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Sharada Peeth

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Sharada Peeth
  • شاردا پیٹھ
  • शारदा पीठ
  • 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆳 𑆥𑆵𑆜
Sharda Fort, Azad Jammu & Kashmir.jpg
Ruins of Sharada Peeth
Religion
AffiliationHinduism
DistrictNeelam Valley
DeitySharada
RiteShaktism, Shaivism, Vedism
Location
LocationSharda, Azad Kashmir
CountryPakistan
Sharada Peeth is located in Kashmir
Sharada Peeth
Sharada Peeth
Sharada Peeth is located in Pakistan
Sharada Peeth
Sharada Peeth (Pakistan)
TerritoryAzad Kashmir
Geographic coordinates34°47′31″N 74°11′24″E / 34.79194°N 74.19000°E / 34.79194; 74.19000
Architecture
StyleKashmiri[1][2]
Specifications
Width22 feet
Height (max)16 feet
Site area4 kanals (0.5 acre)[3]

Sharada Peeth (Urdu: شاردا پیٹھ; Kashmiri: शारदा पीठ (Devanagari), 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆳 𑆥𑆵𑆜 (Sharada)) is a ruined Hindu temple and ancient centre of learning located in present-day Azad Kashmir. Between the 6th and 12th centuries CE, it was among the most prominent temple universities in the Indian subcontinent. Known in particular for its library, stories recount scholars travelling long distances to access its texts. It played a key role in the development and popularisation of the Sharada script in North India, causing the script to be named after it, and Kashmir to acquire the moniker "Sharada Desh", meaning "country of Sharada".

As one of the Maha Shakti Peethas, Hindus believe that it represents the spiritual location of the goddess Sati's fallen right hand. Sharada Peeth is one of the three holiest sites of pilgrimage for Kashmiri Pandits, alongside the Martand Sun Temple and the Amarnath Temple.[4]

Sharada Peeth is approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) from Muzaffarabad,[5] the capital of Azad Kashmir and 130 kilometres (81 mi) from Srinagar, the capital of Jammu & Kashmir.[6] It is about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Line of Control, which divides the Pakistani and Indian-controlled areas of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated 1,981 metres (6,499 ft) above sea level,[7] along the Neelam River in the village of Sharda, in the valley of Mount Harmukh,[8] believed by Kashmiri Pandits to be the abode of Shiva.[9][10]

History and etymology

Sharada Peeth translates to "the seat of Sharada", the Kashmiri name for the Hindu goddess Saraswati.[11] "Sharada" could be also related to the proto-Nostratic terms "sarv", which means "flow or stream", and daw (blow, tip or rock), because it was located at the confluence of three streams.[12]

Architecturally similar Kashmiri temple in Nowshera, Jammu and Kashmir in the 1870s

The beginnings of Sharada Peeth are uncertain, and the question of origins difficult, because Sharada Peeth was both a temple and an educational institution. The earliest theory of its origins dates it to over 5,000 years in age, around the time of the earliest records of Neolithic sites in the flood plains of the Kashmir Valley.[13][14] On this view, the site could not have been first constructed by the Indo-Aryan peoples, who are estimated to have arrived at the Ganges River around 1500 BCE.[15] More conservative estimates suggest that it was built under the Kushan Empire (30 CE – 230 CE),[16] and some others believe that its similarity to the Martand Sun Temple indicates that it was built by the Kashmiri king Lalitaditya (724 CE – 760 CE).[17][18] A third school of thought suggests that it was built not at once, but in stages.[19]

Some historians have suggested that Sharada Peeth was never a centre of learning, on the basis that in present-day, there are no sizeable ruins from a supposed educational site. In response, it has been said that Sharda is prone to earthquakes, and debris from a collapsed abandoned university are likely to have been used by townspeople for other constructions.[17]

As a centre of learning

Sharada Peeth is referred to by various historians, detailing its mythological status and prominence in ancient India. Its historical development is traced through references made to it by various historical sources. Although the Sharada script did not originate in Kashmir, it was used extensively in Sharada Peeth, and acquired its name from the institution. This has fed the popular belief that the script was developed in Kashmir.[20]

