Socialism and Liberty Party

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Socialism and Liberty Party
Partido Socialismo e Liberdade
AbbreviationPSOL
PresidentJuliano Medeiros [pt]
Founded6 June 2004
Split fromPT
HeadquartersSDS, Edificio Venâncio V, Loja 28, Brasília
Membership (2018)147,096[1]
IdeologyDemocratic socialism
Anti-capitalism
Eco-socialism
Feminism
Socialism of the 21st century
Political positionLeft-wing[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] to
far-left[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]
International affiliationDifferent groups in PSOL have different international affiliations.
ColoursRed, Yellow
TSE Identification Number50
Seats in the Chamber of Deputies
10 / 513
Seats in the Federal Senate
0 / 81
Governors
0 / 27
Seats in the Legislative Assemblies of the States
18 / 1,049
Mayors
2 / 5,570
Seats in City Councils
53 / 56,810
Website
psol50.org.br

The Socialism and Liberty Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialismo e Liberdade IPA: [paʁˈtʃidu sosjɐˈlizmw i libeʁˈdadʒi], (PSOL) IPA: [peˈsɔw]) is a Brazilian political party with 147,096 active members. PSOL is a left-wing to far-left party which is self-described as socialist and democratic.

The party leader is Luiz Araújo and the federal deputies Ivan Valente, Chico Alencar, Jean Wyllys, Edmilson Rodrigues, Glauber Braga [pt] and Luiza Erundina, with a number of well-known Brazilian left-wing leaders and intellectuals, such as Guilherme Boulos, Milton Temer [pt], Michael Löwy, Luciana Genro, Vladimir Safatle [eo; pt], Marcelo Freixo, Renato Roseno [pt], Carlos Nelson Coutinho [pt], Ricardo Antunes [pt], Francisco de Oliveira [fr; pt], João Machado, Pedro Ruas [pt] and others.

PSOL was formed after Heloísa Helena, Luciana Genro, Babá and João Fontes (also a federal deputy, now a member of the Democratic Labour Party, PDT) were expelled from the Workers' Party after voting against the pension reform proposed by Lula. They opposed liberal decisions of Lula's government and the Workers' Party alliances with polemic right-wing politicians, such as the former presidents José Sarney and Fernando Collor.

After collecting more than 438,000 signatures, PSOL became Brazil's 29th officially recognized political party, the first to do so by this method.[citation needed]

Ideology and support[edit]

The ideology of the party varies between the left and the extreme left. The programmatic elements found in the party are related to socialism, anti-capitalism, and anti-imperialism. There are Marxist, Trotskyist, eco-socialist, and syndicalist tendencies within the party. Among other things, the party program includes the reduction of working hours, agrarian and urban reform, increased spending on health, education and infrastructure, and a break with the International Monetary Fund.[16] It also seeks to decriminalize abortion.[17] Because it is a party formed by trends that possess the political spectrum of the left in common, they represent distinct divisions in question of origin, geographical location and composition of its leaderships. The formation of tendencies provided for in the party statute can be freely organized without direct interference from the party leadership, allowing autonomy of intra-party groups, provided they folow the political prerogatives of the party's statute and program.[16]

Despite being a left-wing party, PSOL is not commonly associated with a labor or low-income electorate. Instead, PSOL is more associated with the upper-middle class electorate with strong secular or socially progressive beliefs in the brazilians metropolitan zones, especially the cultural and intellectual elite of Rio de Janeiro. PSOL is a party often associated with academics of social sciences in public universities, teachers, artistic class, social movements, people who support taboo affairs in the brazilian society like legalization of abortion, legalization of marijuana, human rights activism and public sector labor unions. PSOL shows strong difficulties to penetrate in sectors of electorate which are poorer or less affluent; in the last election to Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, PSOL had lost to conservative pentecostal bishop Marcelo Crivella in a runoff with more than 40-point margin in some poor suburbs which are far away from Rio's downtown. Between evangelicals, the margin of defeat was about 80%; Although PSOL tried to made some moves to attract evangelical votes, a strong antagonism between the party and evangelical electorate, many of them poor with strong social conservative and/or economic liberal beliefs exists. Although PSOL officially not rejects any religion, many evangelicals see PSOL as a hostile party which does not represent their values and massively rejects the party.[citation needed]

Members of the National Congress[edit]

Following the 2010 general election, PSOL currently has one senator and five federal deputies in the National Congress of Brazil. Although being very small in parliament PSOL is the 5th most popular party in Brazil,[18] and it is recognized as different from the bigger PSDB and PT parties and the cronyist and catch-all parties without an ideology.

It is the only party present in the Congress which did not receive money from big companies and the only party that claimed the removal of the President of the Chamber of Deputies, Eduardo Cunha.

