West Burdwan and in 1881 came to be known as Bankura district.[1]

Geography[edit]

Map of Bankura District showing CD blocks and municipalities

Saltora is located at 23°32′00″N 86°56′00″E / 23.5333°N 86.9333°E / 23.5333; 86.9333. It has an average elevation of 153 metres (505 feet.[2]

Saltora CD block is located in the north-western part of the district. The Main Bankura Upland, of which Saltora CD block is a part, is characterised by undulating terrain with many hills and ridges. The area is having a gradual descent from the Chota Nagpur Plateau. There are coal mines in Saltora, Mejia and Barjora. The soil is laterite red and hard beds are covered with scrub jungle and sal wood.[3]

There are two are two moderately high hills – Biharinath (in Saltora CD block) and Susunia (in Chhatna CD block). While the former rises to a height of 448 metres (1,470 ft), the latter attains a height of 440 metres (1,440 ft).[4]

Saltora CD block is bounded by Salanpur and Barabani CD blocks, in Paschim Bardhaman district, across the Damodar, on the north, Mejia and Gangajaghati CD blocks, on the east, Chhatna CD block, on the south and Santuri CD block, in Purulia district, on the west.[5][6][7]

Saltora CD block has an area of 312.62 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 8 gram panchayats, 103 gram sansads (village councils), 157 mouzas and 145 inhabited villages. Saltora police station serves this block.[8] Headquarters of this CD block is at Saltora.[9]

Gram panchayats of Saltora block/ panchayat samiti are: Bamuntore, Dhekia, Gogra, Kunuri, Pabra, Salma, Saltora and Tiluri.[10]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

According to the 2011 Census of India Saltora CD Block had a total population of 135,980, all of which were rural. There were 69,732 (51%) males and 66,248 (49%) females. Population in the age range of 0 to 6 years was 17,431. Scheduled Castes numbered 46,497 (34.19%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 25,696 (18.90%).[11]

In the 2001 census, Saltora community development bloc had a total population of 121,810 of which 62,357 were males and 59,453 were females. Decadal growth for the period 1991-2001 was 9.81% for Saltora, against 13.79% in Bankura [12] growth in West Bengal was 17.84%.[13]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Saltora CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Shirpurna (4,080), Tiluri (5,174) and Pabra (4,179).[11]

Other villages in Saltora CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Saltora (3,966), Salma (3,732), Bamantor (1,877), Dhekia (1,473), Kanuri (2,187) and Gogra (1,991).[11]

Literacy[edit]

According to the 2011 census the total number of literates in Saltora CD Block was 72,854 (61.45% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 44,846 (73.83% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 28,008 (48.45%) of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 25.38%.[11]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion[edit]

According to the District Census Handbook 2011, Bankura, as of 2001, Bengali was the mother-tongue of 89.9% of the population, followed by Santali (8.1%), Kurmali Thar (1.1%), Hindi (0.5%) and Telugu (0.1%).[14]

There is a tribal presence in many of the CD Blocks of the district. Santali is spoken by around 10% of the population. Some people also speak Mundari.[15]

According to the West Bengal Official Language Act 1961 and the West Bengal Official Language (Amendment Act) 2012, the Bengali language is to be used for official purposes in the whole of West Bengal. In addition to Bengali, the Nepali language is to be used for official purposes in the three hills subdivisions, namely Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Kurseong, in the district of Darjeeling, and Urdu is to be used for official purposes in district/subdivision/ block/ municipality where the population speaking Urdu exceeds 10% of the total population. The English language will continue to be used for official purposes as it was being used prior to the enactment of these laws.[16][17][18][19]

The West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2012, included Hindi, Santhali, Odiya and Punjabi as official languages if it is spoken by a population exceeding 10 per cent of the whole in a particular block or sub-division or a district. Subsequently, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali were also included in the list of minority languages by the West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2018.[20][21]However, as of 2020, there is no official / other reliable information about the areas covered.

