Sirenik Eskimo language
|Region||Bering Strait region, mixed populations in settlements Sireniki and Imtuk|
with the death of Valentina Wye
|Transcribed with Cyrillic in old monographs (extended with diacritics), but new publications may appear also romanised|
Sirenik Yupik, Sireniki Yupik (also Old Sirenik or Vuteen), Sirenik, or Sirenikskiy is an extinct Eskimo–Aleut language. It was spoken in and around the village of Sireniki (Сиреники) in Chukotka Peninsula, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. The language shift has been a long process, ending in total language death. In January 1997, the last native speaker of the language, a woman named Vyjye (Valentina Wye) (Russian: Выйе), died. Ever since that point, the language has been extinct; nowadays, all Sirenik Eskimos speak Siberian Yupik or Russian.
Сиӷы́ных [siˈʁənəx] is the endonym for the eponymous settlement of Sireniki. The endonym for the people itself is сиӷы́ныгмы̄́ӷий [siˈʁənəɣˈməːʁij] "Sirenikites"; the singular form is сиӷы́ныгмы̄́ӷа [siˈʁənəɣˈməːʁa]).
Some argue that the Sirenik language is a remnant of a third group of Eskimo languages, in addition to Yupik and Inuit groups (see a visual representation by tree and an argumentation based on comparative linguistics). In fact, the exact genealogical classification of Sireniki language is not settled yet, and some others regard it belonging to the Yupik branch.
Many words are formed from entirely different roots than in Siberian Yupik. Also, the grammar has several peculiarities compared to other Eskimo languages, and even compared to Aleut. For example, dual number is not known in Sireniki Eskimo, while most Eskimo–Aleut language have dual, including even its neighboring Siberian Yupik relatives. The peculiarities amounted to mutual unintelligibility with even its nearest language relatives. This forced Sirenik Eskimos to use Chukchi as a lingua franca when speaking with neighboring Eskimo peoples. Thus, any external contacts required using a different language for Sireniki Eskimos: they either resorted to use of lingua franca, or used Siberian Yupik languages (being definitely a mutually unintelligible, different language for them, not just a dialect of their own). This difference from all their language relatives may be the result of a supposed long isolation from other Eskimo groups: Sireniki Eskimos may have been in contact only with speakers of unrelated languages for many centuries in the past, influenced especially by non-relative Chukchi.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2013)
Some notes (very far from being a complete description):
- The alveolar lateral approximant /l/ has its voiceless version /l̥/, and it can be also palatalized /lʲ̥/
- glottal stop /ʔ/
Nominal and verbal
Although morphology will be treated grouped into a nominal and a verbal part, many Eskimo languages show features which “crosscut” any such groupings in several aspects:
- the ergative structure at verbs is similar to the possessive structure at nouns (see section #Ergative–absolutive);
- a physical similarity exists between nominal and verbal personal suffix paradigms, i.e., in most cases, the respective person-number is expressed with the same sequence of phonemes at:
- possessive suffixes (at nouns)
- verbal suffixes;
- nomenverbum-like roots, becoming nominal or verbal only via the suffix they get;
- Eskimo texts abound in various kinds of participles (see section #Participles);
Common grammatical categories
Although person and number are expressed in a single suffix, sometimes it can be traced back to consist of a distinct person and a distinct number suffix.
Paradigms can make a distinction in 3rd person for “self”, thus the mere personal suffix (of the verb or noun) can distinguish e.g.
- a nominal example
- “He/she takes his/her own dog” versus “He/she takes the dog of another person”.
- a verbal example
- “He/she sees himself/herself” versus “He/she sees him/her (another person)”
Thus, it can be translated into English (and some other languages) using reflexive pronoun. This notion concerns also other concepts in building larger parts of the sentence and the text, see section #Usage of third person suffixes.
Although other Eskimo languages know more than the familiar two grammatical numbers (by having also dual), Sireniki uses only singular and plural, thus it lacks dual. As mentioned, Sireniki is peculiar in this aspect not only among Eskimo languages, but even in the entire Eskimo–Aleut language family, even its neighboring Siberian Yupik relatives have dual.