Thonmi Sambhota, the creator of the Tibetan script

The centre of learning was prominent by at least the 4th century CE. Around that period, Buddhist scholars such as Kumārajīva, Thonmi Sambhota and Rinchen Zangpo were associated with Sharada Peeth.[21] This coincided with the period that Buddhism was prevalent in Kashmir (3rd – 8th century CE). Kumarajiva (344 – 413 CE) was born to a Kashmiri father, Kumārāyana, and a Chinese mother from Kucha. He was sent to Kashmir at a young age to gain a grounding in Buddhism, where he studied under a Kashmiri scholar of the Sarvastivada school.[13] Thonmi Sambhota (7th century CE) was sent on a mission to Kashmir to procure an alphabet for the Tibetan language.[22] There, he learned various scripts and grammar treatises from learned pandits, and then devised a script for Tibetan based largely on the Sharada alphabet.[23][24] Other associated scholars include the Kashmiri historian Kalhana Pandit[25] and the Hindu philosopher Adi Shankara.[21]

Sharada Peeth was also valued by scholars across the Indian subcontinent for its library, and stories detail long journeys they would take to consult it. In the 11th century, the Vaishnava saint Swami Ramanuja traveled from Srirangam to Sharada Peeth to refer to the Brahma Sutras, before commencing work on writing his commentary on the Brahma sutras, the Sri Bhasya.[26] The 13th century CE (1277 – 78) text Prabhāvakacarita contains a story of the Śvētāmbara scholar Hemachandra. As Sharada Peeth was the only place with a library known to have all such works available in their complete form,[27][28][29] Hemachandra requested King Jayasimha Siddharaja to send a team to retrieve copies of the existing eight Sanskrit grammatical texts preserved there. These supported his own text of Sanskrit grammar, the Siddha-Hema-Śabdanuśāśana.[30]

As a temple

The earliest reference to Sharada Peeth as a temple comes from the Nilamata Purana (6th – 8th century CE). It describes the confluence of two "holy" streams, where Sharada Peeth is located: the Madhumati (today known as the Neelum River or Kishanganga) and the Sandili (after the saint Sandilya, who is said to have built Sharada Peeth). According to the text, bathing in it gave one visions of Chakresh (another name for the god Krishna, after his Sudarshana Chakra) and of the goddess Durga.[31]

By the 8th century, the temple was a site of pilgrimage, attracting devotees from as far as present-day Bengal.[25] By the 11th century, it was among the most revered places of worship in the Indian subcontinent, described in Al-Biruni's chronicle of India. Significantly, it featured not in his description of Kashmir, but in his list of the most famous Hindu temples in the Indian subcontinent, alongside the Multan Sun Temple, the Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple, and the Somnath temple.[17][32]

Reverence of Sharada Peeth extended to non-Hindus. The historian Jonaraja described a visit by the Kashmiri Muslim sultan Zain-ul-Abidin in 1422 CE.[21] The sultan visited the temple seeking a vision of the goddess, but grew angry with her because she did not appear to him in person. In frustration, he slept in the court of the temple, where she appeared to him in a dream.[33] In the 16th century, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, Grand vizier to the Mughal emperor Akbar, described Sharada Peeth as a "stone temple ... regarded with great veneration".[21] He also described the popular belief in miracles at the shrine: "it is believed that on every eighth tithe of the bright half of the month, it begins to shake and produces the most extraordinary effect".[21][17]