Religion in Saltora CD Block
Hindu
84.51%
Muslim
12.26%
Christian
0.88%
Others
2.35%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 114,904 and formed 84.51% of the population in Saltora CD Block. Muslims numbered 16,677 and formed 12.26% of the population. Christians numbered 1,198 and formed 0.88% of the population. Others numbered 3,201 and formed 2.35% of the population.[22] Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,[23] and other religious communities.[22]

Rural poverty[edit]

In Saltora CD block 34.82% families were living below poverty line in 2007.[24]According to the Rural Household Survey in 2005, 28.87% of the total number of families were BPL families in the Bankura district.[25]

Migration has been observed in the following CD Blocks of Bankura district: Bankura I, Chhatna, Saltora, Indpur, Ranibandh, Hirbandh, Khatra, Raipur and Sarenga. Although authentic figures are not available, a sample survey has been done. According to the sample survey, around 54.5% to 85.4% of the families on an average migrate from these blocks. Another study shows that around 23% of the people from the under-privileged blocks in the western and southern Bankura migrate. Those migrating belong mostly to the SC or ST population. They migrate for periods varying from 15 days to 6/8 months. Most people migrate to meet their food deficit and go to Bardhaman and Hooghly districts but some go to Gujarat and Maharashtra as construction labour.[24]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

Livelihood
in Saltora CD block

  Cultivators (24.11%)
  Agricultural labourers (35.43%)
  Household industries (3.25%)
  Other Workers (37.21%)

In the Saltora CD block in 2011, among the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 13,099 and formed 24.11%, agricultural labourers numbered 19,252 and formed 35.43%, household industry workers numbered 1,766 and formed 3.25% and other workers numbered 20,218 and formed 37.21%.[26]Total workers numbered 54,335 and formed 39.96% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 81,645 and formed 60.04% of the population.[27]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person's land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[28]

Infrastructure[edit]

There are 145 inhabited villages in the Saltora CD block, as per the District Census Handbook, Bankura, 2011. 100% villages have power supply. 100% villages have drinking water supply. 18 villages (12.41%) have post offices. 121 villages (83.45%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 40 villages (27.59%) have pucca (paved) approach roads and 55 villages (37.93%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 7 villages (4.83%) have banks.[29]

Agriculture[edit]

There were 77 fertiliser depots, 15 seed stores and 55 fair price shops in the CD block.[30]

In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Saltora CD block could be classified as follows: bargadars 7.27%, patta (document) holders 17.35%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 6.54%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 18.09% and agricultural labourers 50.76%.[30]

In 2003-04 net area sown in Saltora CD block was 17,235 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 809 hectares.[31]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Saltora CD block was 3,300 hectares, out of which 2,400 hectares by tank water, 560 hectares by river lift irrigation, 90 hectares by open dug wells and 250 hectares by other methods.[30]

In 2013-14, Saltora CD block produced 3,771 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 2,006 hectares and 25 tonnes of wheat from 10 hectares It also produced pulses and mustard.[30]

Handloom and pottery industries[edit]

The handloom industry engages the largest number of persons in the non farm sector and hence is important in Bankura district. The handloom industry is well established in all the CD blocks of the district and includes the famous Baluchari saris. In 2004-05 Saltora CD block had 127 looms in operation.[32]

Bankura district is famous for the artistic excellence of its pottery products that include the famous Bankura horse. The range of pottery products is categorised as follows: domestic utilities, terracota and other decorative items and roofing tiles and other heavy pottery items. Around 3,200 families were involved in pottery making in the district in 2002. 190 families were involved in Saltora CD Block.[33]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Saltora CD block had offices of 6 commercial banks and 1 gramin banks.[30]

Backward Regions Grant Fund[edit]

The Bankura district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.[34][35]

Transport[edit]

In 2013-14, Saltora CD Block had 4 ferry services and 6 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 15 km from the CD Block headquarters.[30]

The Raghunathpur-Saltora and Saltora-Bankura sections of State Highway 8 (West Bengal) running from Santaldih (in Purulia district) to Majhdia (in Nadia district) passes through this CD Block.[36]

Education[edit]

Saltora has three colleges. - 1. Saltora Netaji Centenary College, 2. B.Ed.College, 3. D.El.Ed.College (Saltora Elementary Teacher Educational Programme Institute)

In 2013-14, Saltora CD Block had 122 primary schools with 13,388 students, 16 middle schools with 1,692 students, 8 high schools with 6,460 students and 7 higher secondary schools with 5,111 students. Saltora CD Block had 1 general college with 1,532 students, 1 technical and professional institution with 100 students, 288 institutions for special and non-formal education with 7,097 students. Saltora CD Block had 8 mass literacy centres. The only Govt School in this block is Govt Model School, Saltora, Located at vill Pabaya. It is a co-ed Eng medium School from class V-XII(WBBSE) [37]

