Social Liberal Party (Brazil)

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Social Liberal Party
Partido Social Liberal
AbbreviationPSL
President-elect of BrazilJair Bolsonaro
PresidentLuciano Bivar
Founded30 October 1994; 24 years ago (1994-10-30)
HeadquartersSHN, Quadra 02, Bloco F, Ed. Executive Office Tower, Sala 1.122 – Brasília, DF
Membership (July 2018)241,439[1]
IdeologyBrazilian nationalism[2]
Social conservatism[3]
Economic liberalism[4]
Right-wing populism[5]
National conservatism[6]
Militarism[7]
Anti-communism[2]
Minority:
Monarchism[8][9][10]
Political positionRight-wing to far-right[11]
Colours     Blue
     Yellow
     Green
TSE Identification Number17
Seats in the
Chamber of Deputies (2018)
52 / 513
Seats in the
Senate (2018)
4 / 81
Governors (2018)
3 / 27
State deputies (2018)
76 / 1,035
City councillors (2016)
878 / 57,720
Website
psl.org.br

The Social Liberal Party (Portuguese: Partido Social Liberal, PSL) is a right-wing conservative political party in Brazil. Founded in 1994 as a social liberal party, the PSL was registered on the Superior Electoral Court in 1998.

In January 2018, former Social Christian politician Jair Bolsonaro joined the party and later converted it into a economic liberal and social conservative party. The original name is intact for the time being after Livres (the party's original main wing) left the party and formed their own political movement to continue the party's original goals. Bolsonaro became the party's nominee for the 2018 presidential election and won in both rounds.

History[edit]

The PSL was originally founded on 30 October 1994 by businessman Luciano Bivar as a social liberal party.[12] The party was registered on the Superior Electoral Court on 2 June 1998.[13]

In the 2002 legislative elections, the PSL won 1 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Federal Senate. In the 2006 legislative elections, the party won no seats in the Chamber of Deputies or the Federal Senate. In the 2010 legislative elections, the PSL won 1 seat in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Federal Senate, maintaing the same results in the 2014 legislative elections,

In 2015, the PSL underwent a reform led by the internal social liberal wing Livres, with names such as political scientist Fábio Ostermann and journalist Leandro Narloch reinforcing the party's affiliation with social liberal policies.[14][15] The PSL also supported the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff.[16]

On 5 January 2018, conservative and former Social Christian politician Jair Bolsonaro became a member of the party, which prompted the Livres wing to leave the party in protest of Bolsonaro's social conservative views. After the exit of Livres, the party followed a national conservative path, changed its colors from purple to the more nationalist blue, yellow and green (the colors of the flag of Brazil) and since then has discussed a name change either to Republicans (Republicanos) or Mobilize (Mobiliza).[17] On 5 March 2018, Bivar stepped down from party presidency and Gustavo Bebbiano was appointed as acting president.

Bolsonaro eventually became the PSL nominee for the 2018 presidential election, exceeding polling forecasts to receive 46% of the popular vote in the first round.[18] Bolsonaro's coattails helped elect 52 deputies and 4 senators from the PSL, which will make it the second largest political party in the next Chamber of Deputies.[19] It also became the largest single party in the legislative assemblies of both Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[20][21] On 28 October 2018, Bolsonaro was elected President with 55,13% of the votes, defeating Workers' Party's Fernando Haddad with 55% of the popular vote in the second round.[22] He will take office on 1 January 2019.[23]

On 29 October 2018, Bivar was re-appointed as party president.[24]

Organization[edit]

Ideology and policies[edit]

Since Bolsonaro's entrance in the party, the PSL has changed much of its ideologies, abandoning its former socially liberal policies and keeping its economic liberal policies, supporting privatisation and decentralisation while at the same time adopting socially conservative policies regarding abortion, legalization of marijuana and the teaching of gender identity in schools.[2]

Electoral history[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

Election date Party candidate Number of votes Percentage of votes Number of votes Percentage of votes Result
First round Second round
2006 Luciano Bivar 62.064 0.06% N/A N/A Lost
2014 None, it endorsed Marina Silva N/A N/A N/A N/A Lost
2018 Jair Bolsonaro 49,276,990 46.0% 57,797,801 55.13% Elected