Legendary origins

Hindu legends

Four-armed statue of the goddess Sharada from the late 9th century AD

A key source of mythological knowledge about the shrine is the Sharada Sahasranama manuscript, written in the Sharada script, and communicated by the last Purohit of the Sharada temple. It recounts the rishi Shandilya as performing a grand Yajna in the Sharda area, involving the local people and hundreds of worthy priests. During the Yajna, a beautiful woman appeared, introducing herself as a Brahmini who wished to participate. She said that she and her companion had come a long way and asked for food. Shandilya welcomed her and told her that the rules of the Yajna forbade him from giving her the food: the Yajna had to be completed, and the Purohits fed first. The Brahmini grew angry and declared herself to be Vāc, the Vedic goddess and Divine Mother. She revealed to him that the Paramatman he worshipped was the essence of the goddess. In her anger, she transformed before him into the divine Neela (or blue) form of Saraswati, with ornaments, weapons, and clouds, and declared that she would absorb the world. In shock, remorse and fear, Shandilya collapsed and died. Seeing his remorse, the goddess had him revived with Amrita, the elixir of life, and transformed into a different, graceful form of Saraswati. Addressing him as "son", she told him that she was pleased with his devotion and compassion and would grant him whatever he wished. Shandilya, addressing her as the Divine Mother, asked her to revive the dead and restore the village and forest. Saraswati did so, instructing him to build his ashram at the base of the hill near the Madhumati river (present-day Neelum River). She took her abode there at Sharada Peeth.[34]

An alternative account holds that Shandilya prayed to the goddess Sharada with great devotion, and was rewarded when she appeared to him and promised to show him her real, divine form. She advised him to look for the Sharada forest, and his journey was filled with miraculous experiences. On his way, he had a vision of the god Ganesha on the eastern side of a hill. When he reached the Neelum river, he bathed in it and saw half his body turn golden. Eventually, the goddess revealed herself to him in her triple form of Sharada, Saraswati and Vagdevi, and invited him to her abode. As he was preparing for a ritual, he drew water from the Mahāsindhu. Half of this water transformed into honey, and became a stream, now known as the Madhumati stream.[25]

A third account holds that during a fight between good and evil, the goddess Sharada saved a mythical container of knowledge and hid it in a hole in the ground. She then transformed into a structure to protect this container. This structure is now Sharada Peeth.[35]

Local legends

There are two popular legends of Shardi explaining Sharada Peeth.[36] The first holds that there were two sisters, Sharada and Narada, who ruled the world. The two mountains overlooking the valley, Shardi and Nardi, are named after them. One day, Narada saw, from her abode on the mountain, that Sharada had died, and that giants were fleeing from her body. Furious, she summoned them and ordered them to build her a tomb, which became Sharada Peeth. The second legend says that there once was a giant who loved a princess. She desired a palace, and so he began work. At the time of morning azan, he was supposed to have finished, but the roof remained incomplete and for that reason, Sharada Peeth today remains without a roof.[20]

Literary and cultural references

View of Neelum Valley from Sharada Peeth, where King Jayasimha's Royal Army would have camped

Sharada Peeth has appeared in various historical and literary texts. Its earliest mention is in the Nilamata Purana (6th – 8th century CE). The 11th century Kashmiri poet Bilhana describes both the spiritual and academic elements of Sharada Peeth. He describes Kashmir as a patron of learning and Sharada Peeth as the source of that reputation. He also says that the goddess Sharada:

"resemble[s] a swan, carrying as her diadem the [glittering gold washed from the sand] of the Madhumati stream, which is bent on rivalling Ganga. Spreading lustre by her fame as her diadem, and rivalling the Ganges river. Spreading lustre by her fame, brilliant like crystal, she makes even Mount Himalaya, the preceptor of Gauri, raise higher his head (referring to his peaks) [in pride] of her residence there."[37]

In Kalhana's 12th century epic, Rajatarangini, Sharada Peeth is identified as a site of popular veneration:

35. There, the goddess Saraswati herself is seen in the form of a swan in a lake [situated] on the summit of the Bheda hill, which is sanctified by the Ganga source.
37. There, when visiting the goddess Sharada, one reaches at once the river Madhumati, and [the river of] Saraswati worshipped by poets.[38]

Kalhana points out other events of political significance involving Sharada Peeth. During Lalitaditya's reign (713 – 755), a group of assassins from the Gauda Kingdom entered Kashmir under the guise of a pilgrimage to Sharada Peeth.[25] Kalhana also describes a rebellion during his own lifetime. Three princes, Lothana, Vigraharaja and Bhoja, rebelled against King Jayasimha of Kashmir. These princes, pursued by the Royal Army, sought refuge in the upper Kishenganga Valley, in the Sirahsila Castle. Kalhana believed that the Royal Army took refuge in Sharada Peeth, because it had the open space required for a temporary military village, and because the area surrounding the Sirahsila Castle was not large enough to host a camp for a siege without the siege force being vulnerable to archers.[33]