Federal Deputies[edit]

Name State Internal tendency
Francisco "Chico" Alencar Rio de Janeiro Independent
Ivan Valente São Paulo Popular Socialist Action (Socialist Unity)
Edmilson Rodrigues Pará Popular Socialist Action (Socialist Unity)
Jean Wyllys Rio de Janeiro Independent
Glauber Braga Rio de Janeiro Independent

Former deputies: Maninha (DF), João Fontes (SE), Luciana Genro (RS), Babá (DF), Orlando Fantazzini (SP) and João Alfredo (CE).

Notes: The military union leader, Corporal Daciolo (RJ), was expelled from the party in 2015.

State Deputies[edit]

Name State Internal tendency
Marcelo Freixo Rio de Janeiro Independent
Paulo Ramos Rio de Janeiro Socialist Unity
Flávio Serafini Rio de Janeiro Subvert
Eliomar Coelho Rio de Janeiro Independent
Doctor Julianelli Rio de Janeiro Independent
Raul Marcelo São Paulo May 1
Carlos Giannazi São Paulo Independent
Fabrício Furlan Amapá Independent
Professor Paulo Lemos Amapá Socialist Unity
Renato Roseno Ceará Insurgency
Edilson Silva Pernambuco We're PSOL (Socialist Unity)
Pedro Ruas Rio Grande do Sul Left Socialist Movement

Mayors[edit]

Name Municipality Internal tendency
Gelsimar Gonzaga Itaocara Independent
Oton Costa Jaçana Left Socialist Movement

Clécio Luís, Mayor of Macapá, left the party to join Sustainability Network.

Elections[edit]

2006[edit]

PSOL launched Heloísa Helena to run for president in 2006 elections. The vice-presidential candidate was intellectual César Benjamin [es; pt]. The party ran in a left-wing ticket along with two other parties: Trotskyist United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU) and Marxist–Leninist Brazilian Communist Party (PCB).

The alliance was extended to gubernatorial elections. In Minas Gerais, for instance, Vanessa Portugal, from the PSTU, ran for governor with PSOL's support, although not with PCB's. Prominent PSOL gubernatorial candidates were Plínio de Arruda Sampaio in São Paulo, Milton Temer [pt] in Rio de Janeiro and Roberto Robaina in Rio Grande do Sul. However, they were all defeated.

Heloísa Helena finished the presidential race in the third place, receiving 6.5 million votes throughout the country (6.85% of the valid votes). Three federal deputies, Luciana Genro, Chico Alencar and Ivan Valente, managed to get re-elected.

2010[edit]

In the 2010 candidate for presidential election Plínio de Arruda Sampaio received 888.000 votes (0.87%). Plinio presented an agrarian reform project in 1964 when he was federal deputy, but the 1964 Military Coup ended the project and Plinio lost his mandate. Although he received very few votes Plinio became famous after the elections because he was qualified as an anti-candidate.

PSOL elected three deputies again, Chico Alencar, Ivan Valente and Jean Wyllys, who is compared to American politician Harvey Milk and have become the best Brazilian deputy according to journalists.

Toninho do PSOL from Federal District got the best gubernatorial result. He finished in third place with 14.25%.

2012[edit]

In 2012 PSOL got its best results so far. Clecio Luis and Gelsimar Gonzaga were elected mayors in Macapá, Amapá's state capital, and Itaocara.

In the northern second largest city Belém and in Rio de Janeiro, PSOL finished second and elected four city councillors – the second largest group in those councils. In Belem Edmilson Rodrigues got 43.39% and in Rio de Janeiro Marcelo Freixo got 28.15%, almost 1 million votes.

In São Paulo, Fortaleza, Campinas, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Salvador, Natal, Florianópolis, Niterói, São Gonçalo and Pelotas PSOL also got respectable results. In the 2012 49 city councilors from PSOL were elected.

2014[edit]

The former federal deputy Luciana Genro, from Left Socialist Movement, was the candidate in the 2014 Presidential Elections. She got 1,612,186 votes finishing in 4th place. She received the support of important Brazilian intellectuals and popstars like Chico de Oliveira, Rogério Arantes, Vladimir Safatle, Michel Löwy, Gregorio Duvivier, Valesca Popozuda, Zélia Duncan, Karina Buhr, Clara Averbuck, Marina Lima, Juca Kfouri, Preta Gil, Laerte Coutinho, Marcelo Yuka and the international popstar Jessica Sutta. Her candidature was well regarded in the LGBT community.

PSOL elected 5 federal deputies and 12 state deputies. Marcelo Freixo (RJ) received the highest vote for a state deputy in Brazil with 350,408 votes. Carlos Giannazi was the leftist most voted in São Paulo with 164,929 votes.