Building verbs from nouns
Suffix -/ɕuɣɨn/- meaning “to be similar to sth”:
|Root||Becomes verbal by suffix||Indicative mood, singular 3rd person|
|raven||to be similar to a raven||he/she is similar to a raven|
Predicative form of a noun
Predicative form of a noun can be built using suffix -/t͡ʃ ɨ/-:
|Singular 2nd person||Singular 3rd person|
|/juɣ/||/juɣɨ t͡ʃ ɨ/-||/juɣɨ t͡ʃ ɨtɨn/||/juɣɨ t͡ʃ ɨχ/|
|man||to be a man||you are a man||he/she is a man|
Nominal lexical categories
|Sing 1st person||Sing 2nd person|
|Absolutive||/taŋaqa/ (my child)||/taŋaʁɨn/ (your child)|
|Ablative / Instrumental||/taŋamnɨŋ/ (from my child)||/taŋaχpɨnɨŋ/ (from your child)|
|Dative / Lative||/taŋamnu/ (to my child)||/taŋaχpɨnu/ (to your child)|
|Locative||/taŋamni/ (at my child)||/taŋaχpɨni/ (at your child)|
|Equative (comparative)||/taŋamtɨn/ (like my child)||/taŋaχpɨtɨn/ (like your child)|
It is just an excerpt for illustration: not all cases are shown, Sirenik language has more grammatical cases. The table illustrates also why Sirenik language is treated as agglutinative (rather than fusional).
Sireniki is an absolutive–ergative language.
Cases (listed using Menovščikov's numbering):
- Relative case, playing the role of both genitive case and ergative case.
- Ablative / Instrumental, used also in accusative structures.
- Dative / Lative
- Vialis case, see also Prosecutive case, and "motion via"
- Equative (comparative)
- lative or locative or ablative
- combined with relative (used as genitive)
in a similar way as we use expressions like "on top of" in English.
Verbal lexical categories
Also at verbs, the morphology is very rich. Suffixes can express grammatical moods of the verb (e.g. imperative, interrogative, optative), and also negation, tense, aspect, the person of subject and object. Some examples (far from being comprehensive):
|Person, number of||Mood||Others|
|/aʁaʁɨ-tɨqɨχ-tɨ-mkɨn/||I lead you||Singular 1st person||Singular 2nd person||Indicative|
|/aʁaʁɨ-ɕuk-ɨ-mɕi/||Let me lead you||Singular 1st person||Singular 2nd person||Imperative|
|/nɨŋɨ-sɨɣɨŋ-sɨn/||Don't you see me?||Singular 2nd person||Singular 1st person||Interrogative||Negative polarity|
The rich set of morphemes makes it possible to build huge verbs whose meaning could be expressed (in most of widely known languages) as whole sentences (consisting of more words) . Sireniki – like the other Eskimo languages – has polysynthetic and incorporative features, in many forms, among others polypersonal agreement.
Even the grammatical polarity can be expressed by adding a suffix to the verb.
An example for negative polarity: the negation form of the verb /aʁaʁ-/ (to go):
- /juɣ aʁaχ-tɨqɨχ-tɨ-χ/ (the man walks)
- /juɣ aʁaʁ-ɨ-tɨ-χ/ (the man does not walk)
- /aftalʁa-qɨstaχ-/ (to work slowly) and /aftalʁa-qɨstaχ-tɨqɨχ-tɨ-χ/ (he works slowly), from /aftalʁa-/ (to work)
|/aftalʁaχ-/ (to work)||/aftalʁaʁ-jux-/ (to want to work)|
|/aftalʁaχ-tɨqɨχ-tɨ-ŋ/ (I work)||/aftalʁaʁ-jux-tɨqɨχ-tɨ-ŋ/ (I want to work)|
- confer -/ɕi/- that variant of Siberian Yupik which is spoken by Ungazigmit
- middle (medial)
- /malikam aʁaχ-ɕaχ-tɨqɨχ-tɨ-ʁa kɨtuɣi qurŋi-nu/ (Malika makes Kitugi go to the reindeer.)
all of them are expressed by agglutination, thus, no separate words are required.
A distinction between two kinds of participles (adverbial participle and adjectival participle) makes sense in Sireniki (just like in Hungarian, see határozói igenév and melléknévi igenév for detailed description of these concepts; or in Russian, see деепричастие and причастие).
Sireniki has many kinds of participles in both categories. In the following, they will be listed, grouped by the relation between the “dependent action” and “main action” (or by other meanings beyond this, e.g. modality) – following the terminology of. A sentence with a participle can be imagined as simulating a subordinating compound sentence where the action described in the dependent clause relates somehow to the action described in the main clause. In English, an adverbial clause may express reason, purpose, condition, succession etc., and a relative clause can express many meanings, too.