Adi Shankara, who opened Sharada Peeth's south door

In the 14th century text Madhaviya Shankara Vijayam, there is a test, unique to Sharada Peeth, known as the Sarvajna Peetham, or Throne of Omniscience. These were four thrones, each representing an entrances of the temple corresponding to one of the points of the compass, which only a learned man from that direction could symbolically open.[39] Adi Shankara, being from South India, took it upon himself to pass this challenge, because although the other doors had been opened, no one from the south of Kashmir had yet been successful. He was said to be welcomed by the common people, but challenged by the scholars of the region. As he approached the southern door, he was stopped by various learned men from the Nyaya school of philosophy, Buddhists, Digambara Jains, and the followers of Jaimini. Engaging with them, he managed to persuade all of them of his proficiency in philosophy, and they stood aside to let him open the entrance. Finally, as he was about to ascend the throne, he heard the voice of the goddess Sharada challenging him. The voice said that omniscience was not enough if one was impure, and that Shankara, who lived in the palace of King Amaruka, could not be pure. Shankara replied that his body had never committed a sin, and the sins committed by another could not blemish him. The goddess Sharada accepted his explanation and permitted him to ascend.[39] In the Carnatic music song kalavathi kamalasana yuvathi, the 19th century composer Muthuswami Dikshitar refers to Sharada Peeth as Saraswati's abode. Set in the raga yagapriya, the song praises Saraswati:

Kashmira vihara, vara sharadha.
The one who resides in Kashmir, Sharada.[40]

Today, Sharada Peeth continues to figure in South Indian Brahmin traditions. At the beginning of formal education, some sects of Brahmins ritually prostrate in the direction of Sharada Peeth.[41] Saraswat Brahmin communities in Karnataka are also said to perform a ritual of moving seven steps towards Kashmir before retracing their steps during the Yagnopavit ceremony, and include the Sharada stotram in their morning prayers.[42][43][44]

Namaste Sarada Devi Kashmira mandala vasini.
I bow to the Goddess Sharada, who lives in Kashmir.

Religious significance

Importance to Kashmiri Pandits

A photograph of Sharada Peeth in 1893 by the British archaeologist Sir Aurel Stein. A Kashmiri Pandit stands at the entrance

The Sharada temple has played a significant historical role in Kashmiri Pandit religious culture. It is believed to be the earliest shrine dedicated to Shaktism, or Hindu goddess worship in Kashmir, with later shrines including the Kheer Bhawani and Vaishno Devi temples.[45] It also advanced the importance of knowledge and education in Kashmiri Pandit culture, which persisted well after Kashmiri Pandits became a minority group in Kashmir.[46] Kashmiri Pandits believe that the goddess Sharada worshipped in Sharada Peeth is a tripartite embodiment of the goddess Shakti: Sharada (goddess of learning), Saraswati (goddess of knowledge), and Vagdevi (goddess of speech, which articulates power).[47] In line with the Kashmiri Pandit belief that springs which are the abode of goddesses should not be looked at directly, the shrine contains a stone slab concealing the spring underneath, which they believe to be the spring in which the goddess Sharada revealed herself to Sandilya.