Governors Tarcísio Motta (RJ) with 8.92% (14.62% in city of Rio Janeiro) and Robério Paulino (RN) with 8.74% (22.45% in capital Natal) got excellent results. Senate candidate Heloísa Helena (AL) got 31.86%, but she lost the election to former Brazilian president Fernando Collor de Mello, who was impeached.

Electoral results[edit]

Presidential[edit]

Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round
# of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall votes % of overall vote
2006 Heloísa Helena 6,575,393 6.9 (#3)
2010 Plínio de Arruda Sampaio 886,816 0.9 (#4)
2014 Luciana Genro 1,612,186 1.6 (#4)
2018 Guilherme Boulos 617,122 0.6 (#10)

Congress[edit]

Chamber of Deputies

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/- Government Notes
2006 1,149,619 1.2
3 / 513
in opposition
2010 1,142,737 1.2
3 / 513
Steady0 in opposition
2014 1,745,470 1.8
5 / 513
Increase2 in opposition
2018 2,783,669 2.8
10 / 513
Increase5 in opposition

Senate

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/- Notes
2006 351,527 0.4
1 / 81
Increase1 PSOL did not originally gain a seat at the 2006 election. However, after Senator Ana Júlia de Vasconcelos Carepa (PT) resigned, following her election as Governor of Pará State, José Nery de Azevedo [pt] (PSOL) took her seat in the Senate as a member of the class of 2006.
2010 3,041,854 1.8
2 / 81
Increase1
2014 1,045,275 1.2
1 / 81
Decrease1
2018 5,273,853 3.1
0 / 81
Decrease1

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.tse.jus.br/eleitor/estatisticas-de-eleitorado/filiados
  2. ^ Senra, Ricardo; Guimarães, Thiago (31 October 2016). "Como as eleições municipais desidrataram os partidos de esquerda". BBC Brasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  3. ^ Brazil’s Party of Socialism and Freedom, PSOL: Another Way of Doing Politics. New Politics. Author - Dan La Botz. Published 11 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  4. ^ Brazil election thrown into chaos after far-right front-runner stabbed. CBC News. Posted 7 September 2018. Last updated 7 September 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  5. ^ Protests over slaying of Brazil politician a watershed moment. The Irish Times. Published 16 March 2018. Last updated 16 March 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  6. ^ Stabbed Brazil candidate transferred to Sao Paulo for treatment. Al Jazeera English. Published 7 September 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  7. ^ Marielle Franco: Why my friend was a repository of hope and a voice for Brazil's voiceless, before her devastating assassination. The Independent. Auhtor - Glenn Greenwald. Published 16 March 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  8. ^ Stabbed Brazilian presidential candidate needs another ‘big’ operation. The Japan Times. Published 11 September 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  9. ^ Gonçalves da Silva, Júlio César. "Partido dos professores: elite partidária e evolução política do Partido Socialismo e Liberdade (PSOL)". Electoral Justice of Brazil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  10. ^ "Tréplica: Syriza deixou a imagem de que a extrema-esquerda se curva na hora H; é isso que PSOL quer? - 22/09/2016 - Poder - Folha de S.Paulo". www1.folha.uol.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  11. ^ "Siglas de extrema-esquerda rejeitam proposta de aliança com o PT". O Diário Nacional (in Portuguese). 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  12. ^ 247, Brasil (13 January 2015). "Por que a extrema esquerda fracassou e acabou isolada". Brasil 247 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  13. ^ "O PSOL também é um grande derrotado dentro da extrema esquerda". JORNALIVRE (in Portuguese). 2016-10-31. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  14. ^ "Novo reconhece erro na escolha de economista simpática ao PSOL e volta atrás | Rodrigo Constantino". Rodrigo Constantino (in Portuguese). 2018-07-10. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  15. ^ "Extrema esquerda é boca de aluguel do petismo; com um sindicato aqui, outro acolá e a verba do fundo partidário, seus dirigentes vivem uma confortável vida burguesa | Reinaldo Azevedo". VEJA.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  16. ^ a b (PDF) https://repositorio.ufscar.br/bitstream/handle/ufscar/8912/DissHSO.pdf?sequence=1. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ http://congressoemfoco.uol.com.br/noticias/psol-vai-ao-stf-pela-descriminalizacao-suburbrto/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  18. ^ https://psol50.org.br/site/noticias/2131/mesmo-sem-candidato-definido-a-presidencia-da-republica-psol-e-citado-em-pesquisa-espontanea[dead link]
Preceded by
45 – BSDP (PSDB)
Numbers of Brazilian Official Political Parties
50 – SOLP (PSOL)
Succeeded by
51 – PATRI