See also – Education in India

According to the 2011 census, in the Saltora CD block, among the 145 inhabited villages, 26 villages did not have a school, 35 villages had two or more primary schools, 33 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 15 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[38]

Culture[edit]

There is an old temple at the foot of Biharinath hill. With the discovery of Paleolithic tools in the Biharinath area, the hill and the surrounding areas have come into focus of archaeologists.[39]

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Saltora CD Block had 1 rural hospital, 3 primary health centres and 1 private nursing home with total 61 beds and 6 doctors. It had 23 family welfare sub centres and 1 family welfare centre. 5,255 patients were treated indoor and 142,080 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[40]

Saltora Rural Hospital, with 30 beds at Saltora, is the major government medical facility in the Saltora CD block. There are primary health centres at Gogra (with 10 beds), Ituri (Tiluri) (with 10 beds) and Kashtora (with 6 beds).[41][42]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b O’Malley, L.S.S. "Bengal District Gazetteers: Bankura". Bankura District Authorities. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  2. ^ "Saltora, India Page". West Bengal. Falling rain genomics. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  3. ^ "District Census Handbook Bankura" (PDF). pages 13-17. Directorate of Census Operations West Bengal. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  4. ^ O’Malley, L.S.S., ICS, Bankura, Bengal District Gazetteers, pp. 1-20, first published 1908, 1995 reprint, Government of West Bengal
  5. ^ "District Census Handbook Bankura, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Map on fifth page. Directorate of census Operations V, West Bengal. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  6. ^ "Bardhaman Tehsil Map". Maps of India. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  7. ^ "Puruliya Tehsil Map". Maps of India. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  8. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  9. ^ "District Census Handbook: Bankura" (PDF). Map of Bankura with CD block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  10. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Bankura - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  12. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, Bankura District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  13. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  14. ^ "District Census Handbook Bankura, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 48: Mother tongue. Directorate of census Operations V, West Bengal. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  15. ^ "Bengal District Gazetteers: Bankura by L.S.S.O'Malley, first published 1908, reprint 1995" (PDF). Language p. 51-52. Bankura District Administration. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  16. ^ "West Bengal Official Language Act 1961". Latest Laws.com. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  17. ^ "The West Bengal Official Language Act 1961". Advocate Tanmoy Law Library. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  18. ^ "The West Bengal Official Language Act, 1961" (PDF). Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  19. ^ "Official status for Urdu in some West Bengal Areas". The Hindu, 2 April 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  20. ^ "Multilingual Bengal". The Telegraph, 11 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  21. ^ "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to the list of official languages in Bengal". Outlook, 28 February 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  22. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  23. ^ "ST-14 A Details Of Religions Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  24. ^ a b "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Page 27, Pages 237-244. UNDP/ Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  25. ^ "West Bengal Summary". Rural Household Survey 2005. Department of Panchayat & Rural Development, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  26. ^ "District Census Handbook Bankura, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories of Economic Activity in Sub-district 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  27. ^ "District Census Handbook Bankura, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 30: Number and percentage of Main workers, Marginal workers and Non workers by Sex, in Sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  28. ^ "District Census Handbook Bankura, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 27. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  29. ^ "District Census Handbook, Bankura, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 83, Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  30. ^ a b c d e f "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 8.2, 17.2, 18.2, 18.1, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  31. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Page: 58. UNDP/ Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  32. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Page: 85. UNDP/ Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  33. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Pages: 83-84. UNDP/ Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  34. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Funds: Programme Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  35. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Fund". Press Release, 14 June 2012. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  36. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  37. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 4.4, 4.6. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  38. ^ "District Census Handbook, Bankura, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 1293, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  39. ^ "Status of Prehistoric studies in the twenty first century in India" (PDF). C01-13 Progress of Prehistory in Bengal: a cultural overview. UISPP / IUPPS │ XV Congress. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  40. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  41. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department" (PDF). Health Statistics – Rural Hospitals. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  42. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department" (PDF). Health Statistics – Primary Health Centres. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 10 April 2020.

External links[edit]

Biharinath travel guide from Wikivoyage