During Mughal and Afghan rule, Neelum Valley was ruled by Muslim chiefs of the Bomba tribe, and the pilgrimage decreased in importance. It regained its stead during Dogra rule, when Maharaja Gulab Singh repaired the temple and dedicated a monthly stipend to the Gautheng Brahmans who claimed the hereditary guardianship of the temple.[32] Since then, a thriving Kashmiri Pandit community lived in the vicinity of the Sharada Peeth teerth (or pilgrimage). These included priests and traders, as well as saints and their disciples. As a religious ritual, Kashmiri Pandit theologians across Kashmir would place their manuscripts in covered platters before idols of the goddess Sharada, to obtain her blessings. They believed that the goddess would convey approval of the pages of writings by leaving them undisturbed, and disapproval by leaving the pages ruffled. In addition, an annual fair would be held at Shardi village, with pilgrims travelling through Kupwara (in present-day Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir), in worship of the goddess Sharada.[48] Kashmiri Pandits believe that the Sharada pilgrimage parallels Shandilya's journey, and that the act of bathing in the confluence of the Neelum River and Madhumati stream cleanses the pilgrim of their sins.[25] In 1947, the Kashmiri saint Swami Nand Lal Ji moved some of the stone idols to Tikker in Kupwara. Some of those were subsequently moved to Devibal in Baramulla.[49] The temple fell into disuse following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, which split the princely state of Kashmir into the Pakistani-administered territory of Azad Kashmir, and the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir. This caused large numbers of Kashmiri Pandits to migrate out of Shardi to Indian Jammu and Kashmir. Since then, Kashmiri Pandits unable to visit the shrine have created "substitutes" for the pilgrimage in places like Srinagar, Bandipore, and Gush in Indian Jammu and Kashmir.[50]

As a "Shakti Peeth"

Shakti Peethas are shrines of Shakti which are said to derive their divinity from the fallen body parts of the goddess Sati, when Shiva carried it and wandered throughout Āryāvarta in sorrow. There are fifty-one Shakti Peethas, one for each of the fifty-one alphabets in Sanskrit, and each one has shrines for Shakti and Kalabhairava. Sharada Peeth is one of the 18 Maha (or "great") Shakti Peethas, and is where Sati's right hand is said to have fallen. The form of Shakti worshipped here is Sharada.[51]

Post-Indian independence

Religious tourism to Sharada Peeth has declined considerably since the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948. Most Kashmiri Pandits remained on the Indian side of the Line of Control, and travel restrictions have discouraged Indian Hindus from visiting the shrine.[52] No Objection Certificates are required for Indians seeking to visit.[53] Furthermore, its close proximity to the Line of Control discourages tourism from within Pakistan. Tourists to the Neelum Valley often overlook the ruins of the shrine, instead spending time in the scenic valley surrounding it.[54] In 2007, a group of Kashmiri Pandits who were permitted to visit Azad Kashmir were denied permission to visit the temple.[55] In September 2009, the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies recommended increased cross-border religious tourism between India and Pakistan, including allowing Kashmiri Pandits to visit Sharada Peeth, and Pakistani Muslims to visit the Hazratbal Shrine in Srinagar.[56]

The shrine remains politically significant, with Kashmiri Pandit organisations[57] and leaders from Jammu & Kashmir[58][59] urging the governments of India and Pakistan to facilitate cross-border pilgrimages. Senior Indian politicians have also called on Pakistan to renovate the temple,[60] and it is discussed bilaterally as part of the Composite Dialogue between the governments of India and Pakistan.[61] In 2019, Pakistan government opened the Kartarpur Corridor to allow Sikh pilgrims in India to visit the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur across the border. This strengthened calls by Kashmiri Pandits to the Pakistani government to open a corridor to the Sharada Peeth site.[62] In March 2019, Pakistani media reported that Pakistan had approved a plan for a Kartarpur-style corridor for Sharada Peeth.[63] However, the Pakistani government has since said that a decision has not been made.[64]

Architecture

The temple is built in the Kashmiri architectural style using red sandstone. Historical records of the temple's architecture are scarce. A late 19th century account by the British archaeologist Aurel Stein describes the temple's walls as intact to a height of approximately 20 feet (6.1 m), and its pillars rising approximately 16 feet (4.9 m).[17][32]