In an analogous way, in Sireniki Eskimo language, the "dependent action" (expressed by the adverbial participle in the sentence element called adverbial, or expressed by the adjectival participle in the sentence element called attribute) relates somehow to the “main action” (expressed by the verb in the sentence element called predicate), and the participles will be listed below grouped by this relation (or by other meanings beyond this, e.g. modality).
They can be translated into English e.g. by using an appropriate adverbial clause. There are many of them, with various meanings.
An interesting feature: they can have person and number. The person of the dependent action need not coincide with that of the main action. An example (meant in the British English usage of “shall / should” in the 1st person: here, conveying only conditional, but no necessity or morality):
|/mɨŋa iŋɨjaxtɨk-t͡ʃɨ-ʁɨjɨqɨɣɨ-ma, ajvɨʁaʁjuʁuχtɨki/|
|If I were a marksman, we should kill walrus|
Another example (with a different adverbial participle):
|/ɨ̆ l̥tɨʁinɨq ȷ̊an, upʃuχtɨqɨχtɨʁij/|
|when he/she sings, they keep frightening him/her|
They will be discussed in more details below.
Reason, purpose or circumstance of action
An adverbial participle “explaining reason, purpose or circumstance of action” is expressed by suffix -/lɨ/- / -/ l̥ɨ/- (followed by appropriate person-number suffix). Examples:
|(I) having stood up||I went in|
|(he/she) having stood up||he/she went in|
Another example, with a somewhat different usage:
|To examine him/her2 (another being)||he/she1 went|
Dependent action ends just before main action begins
Using the adverbial participle -/ja/- / -/ɕa/-, the dependent action (expressed by the adverbial participle in the sentence element called adverbial) finishes just before the main action (expressed by the verb in the sentence element called predicate) begins.
Dependent action begins before main action, but they continue together till end
It can be expressed by suffix -/inɨq ȷ̊a/-. Examples:
|/nukɨ l̥piɣt͡ʃɨʁaʁɨm aninɨq ȷ̊ami qamt͡ʃɨni tiɣɨmɨra(x)/|
|the boy, going out [of the house], took his [own] sledge [with himself])|
|-/ɨm/||case suffix||relative case|
|-/inɨq ȷ̊a/-||the suffix of the adverbial participle||dependent action begins before main action, but they continue together till end|
|-/mi/||person-number suffix for adverbial participle in intransitive conjugation||subject of singular 3rd person|
|-/ni/||possessive suffix for nouns||singular, 3rd person, self: “his/her own …”|
|/tɨɣɨˈraχ/||verb||he/she took something|
|-/mɨ/- / -/ɨmɨ/-||tense suffix||past tense (not the “near past” one)|
|/ɨ̆ l̥tɨʁinɨq ȷ̊an, upʃuχtɨqɨχtɨʁij/|
|when he/she sings, they keep frightening him/her|
Dependent action is conditional: it does not takes place, although it would (either really, or provided that some—maybe irreal—conditions would hold). Confer also conditional sentence.
Sireniki Eskimo has several adverbial participles to express that. We can distinguish them according to the concerned condition (conveyed by the dependent action): it may be
- either real (possible to take place in the future)
- or irreal (it would take place only if some other irreal condition would hold)
It is expressed with suffix -/qɨɣɨ/- / -/kɨɣɨ/-, let us see e.g. a paradigm beginning with /aʁa-qɨɣɨ-ma/ (if I get off / depart); /aʁa-qɨɣɨ-pi/ (if you get off / depart):
Confer counterfactual conditional. Sireniki can compress it into an adverbial participle: it is expressed with suffix -/ɣɨjɨqɨɣɨ/- / -/majɨqɨɣɨ/-.
The dependent action is expressed with an adverbial participle. The main action is conveyed by the verb. If also the main action is conditional (a typical usage), than it can be expressed with a verb of conditional mood. The persons need not coincide.
An example (meant in the British English usage of “shall / should” in the 1st person: here, conveying only conditional, but no necessity or morality):
|/mɨŋa iŋɨjaxtɨk-t͡ʃɨ-ʁɨjɨqɨɣɨ-ma, ajvɨʁaʁjuʁuχtɨki/|
|If I were a marksman, we should kill walrus.|
The example in details:
|-/t͡ʃɨ/-||suffix building a verb out of a noun||predicative form of noun|
|-/ɣɨjɨqɨɣɨ/- / -/majɨqɨɣɨ/-||the suffix of the adverbial participle||irreal condition|
|-/ma/||person-number suffix for adverbial participles in the intransitive conjugation||subject 1st person|
There are more kinds of them.
