Sixth United States Army
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Motto(s)||Born Of War|
|Engagements||World War II|
Robert M. Cannon
William Hardin Harrison
|Distinctive unit insignia|
|Sixth Army's Shoulder Sleeve Insignia 1927-1945|
Saw limited use in WW2
|Sixth Army's Shoulder Sleeve Insignia during WW2 until the 1950s|
Sixth Army is a field army of the United States Army. The Army service component command of United States Southern Command, its area of responsibility includes 31 countries and 15 areas of special sovereignty in Central and South America and the Caribbean. It is headquartered at Fort Sam Houston.
The Sixth Army saw extensive service in the South Pacific during World War II, including in New Britain, New Guinea, and the Philippines. Postwar it served stateside training army forces until its inactivation during force reduction in 1995. The army was reactivated in 2007.
The Sixth United States Army was activated in January 1943, commanded by Lieutenant General Walter Krueger. Under the code name Alamo Force, it assumed control of the majority of US Army units involved in Operation Cartwheel, the campaign to isolate and neutralize the Japanese base at Rabaul in New Britain. Following the completion of Cartwheel, Sixth Army joined Australian Army and other US forces on the north coast of New Guinea. Similar in conception to the island hopping operations of the central Pacific, the object of the attacks was to land, establish a garrison and airfield which could support the next strike, and then move on.
In September 1944, Sixth Army was relieved from operations in New Guinea by the Eighth United States Army. On 20 October 1944, X Corps and XXIV Corps, under Sixth Army, invaded Leyte in the Philippines. By December, Leyte was secured, and the Sixth Army was relieved again by Eighth Army to prepare for the invasion of Luzon. As a prelude to that invasion, the island of Mindoro was invaded by the Western Visayan Task Force comprising the 19th and 503rd Regimental Combat Teams. Sixth Army took part in the Invasion of Lingayen Gulf on 9 January 1945 with the subordinate units of I and XIV Corps. Sixth Army units fought south until they met up those of Eighth Army advancing from around Manila. Sixth Army then continued to clear the north of Luzon until the end of the war. Sixth Army was to have provided the ground forces for the first phase of the invasion of Japan, but the surrender changed that.
Occupation duty then followed for a short while until Sixth Army returned to the United States, headquartered at the Presidio of San Francisco. Sixth Army then took responsibility for training of Army forces from part of the continental United States, until it was inactivated as part of force reductions in June 1995.
In 2007 it was decided that US Army South will be redesignated as US Army South (Sixth Army) under the Army modularization program. It is garrisoned at the Old Brooke Army Medical Center building at Fort Sam Houston.
In popular culture
The Sixth U.S. Army is portrayed prominently in the 1953 film War of the Worlds, and is shown defending Los Angeles from an attack by Martians. In the film, the 6th Army Commander (General Mann) is portrayed by actor Les Tremayne.
In the 1975 movie, Wiffs, the Chemical Warfare Corps unit is attached to the Sixth Army per the shoulder patches they wear.
In an episode of the 1970s TV show, One Day at a Time, Schneider's uniform has a 6th US Army Patch – indicating wartime service. (He wore his uniform for the arrival of President Ford.)
In an episode of the 1970s TV show, Columbo, A military-academy commandant’s uniform has a 6th US Army Patch on the left shoulder – indicating wartime service. (He wore the patch of the First Army division on th right shoulder.)
In many episodes of The A-Team, the 6th Army insignia is on the uniforms of the characters.
- "U.S. Army Campaigns: WWII - Asiatic-Pacific Theater". Center of Military History. United States Army. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Eustace E. Nabbie (22 September 1993). "The Alamo Scouts" (PDF). Center for the study of intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Cooke, Tim; Adrian Gilbert; Tony Hall; Robert Jackson; Chris McNab; Donald Somerville; Robert Stewart; Ian Westwell (2004). History of World War II. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-7614-7482-1. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "Leyte". Center of Military History. United States Army. 3 October 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Smith, Robert Ross (1963). Triumph in the Philippines. Government Printing Office. p. 45. LCCN 62-60000. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Video: Allied Bombers Strike On Two Fronts Etc (1945). Universal Newsreel. 1945. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
- "Luzon 1944 - 1945". Center of Military History. United States Army. 3 October 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "CHAPTER XIII: "DOWNFALL" THE PLAN FOR THE INVASION OF JAPAN". Center of Military History. United States Army. 20 June 2006. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "CHAPTER II: TROOP MOVEMENTS, DISPOSITIONS, AND LOCATIONS". Center of Military History. United States Army. 11 December 2006. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Carl Nolte (24 June 1995). "PAGE ONE -- Troops March From Presidio Into History". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Armies and Corps (PDF) (Map). United States Army. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- Cavallaro, Gina (9 October 2007). "New name, same mission for U.S. Army South". Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- "Fort Sam Houston, Texas" (PDF). Base Realignment and Closure. United States Army. 6 March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- John M. Miller. "THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1953)". Turner Classic Movies. Time Warner. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
The Martian firepower is overwhelming and more reinforcements from the 6th Army Command under General Mann (Les Tremayne) enter the fray, to no avail.
- List of former commanders of 6th United States Army and United States Army South at United States Army South website
- Sixth U.S. Army
- Fort Ord California
- Born of War ... Dedicated to Peace
- The short film Big Picture: This is Sixth Army is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- A film clip AIR ASSAULT TACTICS [ETC.] (1945) is available at the Internet Archive