The Sharada Peeth compound

The compound is situated on a hill, approached on its west side through an imposing stone staircase. The facades are repetitive. Suggested reasons for this include that architects disliked plain outside walls, or that even if the spire collapsed, a visitor would be able to tell what the temple originally looked like. The design of the temple is simple, with a plain conical Sharada spire. It sits on a raised plinth, 24 square feet (2.2 m2) in area and 5.25 feet (1.60 m) in height. The walls of the cella recede 2 feet (0.61 m) from the edge of the plinth. The temple is surrounded by a quadrangle which measures 142 feet (43 m) by 94 feet (29 m). The quadrangle is enclosed by walls of 11 feet (3.4 m) in height and 6 feet (1.8 m) in width. On the north, east, and south, the walls of the cella are adorned by trefoil arches and supporting pilasters, which are constructed in high relief. Below these are small, trefoil-headed niches covered by double pediments. Although a pyramidal stone roof is more typical to Kashmiri architecture, in Stein's description, the temple is covered by a low shingle roof. By the 21st century, the roof is no longer present and the interior of the temple is exposed to the elements. The temple appears imposing even from outside the walled enclosure, because of the plinths it is raised on to equalise the uneven elevations of the ground. The north side of the wall contained a small recess, in which two ancient linga could be seen.[17][32]