- /imtuɡnu aʁaqt͡ʃɨχ qɨmɨ l̥ɨʁaχ utɨχt͡ʃɨmɨt͡ʃɨχ/ (The sledge [that went to Imtuk] returned.)
- /juɣ qavɨ l̥ɨʁɨχ nɨŋɨsɨmɨrɨqa/ (I saw [perceived] a sleeping man.)
They can be used not only in attributive role (as in the above examples), but also in predicative role:
- /juɣ qavɨ l̥ɨʁɨχ/ (The man is sleeping.)
- /taŋaʁaχ pijɨkajux pijɨxtɨqɨχtɨχ l̥mɨnɨŋ/ (A child who is able to walk moves around spontaneously)
Sireniki is (just like many Eskimo languages) an ergative–absolutive language. For English-language materials treating this feature of Sireniki, see Vakhtin's book, or see online a paper treating a relative Eskimo language.
Usage of third person suffixes
Although the below examples are taken from Inuit Eskimo languages (Kalaallisut), but e.g. Sireniki's distinguishing between two kinds of 3rd person suffixes can be concerned, too (remember section #Person above: there is a distinct reflexive (“own”-like) and an “another person”-like 3rd person suffix).
- Siberian Yupik
- Ergative–absolutive language
- Transitive verb
- Intransitive verb
- Polysynthetic language
- Incorporation (linguistics)
- Language death
- Sireniki Eskimo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- OLAC resources in and about the Sirenik Yupik language
- Sireniki Yupik Sea-Ice Dictionary
- Vakhtin 1998: 162
- Linguist List's description about Nikolai Vakhtin's book: The Old Sirinek Language: Texts, Lexicon, Grammatical Notes. The author's untransliterated (original) name is “Н.Б. Вахтин Archived 2007-09-10 at the Wayback Machine”.
- Support for Siberian Indigenous Peoples Rights (Поддержка прав коренных народов Сибири) Archived 2007-11-03 at the Wayback Machine – see the section on Eskimos Archived 2007-08-30 at the Wayback Machine
- Меновщиков 1964, p. 7
- Меновщиков 1964, p. 195
- Меновщиков 1964, p. 31
- Меновщиков 1964
- Vakhtin 1998: 161
- Языки эскимосов. ICC Chukotka (in Russian). Inuit Circumpolar Council.
- Меновщиков 1997
- Representing genealogical relations of (among others) Eskimo–Aleut languages by tree: Alaska Native Languages (found on the site of Alaska Native Language Center)
- Ethnologue Report for Eskimo–Aleut
- Kaplan 1990: 136
- Меновщиков 1964, p. 42
- Меновщиков 1964, p. 38
- Меновщиков 1964, p. 81
- Menovshchikov 1990: 70
- Меновщиков 1964, pp. 6–7
- Меновщиков 1962, p. 11
- Меновщиков 1964, p. 9
- Person and number in a single suffix, or in two distinct ones: p. 61 of Меновщиков 1964
- Suffix -/ɕuɣɨn/- meaning “to be similar to sth”: p. 66 of Меновщиков 1964
- Predicative form of a noun (suffix -/t͡ʃ ɨ/-): p. 66–67 of Меновщиков 1964
- Verbs built from toponyms: p. 67 of Меновщиков 1964
- Personal possessive form: p. 44–45 of Меновщиков 1964
- Imperative: p. 86 of Меновщиков 1964
- Negation form of a verb: p. 89 of Меновщиков 1964
- Nicole Tersis and Shirley Carter-Thomas: Integrating Syntax and Pragmatics: Word Order and Transitivity Variations in Tunumiisut. It treats an Inuit language: not Sireniki, but a relative. Availability: on paper and restricted online.
