Southeast Europe

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Geographic features of southeast Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe (SEE) is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan Peninsula. There are overlapping and conflicting definitions as to where exactly Southeastern Europe begins or ends or how it relates to other regions of the continent. Sovereign states that are most frequently included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo,[a] Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia.

These boundaries can vary greatly and are widely disputed, due to political, economic, historical, cultural, and geographical considerations and point of view of the observer.

Definition[edit]

The Balkan Peninsula, as defined by the Danube-Sava-Kupa line

The first known use of the term "Southeast Europe" was by Austrian researcher Johann Georg von Hahn (1811–1869) as a broader term than the traditional "Balkans".[1]

Balkans model[edit]

This concept is based on the boundaries of the Balkan peninsula. The countries that have been described as being entirely within the region are: Albania, Kosovo,[a] Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and North Macedonia.[2]

Geographical Southeast Europe[edit]

Countries that are geographically, at least partially, described to be within the region are as follows:[3]

Notable views[edit]

  • The Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe (SPSEE) included Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia as member partners.
  • The South-East European Cooperation Process (SEECP) includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey as member partners.
  • The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey as member partners.
  • The EU-co-funded South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme[7] includes the whole territory of Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy and Ukraine as part of the "programme area".[8]
  • Studies of the World Bank treat Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Moldova, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia as the eight South Eastern European countries (SEE8).[9]
  • A 2006 publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) and Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB) listed Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Moldova, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro as 'south-eastern European countries'.[10]
  • The World Bank does not include the EU countries in its reports, and lists only Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia (SEE6).[11]
  • CIA's The World Factbook lists Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Turkey (only European part),[12] but not Greece and Moldova,[13] as geographically part of Southeastern Europe.
  • UNHCR's Regional Office in South Eastern Europe[14] currently lists Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Montenegro as part of 'South Eastern Europe'.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states. 10 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hösch, Nehring, Sundhaussen (Hrsg.), Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas, S. 663, ISBN 3-8252-8270-8
  2. ^ Istituto Geografico De Agostini, L'Enciclopedia Geografica – Vol.I – Italia, 2004, Ed. De Agostini p.78
  3. ^ a b Jelavich 1983a, p. 1-3.
  4. ^ Armstrong, Werwick. Anderson, James (2007). "Borders in Central Europe: From Conflict to Cooperation". Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire. Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-134-30132-4.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ Andrew Geddes, Charles Lees, Andrew Taylor : "The European Union and South East Europe: The Dynamics of Europeanization and multilevel governance", 2013, Routledge
  6. ^ Klaus Liebscher, Josef Christl, Peter Mooslechner, Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald : "European Economic Integration and South-East Europe: Challenges and Prospects", 2005, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
  7. ^ "South-East Europe". www.southeast-europe.net.
  8. ^ "Programme summary", South East Europe (SEE): Operational Programme, South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, 28 November 2013, p. 6
  9. ^ Harry G. Broadman (2004). Building Market Institutions in South Eastern Europe: Comparative Prospects for Investment and Private Sector Development. World Bank Publications. p. xviii. ISBN 978-0-8213-5776-7.
  10. ^ World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Council of Europe Development Bank (2006). Health and Economic Development in South-eastern Europe. World Health Organization. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-92-890-2295-8.
  11. ^ "South East Europe Regular Economic Report". World Bank.
  12. ^ See "Albania". CIA., "Bosnia and Herzegovina". CIA., "Bulgaria". CIA., "Croatia". CIA., "Kosovo". CIA., "Macedonia". CIA., "Montenegro". CIA., "Romania". CIA., "Serbia". CIA., "Turkey". CIA.
  13. ^ See "Greece". CIA., "Moldova". CIA.
  14. ^ "Regional Office in South Eastern Europe - Global Focus". reporting.unhcr.org.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]