The interior of the cella is plain, and forms a square of 12.25 feet (3.73 m) on each side. It houses a large slab of stone measuring 6 feet (1.8 m) by 7 feet (2.1 m). This slab covers the holy spring where the goddess Sharada is believed to have appeared to rishi Shandilya. In the 19th century, this sacred spot was surmounted by a red cloth canopy and tinsel. The remainder of the interior was filled with ornaments of worship such as conches and bells.[17][32]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Singh, Rajesh (3 July 2017). "The Unexplored Medieval Stone Temples of Kashmir". Heritage India Magazine. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. However, a few still stand in different states of preservation at places like Martand, Avantipur, Pattan, Buniar, Pandrethan and Payar, reflecting not only the remarkable temple construction activity that once existed in Kashmir but also showcasing a distinct architectural style. This style, while being inspired by foreign elements (as Kashmir is strategically located on one of the arteries of the ancient Silk-Route), also assimilated the essential features of indigenous temple architectural styles.
  2. ^ Bangroo, Virender (July–September 2008). "Temple Architecture of Kashmir". Dialogue. 10 – via Astha Bharati.
  3. ^ Kumar, Ramesh (16 December 1999 – 15 January 1999). "Sarada Pilgrimage - its Socio-Historicity - I" (PDF). Kashmir Sentinel. 5: 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2018.
  4. ^ Kumar, Ramesh (16 December 1999 – 15 January 1999). "Sarada Pilgrimage - its Socio-Historicity - I" (PDF). Kashmir Sentinel. 5: 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2018.
  5. ^ Rehman, Faiz ur (31 December 2017). "Peace & Economy beyond Faith: A Case Study of Sharda Temple". Pakistan Vision. 18 (2): 1–14 – via academia.edu. Located in the isolated village of Sharda in Neelum Valley in Pakistan's Kashmir,1 at a distance of around 140 Kilometers from Muzaffarabad, (the capital city) and nearly 30 km from Kupwara (a town in Indian Held Kashmir), it lies few miles from the Line of Control (LoC) in a very sensitive military zone.
  6. ^ Godbole, Sanjay. "The Sharda Temple of Kashmir". Kashmiri Pandit Network / Kashmir Sentinel. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  7. ^ YUSUF JAMEEL (16 July 2017). "Kashmiri Pandits want reopening of Sharda Peeth in PoK, plan to approach PM". Deccan Chronicle.
  8. ^ Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur: The Kashmiri Speaking People. Trafford Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 978-1490701653. The main centre of excellence was at Sharda Peeth - an ancient seat of learning on the banks of the river Kishenganga in the valley of Mount Harmukh.
  9. ^ Ashraf, Mohammad (9 May 2007). "Haramukh and Gangabal, a historical perspective". Kashmir First. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. There used to be seventeen temples of various ages and dimensions here which had been built by different Kings of ancient Kashmir from time to time in honour of S’iva who according to legend, had taken residence here as Bhutesa.
  10. ^ Rehman, Faiz ur (31 December 2017). "Peace & Economy beyond Faith: A Case Study of Sharda Temple". Pakistan Vision. 18 (2): 1–14 – via academia.edu. its water originates from Sarasvati lake which is located on the top of Narda peak, the another holy place for Hindus because it is considered to be the birth place of Shivajee
  11. ^ Raina, Dina Nath (1994). Kashmir - distortions and reality. Michigan: Reliance Publishing House, University of Michigan. p. 38. ISBN 8185972524. No wonder that from remote ages, Kashmir became the seat of learning and earned for itself the appropriate name of Sharda Peeth or the seat of Sharda, the Goddess of Learning and Fine Arts.
  12. ^ Graves, Charles (January–March 2013). "Origins of Peoples of the Karakorum Himalayas" (PDF). Himalayan and Central Asian Studies. 17 (1): 11. The word sharda might be analysed as other words above, namely with the language macrofamily delineations of the school developed at the Oriental Institute in Moscow. Sharda as a Proto-Nostratic (PN) term may be related to sarV (flow or stream) (cf. Sino-Caucasian sorV (stream)) and PN d/a/w (blow, tip or rock). As seen above, the Sharda site was at the confluence of three streams.
  13. ^ a b Singh, Upinder. (2008). A history of ancient and early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0. OCLC 213223784.
  14. ^ Nazki, Ayaz Rasool (2009), "The most ancient known temple of Sharda is to be found in ruins in the Pakistan-administered part of Kashmir, not far from Muzzafarabad. It is at the confluence of three rivers in the Jehlum valley. Dr. Nazki believes the site dates back at least 5,000 years and that there was established at the site a kind of ancient university.", International Seminar: Society, Culture and Politics in the Karakoram Himalayas, Sher-i-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences
  15. ^ Graves, Charles (January–March 2013). "Origins of Peoples of the Karakorum Himalayas" (PDF). Himalayan and Central Asian Studies. 17 (1): 11. Of course such a view preempts any consideration that the sites were erected by the Indo-Aryans who probably only entered the Ganges River valley c 1,500 BCE.
  16. ^ ur Rehman, Faiz (31 December 2017). "Peace & Economy beyond Faith: A Case Study of Sharda Temple". Pakistan Vision. 18 (2): 1–14 – via academia.edu.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Rashid, Salman (1 April 2018). "Heritage: Goddess of the Mountains". Dawn. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  18. ^ ur Rehman, Faiz (31 December 2017). "Peace & Economy beyond Faith: A Case Study of Sharda Temple". Pakistan Vision. 18 (2): 1–14 – via academia.edu. However, due to its close resemblance with Martand Temple8 in architecture, design, motives and construction style, some academics believed that Raja Lalitaditya was the builder of Sharda temple
  19. ^ Kaul, Rattan. "Abode of Goddess Sharda at Shardi". Kashmir Overseas Association, Inc. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  20. ^ a b Qazi, Junaid Ahmad; Samad, Abdul (January 2015). Shakirullah; Young, Ruth (eds.). "Śarda Temple and the Stone Temples of Kashmir in Perspective: A Review Note". Pakistan Heritage. Hazara University Mansehra-Pakistan. 7: 111–120 – via Research Gate.
  21. ^ a b c d e Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur: The Kashmiri Speaking People. Trafford Publishing. pp. 85, 191. ISBN 978-1490701653.
  22. ^ Thomas, Frederick William (1951). "The Tibetan Alphabet". In Eckhardt, Karl August; Pedersen, Holger; Littmann, Enno; Latte, Kurt (eds.). Festschrift zur Feier des Zweihundertjährigen Bestehens der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. Festschrift zur Feier des Zweihundertjährigen Bestehens der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen: II Philologisch-Historische Klasse (in German). Springer. pp. 146–165. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-86704-0_7. ISBN 978-3-642-86704-0.
  23. ^ Norbu, Thubten Jigme; Turnbull, Colin M. (1968). Tibet. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 140. ISBN 0-671-20559-5. OCLC 1513.
  24. ^ Shakabpa, W. D. (2010). One Hundred Thousand Moons: an Advanced Political History of Tibet. Translated by Maher, Derek F. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-474-3076-6. OCLC 717020192.
  25. ^ a b c d e Kalhana (1900). Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅginī: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr. Translated by Stein, Marc Aurel. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Company, Ltd. pp. 151–152. ISBN 9788120803718.
  26. ^ "Ramanuja's revelation of the 'secret mantra'". The Hindu. 4 August 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
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References

External links