- Suffix -/qɨstaχ-/ for slow action aspect: p. 72 of Меновщиков 1964
- Modality: p. 68 of Меновщиков 1964
- Present tense: p. 61 of Меновщиков 1964
- Grammatical voices: p. 78–80 of Меновщиков 1964
- Рубцова 1954, pp. 121–123
- Adverbial participle -/lɨ/- / - /l̥ɨ/- “explaining reason, purpose or circumstance of action”: pp. 90–91 of Меновщиков 1964
- Adverbial participle -/lɨ/- / -/ l̥ɨ/- “explaining reason, purpose or circumstance of action” exemplified in another usage: p. 99 of Меновщиков 1964
- Adverbial participle -/ja/- / -/ɕa/- (dependent action ends just before main action begins): pp. 91–92 of Меновщиков 1964
- Intransitive conjugation of adverbial participles -/ja/- / -/ɕa/-, -/inɨq ȷ̊a/-: p. 91 of Меновщиков 1964
- Adverbial participles conveying conditional dependent action: pp. 92–93 of Меновщиков 1964
- Attribute versus predicative usage of adjectival participles: p. 95 of Меновщиков 1964
- Adjectival participle -/kajux/ / -/qajux/ (able to): p. 97 of Меновщиков 1964
- Bodil Kappel Schmidt: West Greenlandic antipassive
- Word Order and Incremental Update. See also the author's Kalaallisut materials.
- Maria Bittner and Ken Hale: Comparative notes on ergative case systems. Rutgers and MIT. 1993.
- Maria Bittner and Ken HaleErgativity: Towards a theory of a heterogenous class
- Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1990). "The Language of the Alaskan Inuit" (PDF). In Dirmid R. F. Collis (ed.). Arctic Languages. An Awakening. Vendôme: UNESCO. pp. 131–158. ISBN 92-3-102661-5.
- Menovshchikov, Georgy (= Г. А. Меновщиков) (1990). "Contemporary Studies of the Eskimo–Aleut Languages and Dialects: A Progress Report" (PDF). In Dirmid R. F. Collis (ed.). Arctic Languages. An Awakening. Vendôme: UNESCO. pp. 69–76. ISBN 92-3-102661-5.
- Vakhtin, Nikolai (1998). "Endangered Languages in Northeast Siberia: Siberian Yupik and other Languages of Chukotka". In Erich Kasten (ed.). Bicultural Education in the North: Ways of Preserving and Enhancing Indigenous Peoples' Languages and Traditional Knowledge (pdf). Münster: Waxmann Verlag. pp. 159–173. ISBN 978-3-89325-651-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-13.
- Меновщиков, Г.А. (1962). Грамматиκа языка азиатских эскимосов. Часть первая (in Russian). Москва • Ленинград: Академия Наук СССР. Институт языкознания. The transliteration of author's name, and the rendering of title in English: Menovshchikov, G.A. (1962). Grammar of the Language of Asian Eskimos. Vol. I. Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
- Меновщиков, Г.А. (1964). Язык сиреникских эскимосов. Фонетика, очерк морфологии, тексты и словарь (in Russian). Москва • Ленинград: Академия Наук СССР. Институт языкознания. The transliteration of author's name, and the rendering of title in English: Menovshchikov, G.A. (1964). Language of Sirenik Eskimos. Phonetics, morphology, texts and vocabulary. Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
- Меновщиков, Г. А. (1997). "Сиреникских эскимосов язык". In Володин, А. П. и др. (ed.). Языки мира. Палеоазиатские языки (in Russian). Москва: Индрик. pp. 81–84.
- Рубцова, Е. С. (1954). Материалы по языку и фольклору эскимосов (чаплинский диалект) (in Russian). Москва • Ленинград: Академия Наук СССР. The transliteration of author's name, and the rendering of title in English: Rubcova, E. S. (1954). Materials on the Language and Folklore of the Eskimoes, Vol. I, Chaplino Dialect. Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
- Меновщиков, Г. А. (1997). "Сиреникских эскимосов язык". In Володин, А. П. и др. (ed.). Языки мира. Палеоазиатские языки (in Russian). Москва: Индрик. pp. 81–84. (Languages of the world – Paleoasian languages.)
- Vakhtin, Nikolai (1998). "Endangered Languages in Northeast Siberia: Siberian Yupik and other Languages of Chukotka" (PDF). Bicultural Education in the North: Ways of Preserving and Enhancing Indigenous Peoples' Languages and Traditional Knowledge. Münster: Waxmann Verlag: 159–173.
- Krauss, E. Michael (2005). "Eskimo languages in Asia, 1791 on, and the Wrangel Island-Point Hope connection". Études/Inuit/Studies. 29 (1–2): 163–185. doi:10.7202/013938ar.