Same-sex marriage in Tlaxcala

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Same-sex marriage is legal in the Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Legislation to legalise same-sex marriage passed the Congress of Tlaxcala on 8 December 2020 by a vote of 16–3. Tlaxcala has also recognised civil unions, which grant several of the rights and benefits of marriage, for both opposite-sex and same-sex couples since 12 January 2017.

Legal history[edit]

Same-sex unions performed in Mexican states
  Same-sex marriages performed.*
Stripes: Proportion of municipal coverage.
  Civil unions performed; marriage by amparo only.
  Marriage not performed (except by amparo) despite Supreme Court order.
  Marriage accessible by amparo or by traveling out of state.
*Legislation is not equal in all states. See details.

Civil unions[edit]

In February 2014, Deputy Eréndira Montiel Jiménez from the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) promised to introduce a partnership bill to the Congress of Tlaxcala.[1] The proposed legislation, introduced on 3 April 2014, outlined the legal framework for a form of coexistence "that has the purpose of marriage or concubinage".[2]

On 29 December 2016, Congress approved the coexistence bill by 18 votes to 4. Two deputies from the National Action Party (PAN) walked out in protest as the voting took place. The bill established an institution called sociedad de convivencia solidaria, which provides cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex couples with many of the same rights and obligations as marriage.[3][4] The law was published in the official state journal following Governor Marco Antonio Mena Rodríguez's signature on 11 January 2017 and took effect the following day.[5]


A bill was presented to the Congress of Tlaxcala on 2 October 2009 to legalize same-sex marriage.[6] The initiative was blocked by state lawmakers in 2010,[7] and the state, along with officials from Guanajuato, Jalisco, Morelos and Sonora, filed a formal court challenge to the passage of a same-sex marriage law in Mexico City.[8] In June 2011, activists questioned why no action had been taken on the bill and were told that it was still "climbing the roster."[9][10]

Deputy María Antonieta Stankiewicz Ramírez from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) announced that a same-sex marriage bill would be debated in a Congress committee sometime in July 2016, though no vote happened.[11] On 13 October 2017, the New Alliance Party introduced a new same-sex marriage bill to Congress.[12]

The July 2018 elections resulted in the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA) and the Labor Party, pro-same-sex marriage parties, winning the majority of legislative seats in Congress.[13] In October 2018, Deputy Miguel Ángel Covarrubias Cervantes from the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) introduced a same-sex marriage bill to Congress.[14] The legislation was approved by a 16–3 vote on 8 December 2020,[15] and currently awaits publication in the official state journal before going into effect.

The law amended article 42 of the Civil Code to read:[16]

  • in Spanish: El matrimonio es la unión de dos personas con su pleno consentimiento, que tiene como objeto realizar la comunidad de vida, en donde ambas se procuran respeto, igualdad y ayuda mutua. Debe celebrarse ante los funcionarios que establece la ley y con todas las solemnidades que ella exige.
  • (Marriage is the union of two people with their full consent, whose objective is achieving a life together, where both partners seek respect, equality and mutual assistance. Marriages must be celebrated by the officials established by law and with all the solemnities that it requires.)
Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
National Regeneration Movement 12 8 4
Labor Party 3 2 1
National Action Party 2 1 1
Social Encounter Party 2 2
Party of the Democratic Revolution 2 2
Institutional Revolutionary Party 1 1
Citizens' Movement 1 1
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 1 1
New Alliance Party 1 1
Total 25 16 3 0 6


A decision of the Mexican Supreme Court on 12 June 2015 resulted in a ruling which found that state bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional nationwide. The court's ruling is considered a "jurisprudential thesis" and did not invalidate any state laws, meaning same-sex couples denied the right to wed would still have to seek individual injunctions (amparo) in court. The ruling standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico to approve all applications for same-sex marriages and made the approval mandatory.

In late June 2015, 15 same-sex couples applied for marriage certificates at civil registries in the state, but all were rejected. With the help of the State Human Rights Commission, they filed for injunctions in court.[17] On 27 November 2015, a federal court granted an injunction to one of the couples. Their marriage, which was the first same-sex marriage in Tlaxcala, took place on 18 January 2016. The injunction was only granted after the Commission had interceded on their behalf.[18]

Public opinion[edit]

A 2017 opinion poll conducted by Gabinete de Comunicación Estratégica found that 51% of Tlaxcala residents supported same-sex marriage. 48% were opposed.[19]

According to a 2018 survey by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography, 44% of the Tlaxcala public opposed same-sex marriage.[20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Anuncia diputada agenda legislativa que permita el respeto a la diversidad sexual en Tlaxcala". Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  2. ^ Víctor Manuel Acosta Pérez. "Presentan en Tlaxcala iniciativa para crear Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia".
  3. ^ (in Spanish) Aprueba Congreso de Tlaxcala Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia
  4. ^ (in Spanish) Tlaxcala séptima entidad en contar con una Ley de Sociedades en Convivencia Archived 1 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ (in Spanish) Periódico Oficial No. 2 Primera Sección, Enero 11 del 2017
  6. ^ ":: Comunic@te Digital - Parejas homosexuales celebraron bodas simbólicas gay en Tlaxcala::". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014.
  7. ^ "El Universal - - Tlaxcala, en contra de matrimonios gay". 22 June 2013.
  8. ^ "Las tendencias retrogradas y ultra conservadoras de los gobiernos panistas". Pan y Circco.
  9. ^ "Marcha comunidad gay de Tlaxcala en demanda de ley". Animal Político.
  10. ^ "Demanda comunidad gay de Tlaxcala ley contra discriminación". Archived from the original on 5 September 2014.
  11. ^ Pérez, Lucía (5 July 2016). "En este mes estará lista la reforma pro matrimonios igualitarios: Stankiewicz".
  12. ^ "Proponen legalizar el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo en Tlaxcala" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  13. ^ (in Spanish) Buscará Morena legislar matrimonio igualitario en Sinaloa
  14. ^ "Propone PRD avalar matrimonio igualitario en Tlaxcala". Milenio (in Spanish). 9 October 2018.
  15. ^ Muñetón, Karla (8 December 2020). "Es una realidad el matrimonio igualitario en Tlaxcala; se convierte en el estado 22". El Sol de Tlaxcala.
  16. ^ "Se aprueba en Congreso la ley para matrimonio igualitario en Tlaxcala". (in Spanish). 8 December 2020.
  17. ^ Santillán, Gerardo (29 June 2015). "Al menos 15 parejas del mismo sexo han pedido informes para casarse en el Registro Civil capitalino" (in Spanish). Tlaxcala, Mexico: E-Consulta Tlaxcala. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  18. ^ "Celebra Tlaxcala primer matrimonio igualitario" (in Spanish). Tlaxcala, Mexico: E-Consulta. 18 January 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  19. ^ (in Spanish) Encuesta nacional 2017, Gabinete de Comunicación Estratégica
  20. ^ "¿Quién está en contra del matrimonio gay?". El Sol de México (in Spanish). 15 April 2019.