Legislative elections[edit]

Election Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate Role
Number of votes Percentage of votes Number of seats +/– Number of votes Percentage of votes Number of seats +/–
2002 408,512 0.5%
1 / 513
Increase 1 N/A 0%
0 / 81
Steady 0 In opposition
2006 190,793 0.2%
0 / 513
Decrease 1 46,542 0.0%
0 / 81
Steady 0 In opposition
2010 499,963 0.5%
1 / 513
Increase 1 446,517 0.3%
0 / 81
Steady 0 In opposition
2014 808,710 0.83%
1 / 513
Steady 0 N/A 0%
0 / 81
Steady 0 In opposition
2018 11,457,878 11.7%
52 / 513
Increase 51 19,413,869 11.3%
4 / 81
Increase 4 Government

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados" (in Portoguese). Superior Electoral Court. July 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b c "Em que acreditamos" (in Portoguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  3. ^ Scuch, Matheus (5 January 2018). "Bolsonaro decide concorrer à Presidência pelo PSL" (in Portoguese). GaúchaZH. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  4. ^ Fucs, José (5 January 2018). "Com chegada de Bolsonaro, Livres anuncia saída do PSL". O Estado de São Paulo (in Portoguese). Retrieved 6 November 2018..
  5. ^ Pearson, Samantha; Magalhaes, Luciana (28 October 2018). "Far-right populist Jair Bolsonaro wins divisive Brazil presidential election". MarketWatch. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro seeks top judge to become Brazil justice minister". BBC News. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  7. ^ Venaglia, Guilherme (5 August 2018). "Com discurso militarista, PSL de Bolsonaro lança Major Olímpio ao Senado" (in Portoguese). MSN. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  8. ^ "Príncipe da família imperial brasileira será candidato a deputado federal". Gazeta do Povo (in Portoguese). 2 March 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  9. ^ Holderf Nascimento, Raul (7 May 2018). "Monarquistas se aproximam de Bolsonaro e reforçam base de apoio do presidenciável" (in Portoguese). Conexão Política. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  10. ^ Amendola, Gilberto; Venceslau, Pedro (5 May 2018). "O séquito de Bolsonaro já tem um príncipe". O Estado de São Paulo (in Portoguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  11. ^
  12. ^ "PSL - Partido Social Liberal 17" (in Portoguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  13. ^ "História" (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Archived from the original on 2 December 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  14. ^ "Partido Social Liberal". Pslnacional.org.br (in Portoguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  15. ^ Constantino, Rodrigo (28 January 2016). "PSL se renova e foca mais no "liberal" da sigla. Ou: It's happening!" (in Portoguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  16. ^ "Impeachment de Dilma: saiba como votou cada um dos partidos na Câmara" (in Portoguese). Agência Brasil. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  17. ^ "Deputado Jair Bolsonaro anuncia filiação ao PSL" (in Portoguese). G1. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  18. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro: Far-right candidate wins first round of Brazil election". BBC News. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  19. ^ Gamarski, Rachel; Adghirni, Samy (8 October 2018). "Bolsonaro Election Effect Turns Brazil's Congress on Its Head". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  20. ^ "Deputados estaduais eleitos no RJ; veja lista" (in Portoguese). G1. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  21. ^ Pessoa, Gabriela Sá; Saldaña, Paulo (8 October 2018). "PSDB cai pela metade na Assembleia de SP e PSL se torna principal bancada". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portoguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  22. ^ Faiolo, Anthony; Lopes, Marina (7 October 2018). "Brazil's far-right candidate takes big lead in presidential election". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  23. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Darlington, Shasta (28 October 2018). "Jair Bolsonaro, Far-Right Populist, Elected President of Brazil". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  24. ^ Grillo, Marco (29 October 2018). "Um dia após vitória de Bolsonaro, PSL troca presidência do partido". O Globo (in Portoguese). Retrieved 6 November 2018.
Preceded by
16 – USWP (PSTU)
Numbers of Brazilian official political parties
17 – SLP (PSL)
Succeeded by
18 – NETWORK (REDE)